2 Corinthians 3

Ministers of a New Covenant

1 Are we beginning to 1commend ourselves again? Or do we need, as some, 2letters of commendation to you or from you?
2 3You are our letter, written in our hearts, known and read by all men;
3 being manifested that you are a letter of Christ, 4cared for by us, written not with ink but with the Spirit of 5the living God, not on 6tablets of stone but on 7tablets of 8human hearts.
4 Such 9confidence we have through Christ toward God.
5 Not that we are adequate in ourselves to consider anything as coming from ourselves, but 10our adequacy is from God,
6 who also made us adequate as 11servants of a 12new covenant, not of 13the letter but of the Spirit; for the letter kills, but 14the Spirit gives life.
7 But if the 15ministry of death, 16in letters engraved on stones, came with glory, 17so that the sons of Israel could not look intently at the face of Moses because of the glory of his face, fading as it was,
8 how will the ministry of the Spirit fail to be even more with glory?
9 For if 18the ministry of condemnation has glory, much more does the 19ministry of righteousness abound in glory.
10 For indeed what had glory, in this case has no glory because of the glory that surpasses it.
11 For if that which fades away was with glory, much more that which remains is in glory.
12 20Therefore having such a hope, 21we use great boldness in our speech,
13 and are not like Moses, 22who used to put a veil over his face so that the sons of Israel would not look intently at the end of what was fading away.
14 But their minds were 23hardened; for until this very day at the 24reading of 25the old covenant the same veil remains unlifted, because it is removed in Christ.
15 But to this day whenever * Moses is read, a veil lies over their heart;
16 26but whenever * a person turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away.
17 Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where 27the Spirit of the Lord is, 28there is liberty.
18 But we all, with unveiled face, 29beholding as in a mirror the 30glory of the Lord, are being 31transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as from 32the Lord, the Spirit.

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2 Corinthians 3 Commentary

Chapter 3

The preference of the gospel to the law given by Moses. (1-11) The preaching of the apostle was suitable to the excellency and evidence of the gospel, through the power of the Holy Ghost. (12-18)

Verses 1-11 Even the appearance of self-praise and courting human applause, is painful to the humble and spiritual mind. Nothing is more delightful to faithful ministers, or more to their praise, than the success of their ministry, as shown in the spirits and lives of those among whom they labour. The law of Christ was written in their hearts, and the love of Christ shed abroad there. Nor was it written in tables of stone, as the law of God given to Moses, but on the fleshy (not fleshly, as fleshliness denotes sensuality) tables of the heart, Eze. 36:26 . Their hearts were humbled and softened to receive this impression, by the new-creating power of the Holy Spirit. He ascribes all the glory to God. And remember, as our whole dependence is upon the Lord, so the whole glory belongs to him alone. The letter killeth: the letter of the law is the ministration of death; and if we rest only in the letter of the gospel, we shall not be the better for so doing: but the Holy Spirit gives life spiritual, and life eternal. The Old Testament dispensation was the ministration of death, but the New Testament of life. The law made known sin, and the wrath and curse of God; it showed us a God above us, and a God against us; but the gospel makes known grace, and Emmanuel, God with us. Therein the righteousness of God by faith is revealed; and this shows us that the just shall live by his faith; this makes known the grace and mercy of God through Jesus Christ, for obtaining the forgiveness of sins and eternal life. The gospel so much exceeds the law in glory, that it eclipses the glory of the legal dispensation. But even the New Testament will be a killing letter, if shown as a mere system or form, and without dependence on God the Holy Spirit, to give it a quickening power.

Verses 12-18 It is the duty of the ministers of the gospel to use great plainness, or clearness, of speech. The Old Testament believers had only cloudy and passing glimpses of that glorious Saviour, and unbelievers looked no further than to the outward institution. But the great precepts of the gospel, believe, love, obey, are truths stated as clearly as possible. And the whole doctrine of Christ crucified, is made as plain as human language can make it. Those who lived under the law, had a veil upon their hearts. This veil is taken away by the doctrines of the Bible about Christ. When any person is converted to God, then the veil of ignorance is taken away. The condition of those who enjoy and believe the gospel is happy, for the heart is set at liberty to run the ways of God's commandments. They have light, and with open face they behold the glory of the Lord. Christians should prize and improve these privileges. We should not rest contented without knowing the transforming power of the gospel, by the working of the Spirit, bringing us to seek to be like the temper and tendency of the glorious gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and into union with Him. We behold Christ, as in the glass of his word; and as the reflection from a mirror causes the face to shine, the faces of Christians shine also.

