Galatians 2

The Council at Jerusalem

1 Then after an interval of fourteen years I 1went up again to Jerusalem with 2Barnabas, taking 3Titus along also.
2 [a]It was because of a 4revelation that I went up; and I submitted to them the 5gospel which I preach among the Gentiles, but I did so in private * to those who were of reputation, for fear that I might be 6running, or had run, in vain.
3 But not even 7Titus, who was with me, though he was a Greek, was 8compelled to be circumcised.
4 But it was because of the 9false brethren secretly brought in, who 10had sneaked in to spy out our 11liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, in order to 12bring us into bondage.
5 But we did not yield in subjection to them for even an hour, so that 13the truth of the gospel would remain with you.
6 But from those who [b]were of high 14reputation (what they were makes no difference to me; 15God [c]shows no partiality )-well, those who were of reputation contributed nothing to me.
7 But on the contrary, seeing that I had been 16entrusted with the 17gospel [d]to the uncircumcised, just as 18Peter had been [e]to the circumcised
8 (for He who effectually worked for Peter in his 19apostleship [f]to the circumcised effectually worked for me also to the Gentiles ),
9 and recognizing 20the grace that had been given to me, [g]21James and 22Cephas and John, who were 23reputed to be 24pillars, gave to me and 25Barnabas the 26right hand of fellowship, so that we might 27go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised.
10 They only asked us to remember the poor -28the very thing I also was eager to do.

Peter (Cephas) Opposed by Paul

11 But when 29Cephas came to 30Antioch, I opposed him to his face, because he stood condemned.
12 For prior to the coming of certain men from 31James, he used to 32eat with the Gentiles; but when they came, he began to withdraw and hold himself aloof, 33fearing the party of the circumcision.
13 The rest of the Jews joined him in hypocrisy, with the result that even 34Barnabas was carried away by their hypocrisy.
14 But when I saw that they 35were not straightforward about 36the truth of the gospel, I said to 37Cephas in the presence of all, "If you, being a Jew, 38live like the Gentiles and not like the Jews, how is it that you compel the Gentiles to live like Jews?
15 "We are 39Jews by nature and not 40sinners from among the Gentiles;
16 nevertheless knowing that 41a man is not justified by the works of the Law but through faith in Christ Jesus, even we have believed in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by 42faith in Christ and not by the works of the Law; since 43by the works of the Law no * flesh will be justified.
17 "But if, while seeking to be justified in Christ, we ourselves have also been found 44sinners, is Christ then a minister of sin? 45May it never be!
18 "For if I rebuild what I have once destroyed, I 46prove myself to be a transgressor.
19 "For through the Law I 47died to the Law, so that I might live to God.
20 "I have been 48crucified with Christ; and it is no longer I who live, but 49Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in 50the Son of God, who 51loved me and 52gave Himself up for me.
21 "I do not nullify the grace of God, for 53if righteousness comes through the Law, then Christ died needlessly."

Galatians 2 Commentary

Chapter 2

The apostle declares his being owned as an apostle of the Gentiles. (1-10) He had publicly opposed Peter for judaizing. (11-14) And from thence he enters upon the doctrine of justification by faith in Christ, without the works of the law. (15-21)

Verses 1-10 Observe the apostle's faithfulness in giving a full account of the doctrine he had preached among the Gentiles, and was still resolved to preach, that of Christianity, free from all mixture of Judaism. This doctrine would be ungrateful to many, yet he was not afraid to own it. His care was, lest the success of his past labours should be lessened, or his future usefulness be hindered. While we simply depend upon God for success to our labours, we should use every proper caution to remove mistakes, and against opposers. There are things which may lawfully be complied with, yet, when they cannot be done without betraying the truth, they ought to be refused. We must not give place to any conduct, whereby the truth of the gospel would be reflected upon. Though Paul conversed with the other apostles, yet he did not receive any addition to his knowledge, or authority, from them. Perceiving the grace given to him, they gave unto him and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, whereby they acknowledged that he was designed to the honour and office of an apostle as well as themselves. They agreed that these two should go to the heathen, while they continued to preach to the Jews; judging it agreeable to the mind of Christ, so to divide their work. Here we learn that the gospel is not ours, but God's; and that men are but the keepers of it; for this we are to praise God. The apostle showed his charitable disposition, and how ready he was to own the Jewish converts as brethren, though many would scarcely allow the like favour to the converted Gentiles; but mere difference of opinion was no reason to him why he should not help them. Herein is a pattern of Christian charity, which we should extend to all the disciples of Christ.

