John 19

The Crown of Thorns

1 Pilate then took Jesus and 1scourged Him.
2 2And the soldiers twisted together a crown of thorns and put it on His head, and put a purple robe on Him;
3 and they began to come up to Him and say, "3Hail, King of the Jews!" and to 4give Him slaps in the face.
4 Pilate 5came out again and said to them, "Behold, I am bringing Him out to you so that you may know that 6I find no guilt in Him."
5 Jesus then came out, 7wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, "Behold, the Man!"
6 So when the chief priests and the 8officers saw Him, they cried out saying, "Crucify, crucify!" Pilate said to them, "Take Him yourselves and crucify Him, for 9I find no guilt in Him."
7 The Jews answered him, "10We have a law, and by that law He ought to die because He 11made Himself out to be the Son of God."
8 Therefore when Pilate heard this statement, he was even more afraid;
9 and he 12entered into the Praetorium again and said to Jesus, "Where are You from?" But 13Jesus gave him no answer.
10 So Pilate said to Him, "You do not speak to me? Do You not know that I have authority to release You, and I have authority to crucify You?"
11 Jesus answered, "14You would have no * authority over Me, unless * it had been given you from above; for this reason 15he who delivered Me to you has the greater sin."
12 As a result of this Pilate made efforts to release Him, but the Jews cried out saying, "16If you release this Man, you are no friend of Caesar; everyone who makes himself out to be a king opposes Caesar."
13 Therefore when Pilate heard these words, he brought Jesus out, and 17sat down on the judgment seat at a place called The Pavement, but 18in Hebrew, Gabbatha.
14 Now it was 19the day of preparation for the Passover; it was about the 20sixth hour. And he said to the Jews, "Behold, 21your King!"
15 So they cried out, "22Away with Him, away with Him, crucify Him!" Pilate said to them, "Shall I crucify your King?" The chief priests answered, "We have no king but Caesar."

The Crucifixion

16 So he then 23handed Him over to them to be crucified.
17 24They took Jesus, therefore, and He went out, 25bearing His own cross, to the place called 26the Place of a Skull, which is called 27in Hebrew, Golgotha.
18 There they crucified Him, and with Him 28two other men, one on either side, and Jesus in between.
19 Pilate also wrote an inscription and put it on the cross. It was written, "29JESUS THE NAZARENE, 30THE KING OF THE JEWS."
20 Therefore many of the Jews read this inscription, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city; and it was written 31in Hebrew, Latin and in Greek.
21 So the chief priests of the Jews were saying to Pilate, "Do not write, '32The King of the Jews '; but that He said, 'I am 33King of the Jews.' "
22 Pilate answered, "34What I have written I have written."
23 Then 35the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took His outer garments and made 36four parts, a part to every soldier and also the tunic; now the tunic was seamless, woven in one piece.
24 So they said to one another, "37Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it, to decide whose it shall be"; 38this was to fulfill the Scripture: "THEY 39DIVIDED MY OUTER GARMENTS AMONG THEM, AND FOR MY CLOTHING THEY CAST LOTS."
25 Therefore the soldiers did these things. 40But standing by the cross of Jesus were 41His mother, and His mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and 42Mary Magdalene.
26 When Jesus then saw His mother, and 43the disciple whom He loved standing nearby, He said to His mother, "44Woman, behold, your son!"
27 Then He said to the disciple, "Behold, your mother!" From that hour the disciple took her into 45his own household.
28 After this, Jesus, 46knowing that all things had already been accomplished, 47to fulfill the Scripture, said, "48I am thirsty."
29 A jar full of sour wine was standing there; so 49they put a sponge full of the sour wine upon a branch of hyssop and brought it up to His mouth.
30 Therefore when Jesus had received the sour wine, He said, "50It is finished!" And He bowed His head and 51gave up His spirit.

Care of the Body of Jesus

31 Then the Jews, because it was 52the day of preparation, so that 53the bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a 54high day ), asked Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.
32 So the soldiers came, and broke the legs of the first man and of the other who was 55crucified with Him;
33 but coming to Jesus, when they saw that He was already dead, they did not break His legs.
34 But one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately 56blood and water came out.
35 And he who has seen has 57testified, and his testimony is true; and he knows that he is telling the truth, so that you also may believe.
36 For these things came to pass 58to fulfill the Scripture, "59NOT A BONE OF HIM SHALL BE BROKEN."
37 And again another Scripture says, "60THEY SHALL LOOK ON HIM WHOM THEY PIERCED."
38 61After these things Joseph of Arimathea, being a disciple of Jesus, but a 62secret one for 63fear of the Jews, asked Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus; and Pilate granted permission. So he came and took away His body.
39 64Nicodemus, who had first come to Him by night, also came, 65bringing a mixture of 66myrrh and aloes, about a 67hundred pounds weight.
40 So they took the body of Jesus and 68bound it in 69linen wrappings with the spices, as is the burial custom of the Jews.
41 Now in the place where He was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a 70new tomb 71in which no one had yet been laid.
42 Therefore because of the Jewish day of 72preparation, since the tomb was 73nearby, they laid Jesus there.

