10:1 Brethren, 1 my hearts desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved.
(1) Purposing to set forth in the Jews an example of marvellous obstinacy, he uses this declaration. 10:3 2 For they a being ignorant of Gods righteousness, and going about to b establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God.
(2) The first entrance into the calling to salvation, is to renounce our own righteousness by faith, which God freely offers us in the Gospel. 10:4 3 For Christ [is] the c end of the law for righteousness to d every one that believeth.
(a) The ignorance of the law (which we ought to know) does not excuse anyone before God, especially those that are of his household.
(b) Ignorance always has pride associated with it.
(3) The proof: the law itself points to Christ, that those who believe in him should be saved. Therefore the calling to salvation by the works of the law, is vain and foolish: but Christ is offered for salvation to every believer. 10:5 4 For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law, That the man which doeth those things shall live by them.
(c) The end of the law is to justify those that keep the law: but seeing that we do not observe the law through the fault of our flesh, we do not attain this end: but Christ heals this disease, for he fulfils the law for us.
(d) Not only to the Jews, but also to the Gentiles.
(4) That the law is points to Christ and is inclined to him is manifestly proved, because it propounds such a condition as can be and is fulfilled, by none but Christ alone: which being imputed to us by faith, our conscience is quieted, so that now no man can ask, "Who can ascend up into heaven, or bring us from hell?", seeing that the gospel teaches that both of these is done by Christ and that for their sakes, who with true faith embrace him who calls them. 10:6 But the righteousness which is of faith speaketh on this wise, e Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down [from above]:)
(e) Do not think to yourself, as men that are doubting do. 10:8 5 But what saith it? The f word is nigh thee, [even] in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is, the word of faith, which we preach;
(5) Calling comes by the word preached. 10:9 6 That if thou shalt g confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that h God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.
(f) By "word", Moses understood the law which the Lord proclaimed with his own voice: and Paul applied it to the preaching of the Gospel, which was the perfection of the law.
(6) That is indeed true faith which is settled not only in the head, but also in the heart of man, of which we also give testimony by our outward life, and which serves Christ as our one and only Saviour, even as he sets forth himself in his word. 10:10 For with the heart man i believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.
(g) If you profess plainly, sincerely, and openly, that you take Jesus alone to be thy Lord and Saviour.
(h) The Father, who is said to have raised the Son from the dead: and this is not spoken to exclude the divinity of the Son, but to set forth the Fathers plan, with regard to our redemption in the resurrection of the Son.
(i) Faith is said to justify, and furthermore seeing the confession of the mouth is an effect of faith, and confession in the way to come to salvation, it follows that faith is also said to save. 10:11 7 For the scripture saith, Whosoever k believeth on him shall not be ashamed.
10:13 8 For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.
(7) Now he proves the other part which he propounded before in the fourth verse, that is, that Christ calls whoever he wishes without any difference, and this confirms by a twofold testimony, ( Romans 10:4 ).
(k) To believe in God is to yield and consent to Gods promise of our salvation by Christ, and that not only in general, but when we know that the promises pertain to us, from which arises a sure trust.
(8) True calling upon the name of God is the testimony of true faith, and true faith of true vocation or calling, and true calling of true election. 10:14 How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? 9 and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?
(9) That is, true faith, which seeks God in his word, and that preached: and this preaching God has appointed in the Church. 10:16 10 But they have not l all obeyed the gospel. For Esaias saith, Lord, who hath believed our report?
10:17 11 So then faith [cometh] by hearing, and hearing by the m word of God.
(10) Wherever faith is, there is also the word, but not the opposite, namely, wherever the word is, there may not necessarily be faith: for many refuse and reject the word.
(l) He says this because of the Jews.
10:18 12 But I say, Have they not heard? Yes verily, their sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world.
(11) A conclusion of the former discussion: we must ascend from faith to our calling, for by our calling we came to the testimony of our election.
(m) By Gods commandment.
10:19 13 But I say, Did not Israel know? First Moses saith, I will provoke you to jealousy by n [them that are] no people, [and] by a foolish nation I will anger you.
(12) An objection: if calling is a testimony of election, were not the Jews called? Why should I not grant that, says the apostle, seeing that there is no nation which has not been called? Much less can I say that the Jews were not called.
10:20 But Esaias is very o bold, and saith, I was found of them that sought me not; I was made manifest unto them that asked not after me.
(13) The defender and maintainer of the Jews cause goes on still to ask whether the Jews also did not know God, the one who called them. Isaiah, says the apostle, denies it: and witnesses that the Gospel was taken from them and given to the Gentiles, because the Jews rejected it. In addition the apostle teaches that the outward and universal calling, which is set forth by the creation of the world, is not sufficient for the knowledge of God: indeed, and that the particular calling also which is by the preaching of the word of God, is of itself of little or no efficacy, unless it is apprehended or laid hold of by faith, which is the gift of God: otherwise by unbelief it is made unprofitable, and that by the only fault of man, who can pretend no ignorance.
(n) He calls all profane people "[them that are] no people", as they are not said to live but to die, who are appointed for everlasting condemnation.
(o) Speaks without fear.