Cross References 32

  • 1. 2 Corinthians 5:12; 2 Corinthians 10:12, 18; 2 Corinthians 12:11
  • 2. Acts 18:27; 1 Corinthians 16:3
  • 3. 1 Corinthians 9:2
  • 4. 2 Corinthians 3:6
  • 5. Matthew 16:16
  • 6. Exodus 24:12; Exodus 31:18; Exodus 32:15; 2 Corinthians 3:7
  • 7. Proverbs 3:3; Proverbs 7:3; Jeremiah 17:1
  • 8. Jeremiah 31:33; Ezekiel 11:19; Ezekiel 36:26
  • 9. Ephesians 3:12
  • 10. 1 Corinthians 15:10
  • 11. 1 Corinthians 3:5
  • 12. Jeremiah 31:31; Luke 22:20
  • 13. Romans 2:29
  • 14. John 6:63; Romans 7:6
  • 15. Romans 4:15; Romans 5:20; Romans 7:5; 2 Corinthians 3:9; Galatians 3:10, 21
  • 16. Exodus 24:12; Exodus 31:18; Exodus 32:15; 2 Corinthians 3:3
  • 17. Exodus 34:29-35; 2 Corinthians 3:13
  • 18. Deuteronomy 27:26; 2 Corinthians 3:7; Hebrews 12:18-21
  • 19. Romans 1:17; Romans 3:21
  • 20. 2 Corinthians 7:4
  • 21. Acts 4:13, 29; 2 Corinthians 7:4; Ephesians 6:19; 1 Thessalonians 2:2
  • 22. Exodus 34:33-35; 2 Corinthians 3:7
  • 23. Romans 11:7; 2 Corinthians 4:4
  • 24. Acts 13:15
  • 25. 2 Corinthians 3:6
  • 26. Exodus 34:34; Romans 11:23
  • 27. Isaiah 61:1; Galatians 4:6
  • 28. John 8:32; Galatians 5:1, 13
  • 29. 1 Corinthians 13:12
  • 30. John 17:22, 24; 2 Corinthians 4:4, 6
  • 31. Romans 8:29
  • 32. 2 Corinthians 3:17

Footnotes 5

  • [a]. Lit "served"
  • [b]. Lit "hearts of flesh"
  • [c]. Or "in glory"
  • [d]. Lit "through"
  • [e]. Or "remains, it not being revealed that it is done away in Christ"

Chapter Summary


In this chapter the apostle clears himself from the charge of arrogance and self-commendation, and ascribes both the virtue and efficacy of his ministry, and his qualifications for it, to the Lord; and forms a comparison between the ministration of the Gospel, and the ministration of the law, showing the preferableness of the one to the other; and consequently how much more happy and comfortable the state and condition of the saints under the Gospel dispensation is, than under the legal one: on account of what the apostle had said in the latter part of the preceding chapter, concerning the excellency, usefulness, and success of the Gospel ministry, he foresaw an objection would arise; that he and his fellow ministers were proud and arrogant, and commended themselves, which was unseemly, and not agreeably to the character they bore; which objection he obviates, 2Co 3:1, by putting some questions, signifying that they were not guilty of vain boasting; nor did they need any commendations of their own, or others, nor any letters to recommend them, either from Corinth to other places, or thither: a practice which, he suggests, the false teachers made use of; and in 2Co 3:2 he gives the reason why they did not stand in need of such letters, because the members of the church at Corinth were their epistle or letter, declaring to all men the efficacy and success of their ministry among men; but lest he should be charged with arrogating to himself and others, he declares, 2Co 3:3 that though the Corinthians were their epistle, yet not so much theirs as Christ's; Christ was the author and subject, they only were instruments; the writing was not human, but the writing of the Spirit of God; and that not upon outward tables, such as the law was written upon, but upon the tables of men's hearts, which only God can reach; however, that they had been useful, successful, and instrumental in the conversion of souls, through the ministry of the word, that he was confident of, 2Co 3:4 though the sufficiency and ability to think, study, and preach, were not of themselves, and still less to make the word effectual for conversion and comfort, but of God, 2Co 3:5 wherefore he ascribes all fitness, worthiness, and ability to preach the Gospel, to the grace and power of God, by which they were made ministers of it; and hence he takes occasion to commend the excellency of the Gospel ministry above that of the law, which he does by observing their different names and effects; the Gospel is the New Testament or covenant, or an exhibition of the covenant of grace in a new form; the law is the Old Testament, or covenant, which is vanished away; which, though not expressed here, is in 2Co 3:14 the Gospel is spirit, the law the letter; the one gives life, and the other kills, 2Co 3:6 wherefore the apostle argues from the one to the other, that if there was a glory in the one which was only a ministration of death, as the law was, 2Co 3:7 then the Gospel, which was a ministration of spiritual things, and of the Spirit of God himself, must be more glorious, 2Co 3:8 and if that was glorious which was a ministration of condemnation, as the law was to guilty sinners; much more glorious must be the Gospel, which is a ministration of the righteousness of Christ, for the justification of them, 2Co 3:9 yea, such is the surpassing glory of the Gospel to the law, that even the glory of the law is quite lost in that of the Gospel, and appears to have none in comparison of that, 2Co 3:10 to which he adds another argument, taken from the abolition of the one, and the continuance of the other; that if there was a glory in that which is abolished, there must be a greater in that which continues, 2Co 3:11 and from hence the apostle proceeds to take notice of another difference between the law and the Gospel, the clearness of the one, and the obscurity of the other; the former is signified by the plainness of speech used by the preachers of it, 2Co 3:12 and the latter by the veil which was over Moses's face, when he delivered the law to the children of Israel; the end of which they could not look to, and which is a further proof of the obscurity of it, 2Co 3:13 as well as of the darkness of their minds; which still continues with the Jews in reading the law, and will do until it is taken away by Christ, 2Co 3:14 and that there is such a veil of darkness upon the hearts of the Jews, when reading the law of Moses; and that this continues to this day, is again asserted, 2Co 3:15 and an intimation given that there will be a conversion of them to the Lord, and then it will be removed from them, 2Co 3:16 and who that Lord is to whom they shall be turned, and by whom they shall have freedom from darkness and bondage, is declared, 2Co 3:17 and the happy condition of the saints under the Gospel dispensation, through the bright and clear light of it, is observed, 2Co 3:18 in which the Gospel is compared to a glass; the saints are represented as without a veil looking into it; through which an object is beheld, the glory of the Lord; the effect of which is a transformation of them into the same image by degrees; the author of which grace is the Spirit of the Lord.

2 Corinthians 3 Commentaries

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