Exodus 10

The Plague of Locusts

1 Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh, for 1I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, that I may perform these signs of Mine among them,
2 and 2that you may tell in the hearing of your son, and of your grandson, how * I made a mockery of the Egyptians and how I performed My signs among them, 3that you may know that I am the LORD."
3 Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said to him, "Thus says the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, 'How long * will you refuse to 4humble yourself before * Me? 5Let My people go, that they may serve Me.
4 'For if you refuse to let My people go, behold, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your territory.
5 'They shall cover the surface of the land, so that no one will be able to see the land. 6They will also eat the rest of what has escaped -what is left to you from the hail -and they will eat every tree which sprouts for you out of the field.
6 'Then 7your houses shall be filled and the houses of all your servants and the houses of all the Egyptians, something which neither your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen, from the day that they came upon the earth until this day.' " And he turned and went out from Pharaoh.
7 8Pharaoh's servants said to him, "How long * will this man be 9a snare to us? Let the men go, that they may serve the LORD their God. Do you not realize that Egypt is destroyed?"
8 So Moses and Aaron 10were brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to them, "11Go, serve the LORD your God! Who are the ones that are going?"
9 Moses said, "12We shall go with our young and our old; with our sons and our daughters, 13with our flocks and our herds we shall go, for we must hold a feast to the LORD."
10 Then he said to them, "Thus may the LORD be with you, if ever I let you and your little ones go! Take heed, for evil is in your mind.
11 "Not so! Go now, the men among you, and serve the LORD, for that is what you desire." So 14they were driven out from Pharaoh's presence.
12 Then the LORD said to Moses, "15Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up on the land of Egypt and 16eat every plant of the land, even all that the hail has left."
13 So Moses stretched out his staff over the land of Egypt, and the LORD directed an east wind on the land all that day and all that night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the 17locusts.
14 18The locusts came up over all the land of Egypt and settled in all the territory of Egypt; they were very numerous. There had never been so many locusts, nor would there be so many again.
15 For they covered the surface of the whole land, so that the land was darkened; and they 19ate every plant of the land and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Thus nothing * green was left on tree or plant of the field through all the land of Egypt.
16 Then Pharaoh hurriedly 20called for Moses and Aaron, and he said, "21I have sinned against the LORD your God and against you.
17 "Now therefore, please forgive my sin only this once, and 22make supplication to the LORD your God, that He would only remove this death from me."
18 23He went out from Pharaoh and made supplication to the LORD.
19 So the LORD shifted the wind to a very strong west wind which took up the locusts and drove them into the Red * Sea; not one locust was left in all the territory of Egypt.
20 But 24the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the sons of Israel go.

Darkness over the Land

21 Then the LORD said to Moses, "25Stretch out your hand toward the sky, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even a darkness 26which may be felt."
22 So Moses stretched out his hand toward the sky, and there was 27thick darkness in all the land of Egypt for three days.
23 They did not see one another, nor did anyone rise from his place for three days, 28but all the sons of Israel had light in their dwellings.
24 Then Pharaoh 29called to Moses, and said, "Go, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be detained. Even 30your little ones may go with you."
25 But Moses said, "You must also let us have * sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice them to the LORD our God.
26 "31Therefore, our livestock too shall go with us; not a hoof shall be left behind, for we shall take some of them to serve the LORD our God. And until we arrive there, we ourselves do not know with what we shall serve the LORD."
27 But 32the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he was not willing to let them go.
28 Then Pharaoh said to him, "33Get away from me! Beware, do not see my face again, for in the day you see my face you shall die!"
29 Moses said, "You are right; 34I shall never see your face again!"

