jo'-ash (yo'ash, "Yahweh is strong" or "Yahweh has bestowed"; Ioas):
(1) Father of Gideon, of the clan of Abiezer and the tribe Manasseh (Judges 6:11,29,30,31; 7:14; 8:13,19,32). Gideon declares (Judges 6:15) that the family is the poorest in Manasseh, words similar to those of Saul (1 Samuel 9:21), and not to be taken too literally. Joash would be a man of standing and wealth, for Gideon was able to command 10 servants to destroy the altar and the Asherah (Judges 6:27,34), and also to summon the whole clan to follow him. Further, the altar that Joash had was that used by the community (Judges 6:28), so that he would be the priest, not only of his own family qua paterfamilias, but also of the community in virtue of his position as chief. When Gideon destroyed the altar and the Asherah or sacred pillar by it, Joash refused to deliver his son to death, declaring that Baal, if he was a god, should avenge himself (compare Elijah in 1 Kings 18).
(2) Called "the king's son" (1 Kings 22:26; 2 Chronicles 18:25; compare Jeremiah 36:26; 38:6), or, less probably, "the son of Hammelech," the Revised Version margin; perhaps a son of Ahab. Micaiah the prophet was handed over to his custody and that of Amon by Ahab.
(3) A Judahite, descendant of Shelah (1 Chronicles 4:22).
(4) A Benjamite recruit of David at Ziklag. Commentators read here, "Joash the son of Shemaiah (or Jehoshamai), the Gibeathite" (1 Chronicles 12:3).
(5) In 2 Kings 11:2, etc. = Jehoash, king of Judah.
(6) In 2 Kings 13:9, etc. = Jehoash, king of Northern Israel.
David Francis Roberts
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