for (ki (conjunction), le, from 'el (preposition), and various other words. In the New Testament also the words are various, chiefly gar, kai gar, hoti (conjunctions); anti apo eis dia (accusative), epi (dative and accusative), peri (genitive), pros (genitive and accusative), huper (genitive) (prepositions)):
the English Revised Version and the American Standard Revised Version give in many cases more literal or more accurate renderings than those in the King James Version.
In the New Testament the most important preps. from a doctrinal point of view are anti, "face to face," "over against," "instead," "on behalf of," peri, "around," "about," "concerning," huper, "over," "on behalf of." The first has been claimed as stating the substitutionary nature of Christ's sacrifice as contrasted with huper and peri, more frequently used of it. But, although anti in the New Testament often means "instead of," "answering to," it does not necessarily imply substitution. On the other hand, in classical Greek huper is sometimes used in that sense (see Trench, Synonyms). "Here as always the root idea of the preposition, the root idea of the case, and the context must all be considered" (Robertson, Grammar, 124). Anti is found in this connection only in Matthew 20:28, and Mark 10:45. In Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24, we have peri, also in Hebrews 10:6,8,18,26; 1 Peter 3:18; 1 John 2:2; 4:10. Luke 22:19,20 has huper, which is the word commonly used by Paul, as in Romans 5:6,8; 8:32; 14:15; 1 Corinthians 15:3, etc., also by John in his Gospel, 6:51; 10:11, etc., and 1John 3:16; also Hebrews 2:9; 10:12; 1 Peter 2:21; 3:18; 4:1; in Romans 8:3 it is peri.
W. L. Walker
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