Verses 11-14 Notwithstanding Peter's character, yet, when Paul saw him acting so as to hurt the truth of the gospel and the peace of the church, he was not afraid to reprove him. When he saw that Peter and the others did not live up to that principle which the gospel taught, and which they professed, namely, That by the death of Christ the partition wall between Jew and Gentile was taken down, and the observance of the law of Moses was no longer in force; as Peter's offence was public, he publicly reproved him. There is a very great difference between the prudence of St. Paul, who bore with, and used for a time, the ceremonies of the law as not sinful, and the timid conduct of St. Peter, who, by withdrawing from the Gentiles, led others to think that these ceremonies were necessary.

Verses 15-19 Paul, having thus shown he was not inferior to any apostle, not to Peter himself, speaks of the great foundation doctrine of the gospel. For what did we believe in Christ? Was it not that we might be justified by the faith of Christ? If so, is it not foolish to go back to the law, and to expect to be justified by the merit of moral works, or sacrifices, or ceremonies? The occasion of this declaration doubtless arose from the ceremonial law; but the argument is quite as strong against all dependence upon the works of the moral law, as respects justification. To give the greater weight to this, it is added, But if, while we seek to be justified by Christ, we ourselves also are found sinners, is Christ the minister of sin? This would be very dishonourable to Christ, and also very hurtful to them. By considering the law itself, he saw that justification was not to be expected by the works of it, and that there was now no further need of the sacrifices and cleansings of it, since they were done away in Christ, by his offering up himself a sacrifice for us. He did not hope or fear any thing from it; any more than a dead man from enemies. But the effect was not a careless, lawless life. It was necessary, that he might live to God, and be devoted to him through the motives and grace of the gospel. It is no new prejudice, though a most unjust one, that the doctrine of justification by faith alone, tends to encourage people in sin. Not so, for to take occasion from free grace, or the doctrine of it, to live in sin, is to try to make Christ the minister of sin, at any thought of which all Christian hearts would shudder.

Verses 20-21 Here, in his own person, the apostle describes the spiritual or hidden life of a believer. The old man is crucified, ( Romans 6:6 ) , but the new man is living; sin is mortified, and grace is quickened. He has the comforts and the triumphs of grace; yet that grace is not from himself, but from another. Believers see themselves living in a state of dependence on Christ. Hence it is, that though he lives in the flesh, yet he does not live after the flesh. Those who have true faith, live by that faith; and faith fastens upon Christ's giving himself for us. He loved me, and gave himself for me. As if the apostle said, The Lord saw me fleeing from him more and more. Such wickedness, error, and ignorance were in my will and understanding, that it was not possible for me to be ransomed by any other means than by such a price. Consider well this price. Here notice the false faith of many. And their profession is accordingly; they have the form of godliness without the power of it. They think they believe the articles of faith aright, but they are deceived. For to believe in Christ crucified, is not only to believe that he was crucified, but also to believe that I am crucified with him. And this is to know Christ crucified. Hence we learn what is the nature of grace. God's grace cannot stand with man's merit. Grace is no grace unless it is freely given every way. The more simply the believer relies on Christ for every thing, the more devotedly does he walk before Him in all his ordinances and commandments. Christ lives and reigns in him, and he lives here on earth by faith in the Son of God, which works by love, causes obedience, and changes into his holy image. Thus he neither abuses the grace of God, nor makes it in vain.