Exodus 10 Commentary

Chapter 10

The plague of locusts threatened, Pharaoh, moved by his servants, inclines to let the Israelites go. (1-11) The plague of locusts. (12-20) The plague of thick darkness. (21-29)

Verses 1-11 The plagues of Egypt show the sinfulness of sin. They warn the children of men not to strive with their Maker. Pharaoh had pretended to humble himself; but no account was made of it, for he was not sincere therein. The plague of locusts is threatened. This should be much worse than any of that kind which had ever been known. Pharaoh's attendants persuade him to come to terms with Moses. Hereupon Pharaoh will allow the men to go, falsely pretending that this was all they desired. He swears that they shall not remove their little ones. Satan does all he can to hinder those that serve God themselves, from bringing their children to serve him. He is a sworn enemy to early piety. Whatever would put us from engaging our children in God's service, we have reason to suspect Satan in it. Nor should the young forget that the Lord's counsel is, Remember thy Creator in the days of thy youth; but Satan's counsel is, to keep children in a state of slavery to sin and to the world. Mark that the great foe of man wishes to retain him by the ties of affection, as Pharaoh would have taken hostages from the Israelites for their return, by holding their wives and children in captivity. Satan is willing to share our duty and our service with the Saviour, because the Saviour will not accept those terms.

Verses 12-20 God bids Moses stretch out his hand; locusts came at the call. An army might more easily have been resisted than this host of insects. Who then is able to stand before the great God? They covered the face of the earth, and ate up the fruit of it. Herbs grow for the service of man; yet when God pleases, insects shall plunder him, and eat the bread out of his mouth. Let our labour be, not for the habitation and meat thus exposed, but for those which endure to eternal life. Pharaoh employs Moses and Aaron to pray for him. There are those, who, in distress, seek the help of other people's prayers, but have no mind to pray for themselves. They show thereby that they have no true love to God, nor any delight in communion with him. Pharaoh desires only that this death might be taken away, not this sin. He wishes to get rid of the plague of locusts, not the plague of a hard heart, which was more dangerous. An east wind brought the locusts, a west wind carries them off. Whatever point the wind is in, it is fulfilling God's word, and turns by his counsel. The wind bloweth where it listeth, as to us; but not so as it respects God. It was also an argument for their repentance; for by this it appeared that God is ready to forgive, and swift to show mercy. If he does this upon the outward tokens of humiliation, what will he do if we are sincere! Oh that this goodness of God might lead us to repentance! Pharaoh returned to his resolution again, not to let the people go. Those who have often baffled their convictions, are justly given up to the lusts of their hearts.

Verses 21-29 The plague of darkness brought upon Egypt was a dreadful plague. It was darkness which might be felt, so thick were the fogs. It astonished and terrified. It continued three days; six nights in one; so long the most lightsome palaces were dungeons. Now Pharaoh had time to consider, if he would have improved it. Spiritual darkness is spiritual bondage; while Satan blinds men's eyes that they see not, he binds their hands and feet, that they work not for God, nor move toward heaven. They sit in darkness. It was righteous with God thus to punish. The blindness of their minds brought upon them this darkness of the air; never was mind so blinded as Pharaoh's, never was air so darkened as Egypt. Let us dread the consequences of sin; if three days of darkness were so dreadful, what will everlasting darkness be? The children of Israel, at the same time, had light in their dwellings. We must not think we share in common mercies as a matter of course, and therefore that we owe no thanks to God for them. It shows the particular favour he bears to his people. Wherever there is an Israelite indeed, though in this dark world, there is light, there is a child of light. When God made this difference between the Israelites and the Egyptians, who would not have preferred the poor cottage of an Israelite to the fine palace of an Egyptian? There is a real difference between the house of the wicked, which is under a curse, and the habitation of the just, which is blessed. Pharaoh renewed the treaty with Moses and Aaron, and consented they should take their little ones, but would have their cattle left. It is common for sinners to bargain with God Almighty; thus they try to mock him, but they deceive themselves. The terms of reconciliation with God are so fixed, that though men dispute them ever so long, they cannot possibly alter them, or bring them lower. We must come to the demand of God's will; we cannot expect he should condescend to the terms our lusts would make. With ourselves and our children, we must devote all our worldly possessions to the service of God; we know not what use he will make of any part of what we have. Pharaoh broke off the conference abruptly, and resolved to treat no more. Had he forgotten how often he had sent for Moses to ease him of his plagues? and must he now be bid to come no more? Vain malice! to threaten him with death, who was armed with such power! What will not hardness of heart, and contempt of God's word and commandments, bring men to! After this, Moses came no more till he was sent for. When men drive God's word from them, he justly gives them up to their own delusions.

