And I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms
The Persian monarchy, which consisted of various kingdoms and nations, and was destroyed under Darius Codomannus by Alexander the great, who fought with him three pitched battles, and overcame him; but the thing was of the Lord, according to his purpose and will, and by his power and providence; and therefore the overthrow is ascribed to him. The Jews F20 say that the Persian monarchy fell by the Grecians thirty four years after the building of the temple; but very wrongly, it lasted longer: and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the heathen;
the empire of Alexander, which was a very strong one, and contained in it many kingdoms and nations, even the whole world, at least as he thought; and which was divided after his death into several kingdoms; the strength of which was greatly weakened by one another, and at last entirely destroyed by the Romans as instruments: and I will overthrow the chariots, and those that ride in them; and
the horses and their riders shall come down;
which may refer either to the chariots and horses, and their riders, belonging to the Grecians, and used in their wars; or else this may describe the empire of the Romans, which in its turn should be destroyed, famous for their triumphal chariots: everyone by the sword of his brother;
by civil wars, which was remarkably true of the successors of Alexander, as appears from Josephus
F21 and Justin F23: this may be applied to all the kingdoms of this world, which will all be demolished, and be brought into subjection to Christ, and his kingdom shall be set up in the world, the son and antitype of Zerubbabel, of whom the following words are to be understood; see ( Daniel 2:44 ) ( 1 Corinthians 15:24 ) ( Revelation 11:15 ) . Abendana interprets it of the army of Gog and Magog, who shall fall everyone by the sword of his brother.
F20 Seder Olam Rabba, c. 30. p. 91. Tzemach David, par. 1. fol. 18. 1.
F21 Antiqu. l. 12. c. 1. sect. 1.
F23 E. Trogo, l. 13. c. 6.