Cross References 53

  • 1. Acts 15:2
  • 2. Acts 4:36; Galatians 2:9, 13
  • 3. 2 Corinthians 2:13; Galatians 2:3
  • 4. Acts 15:2; Galatians 1:12
  • 5. Galatians 1:6
  • 6. Romans 9:16; 1 Corinthians 9:24f; Galatians 5:7; Philippians 2:16; 2 Timothy 4:7; Hebrews 12:1
  • 7. 2 Corinthians 2:13; Galatians 2:1
  • 8. Acts 16:3; 1 Corinthians 9:21
  • 9. Acts 15:1, 24; 2 Corinthians 11:13, 26; Galatians 1:7
  • 10. 2 Peter 2:1; Jude 4
  • 11. Galatians 5:1, 13; James 1:25
  • 12. Romans 8:15; 2 Corinthians 11:20
  • 13. Galatians 1:6; Galatians 2:14; Colossians 1:5
  • 14. 2 Corinthians 11:5; 2 Corinthians 12:11; Galatians 2:9; Galatians 6:3
  • 15. Acts 10:34
  • 16. 1 Corinthians 9:17; 1 Thessalonians 2:4; 1 Timothy 1:11
  • 17. Acts 9:15; Galatians 1:16
  • 18. Galatians 1:18; Galatians 2:9, 11, 14
  • 19. Acts 1:25
  • 20. Romans 12:3
  • 21. Acts 12:17; Galatians 2:12
  • 22. Luke 22:8; Galatians 1:18; Galatians 2:7, 11, 14
  • 23. 2 Corinthians 11:5; 2 Corinthians 12:11; Galatians 2:2, 6; Galatians 6:3
  • 24. 1 Timothy 3:15; Revelation 3:12
  • 25. Acts 4:36; Galatians 2:1, 13
  • 26. 2 Kings 10:15
  • 27. Galatians 1:16
  • 28. Acts 24:17
  • 29. Galatians 1:18; Galatians 2:7, 9, 14
  • 30. Acts 11:19; Acts 15:1
  • 31. Acts 12:17; Galatians 2:9
  • 32. Acts 11:3
  • 33. Acts 11:2
  • 34. Acts 4:36; Galatians 2:1, 9
  • 35. Hebrews 12:13
  • 36. Galatians 1:6; Galatians 2:5; Colossians 1:5
  • 37. Galatians 1:18; Galatians 2:7, 9, 11
  • 38. Acts 10:28; Galatians 2:12
  • 39. Philippians 3:4
  • 40. 1 Samuel 15:18; Luke 24:7
  • 41. Acts 13:39; Galatians 3:11
  • 42. Romans 3:22; Romans 9:30
  • 43. Psalms 143:2; Romans 3:20
  • 44. Galatians 2:15
  • 45. Luke 20:16; Galatians 3:21
  • 46. Romans 3:5
  • 47. Romans 6:2; Romans 7:4; 1 Corinthians 9:20
  • 48. Romans 6:6; Galatians 5:24; Galatians 6:14
  • 49. Romans 8:10
  • 50. Matthew 4:3
  • 51. Romans 8:37
  • 52. Galatians 1:4
  • 53. Galatians 3:21

Footnotes 21

  • [a]. Lit "according to revelation I went up"
  • [b]. Lit "seemed to be something"
  • [c]. Lit "does not receive a face"
  • [d]. Lit "of the uncircumcision"
  • [e]. Lit "of the circumcision"
  • [f]. Lit "of the circumcision"
  • [g]. Or "Jacob"
  • [h]. Lit "hands"
  • [i]. Or "was to be condemned;" lit "was one who was condemned," or, "was self-condemned"
  • [j]. Or "Jacob"
  • [k]. Or converts "from the circumcised;" lit "those from the circumcision"
  • [l]. Or "progressing toward;" lit "walking straightly"
  • [m]. Some close the direct quotation here, others extend it through v 21
  • [n]. Or "law"
  • [o]. Or "law"
  • [p]. Or "law"
  • [q]. Or "mortal man"
  • [r]. Or "law"
  • [s]. Or "law"
  • [t]. Or "insofar as I"
  • [u]. Or "law"