Cross References 34

  • 1. Exodus 4:21; Exodus 7:13; Joshua 11:20; John 12:40; Romans 9:18
  • 2. Exodus 12:26, 27; Exodus 13:8, 14, 15; Deuteronomy 4:9; Psalms 44:1; Psalms 78:5; Joel 1:3
  • 3. Exodus 7:5, 17
  • 4. 1 Kings 21:29; 2 Chronicles 34:27; James 4:10; 1 Peter 5:6
  • 5. Exodus 4:23
  • 6. Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25
  • 7. Exodus 8:3, 21
  • 8. Exodus 7:5; Exodus 8:19; Exodus 12:33
  • 9. Exodus 23:33; Joshua 23:13; 1 Samuel 18:21; Ecclesiastes 7:26
  • 10. Exodus 8:8
  • 11. Exodus 8:25
  • 12. Exodus 12:37, 38
  • 13. Exodus 10:26
  • 14. Exodus 10:28
  • 15. Exodus 7:19
  • 16. Exodus 10:5, 15
  • 17. Psalms 78:46; Psalms 105:34
  • 18. Deuteronomy 28:38; Psalms 78:46; Psalms 105:34; Joel 1:4, 7; Joel 2:1-11; Revelation 9:3
  • 19. Exodus 10:5; Psalms 105:34
  • 20. Exodus 8:8
  • 21. Exodus 9:27
  • 22. Exodus 8:8, 28; Exodus 9:28; 1 Kings 13:6
  • 23. Exodus 8:30
  • 24. Exodus 4:21; Exodus 11:10
  • 25. Exodus 9:22
  • 26. Deuteronomy 28:29
  • 27. Psalms 105:28; Revelation 16:10
  • 28. Exodus 8:22
  • 29. Exodus 8:8, 25
  • 30. Exodus 10:10
  • 31. Exodus 10:9
  • 32. Exodus 4:21; Exodus 10:20; Exodus 14:4, 8
  • 33. Exodus 10:11
  • 34. Exodus 11:8; Hebrews 11:27

Footnotes 22

Chapter Summary


This chapter is introduced with giving the reasons why the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh, Ex 10:1,2. Moses and Aaron go in to him, and once more demanded in the name of the Lord the dismission of the people of Israel, and in case of refusal, threatened him with locusts being sent into his country, which should make terrible havoc in all his coasts, Ex 10:3-6, the servants of Pharaoh entreat him to let them go, upon which Moses and Aaron are brought in again, and treated with about the terms of their departure; but they, insisting upon taking all with them, men, women, and children, and flocks and herds, and Pharaoh not willing that any but men should go, they are drove from his presence in wrath, Ex 10:7-11 wherefore the locusts were brought on all the land, which made sad devastation in it, Ex 10:12-15, and this wrought on Pharaoh so far as to acknowledge his sin, pray for forgiveness, and to desire Moses and Aaron to entreat the Lord to remove the plague, which they did, and it was removed accordingly, but still Pharaoh's heart was hardened, Ex 10:16-20 then followed the plague of thick darkness over all the land for three days, which brought Pharaoh to yield that all should go with them excepting their flocks and herds; but Moses not only insisted that not a hoof should be left behind, but that Pharaoh should give them sacrifices and burnt offerings, Ex 10:21-26. Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he refused to comply, and Moses was bid to be gone, and take care never to see his face any more, and which Moses agreed to, Ex 10:27-29.

Exodus 10 Commentaries

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