Gather unto me all the elders of your tribes, and
The heads of the tribes, the princes, and all other inferior magistrates:
that I may speak these words in their ears;
not the words of the law, but of the song which he was ordered to write, and is recorded in the following chapter:
and call heaven and earth to record against
to bear witness of what he delivered to them, and to bear witness against them should they transgress the laws he gave them; and to bear witness that they had been faithfully cautioned against transgressing, and had been severely threatened, and the punishment plainly pointed out that should be inflicted on them in case of disobedience, so that they were left entirely without excuse.