Chapter Summary


In this chapter the apostle proceeds with the narrative of himself, and gives an account of another journey of his to Jerusalem, where he had a conversation with the chief of the apostles; in which they approved of his ministry, allowed of his commission, and took him into fellowship with them, but gave him no new instructions, nor added to his spiritual light and knowledge; from whence it appeared that the Gospel he preached was not after men, or received from men, as he had asserted in the preceding chapter; and he also gives an account of his meeting with Peter at Antioch, and how he reproved him for some judaizing practices; which leads him to assert the doctrine of justification by faith, in opposition to the works of the law; which is the grand point he had in view to establish in this epistle, and which he vindicates from the charge of licentiousness. He begins with an account of another journey of his to Jerusalem, the circumstances of which he relates, as the time when, fourteen years ago; the persons he took with him as his companions, Barnabas and Titus, Ga 2:1 what moved him to it, a revelation from God; and the business he did when come thither, he communicated the Gospel, and that not to any but to such that were of reputation, and not publicly but privately; his end was, that it might appear how successful he had been in his ministry, and had not laboured in vain, Ga 2:2 then follows a narrative of a particular event relating to Titus, who is described as one of his companions, and by his nation, a Greek; and who though an uncircumcised person, yet the apostles and elders at Jerusalem did not oblige him to be circumcised, which showed that they were of the same mind with the apostle in this point, Ga 2:3 and the reason of it was because of the false teachers, that they might not give them any handle; who are described by their character, false brethren, by their private manner of getting in among the saints, and by their ends and views, which were to spy out their Christian liberty and bring them into bondage, Ga 2:4 to whom the apostle opposed himself, and would not give way for the least space of time; for this end, that the truth of the Gospel might continue with the Gentiles, Ga 2:5 and as for the apostles, though they were men of great character and reputation, nor would the apostle detract from it; yet they added nothing to him, he received nothing from them, Ga 2:6 but, on the other hand, partly because they saw that as the Gospel to be preached to the Jews was committed to Peter, so the same Gospel to be preached to the Gentiles was committed to Paul; and partly because of the same efficacy and success in the ministry of the one as in the ministry of the other; as also because they perceived what gifts of grace were bestowed on the apostle; they gave to him and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, as a token of their mutual agreement, and as being of the same society, Ga 2:7-9 nor did they give him and Barnabas anything in charge, but only to remember the poor, to which he was forward enough of himself, Ga 2:10 after which follows an account of an opposition made by the apostle to Peter, which was done at Antioch, and to his face, and not without reason, Ga 2:11 for whereas some time before he ate with the Gentiles, which was commendable in him, he afterwards declined conversation with them, moved to it by fear of the converted Jews, Ga 2:12 and such was the force of his example, that other Jews, who before did not scruple eating with the Gentiles, separated likewise, and even Barnabas himself, Paul's companion, Ga 2:13 wherefore seeing this was not walking according to the Gospel of Christ, and with that integrity and uprightness which became such persons, the apostle publicly reproved Peter, and expostulated with him; partly on account of his former conversation with the Gentiles, though he himself was a Jew, and therefore it was absurd and contradictory in him to oblige the Gentiles to live as the Jews did, Ga 2:14 and partly on account of the ledge which he and Peter and others who were Jews, and not sinners of the Gentiles, had of the doctrine of justification; that it was not by the works of the law, but by faith in Christ; for to this end they had believed in Christ that they might be justified, not by the one, but by the other; which doctrine is confirmed by a passage referred to in Ps 149:2, Ga 2:5,16 and whereas it might be objected that this doctrine of free justification opened a door to licentiousness, the apostle answers to it by an abhorrence of it, Ga 2:17 and by observing that this would build up what he had destroyed, Ga 2:18 besides, he argues the contrary from his being dead to the law, that he might live unto God, Ga 2:19 and from his crucifixion with Christ, and of the old man with his deeds; and from Christ's living in him, and his living by faith upon him, Ga 2:20 and for the further confirmation of the doctrine of justification being by faith, and not by works, he suggests, were it otherwise, both the grace of God would be frustrated and made void, and the death of Christ be in vain, Ga 2:21.

Galatians 2 Commentaries

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