Images for John 19

John 19 Commentary

Chapter 19

Christ condemned and crucified. (1-18) Christ on the cross. (19-30) His side pierced. (31-37) The burial of Jesus. (38-42)

Verses 1-18 Little did Pilate think with what holy regard these sufferings of Christ would, in after-ages, be thought upon and spoken of by the best and greatest of men. Our Lord Jesus came forth, willing to be exposed to their scorn. It is good for every one with faith, to behold Christ Jesus in his sufferings. Behold him, and love him; be still looking unto Jesus. Did their hatred sharpen their endeavours against him? and shall not our love for him quicken our endeavours for him and his kingdom? Pilate seems to have thought that Jesus might be some person above the common order. Even natural conscience makes men afraid of being found fighting against God. As our Lord suffered for the sins both of Jews and Gentiles, it was a special part of the counsel of Divine Wisdom, that the Jews should first purpose his death, and the Gentiles carry that purpose into effect. Had not Christ been thus rejected of men, we had been for ever rejected of God. Now was the Son of man delivered into the hands of wicked and unreasonable men. He was led forth for us, that we might escape. He was nailed to the cross, as a Sacrifice bound to the altar. The Scripture was fulfilled; he did not die at the altar among the sacrifices, but among criminals sacrificed to public justice. And now let us pause, and with faith look upon Jesus. Was ever sorrow like unto his sorrow? See him bleeding, see him dying, see him and love him! love him, and live to him!

Verses 19-30 Here are some remarkable circumstances of Jesus' death, more fully related than before. Pilate would not gratify the chief priests by allowing the writing to be altered; which was doubtless owing to a secret power of God upon his heart, that this statement of our Lord's character and authority might continue. Many things done by the Roman soldiers were fulfilments of the prophecies of the Old Testament. All things therein written shall be fulfilled. Christ tenderly provided for his mother at his death. Sometimes, when God removes one comfort from us, he raises up another for us, where we looked not for it. Christ's example teaches all men to honour their parents in life and death; to provide for their wants, and to promote their comfort by every means in their power. Especially observe the dying word wherewith Jesus breathed out his soul. It is finished; that is, the counsels of the Father concerning his sufferings were now fulfilled. It is finished; all the types and prophecies of the Old Testament, which pointed at the sufferings of the Messiah, were accomplished. It is finished; the ceremonial law is abolished; the substance is now come, and all the shadows are done away. It is finished; an end is made of transgression by bringing in an everlasting righteousness. His sufferings were now finished, both those of his soul, and those of his body. It is finished; the work of man's redemption and salvation is now completed. His life was not taken from him by force, but freely given up.

Verses 31-37 A trial was made whether Jesus was dead. He died in less time than persons crucified commonly did. It showed that he had laid down his life of himself. The spear broke up the very fountains of life; no human body could survive such a wound. But its being so solemnly attested, shows there was something peculiar in it. The blood and water that flowed out, signified those two great benefits which all believers partake of through Christ, justification and sanctification; blood for atonement, water for purification. They both flow from the pierced side of our Redeemer. To Christ crucified we owe merit for our justification, and Spirit and grace for our sanctification. Let this silence the fears of weak Christians, and encourage their hopes; there came both water and blood out of Jesus' pierced side, both to justify and sanctify them. The Scripture was fulfilled, in Pilate's not allowing his legs to be broken, Ps. 34:20 . There was a type of this in the paschal lamb, Ex. 12:46 . May we ever look to Him, whom, by our sins, we have ignorantly and heedlessly pierced, nay, sometimes against convictions and mercies; and who shed from his wounded side both water and blood, that we might be justified and sanctified in his name.

Verses 38-42 Joseph of Arimathea was a disciple of Christ in secret. Disciples should openly own themselves; yet some, who in lesser trials have been fearful, in greater have been courageous. When God has work to do, he can find out such as are proper to do it. The embalming was done by Nicodemus, a secret friend to Christ, though not his constant follower. That grace which at first is like a bruised reed, may afterward resemble a strong cedar. Hereby these two rich men showed the value they had for Christ's person and doctrine, and that it was not lessened by the reproach of the cross. We must do our duty as the present day and opportunity are, and leave it to God to fulfil his promises in his own way and his own time. The grave of Jesus was appointed with the wicked, as was the case of those who suffered as criminals; but he was with the rich in his death, as prophesied, ( Isaiah 53:9 ) ; these two circumstances it was very unlikely should ever be united in the same person. He was buried in a new sepulchre; therefore it could not be said that it was not he, but some other that rose. We also are here taught not to be particular as to the place of our burial. He was buried in the sepulchre next at hand. Here is the Sun of Righteousness set for a while, to rise again in greater glory, and then to set no more.

Cross References 73

  • 1. Matthew 27:26
  • 2. Matthew 27:27-30: {Mark 15:16-19}
  • 3. Matthew 27:29; Mark 15:18
  • 4. John 18:22
  • 5. John 18:33, 38
  • 6. Luke 23:4; John 18:38; John 19:6
  • 7. John 19:2
  • 8. Matthew 26:58; John 18:3
  • 9. Luke 23:4; John 18:38; John 19:4
  • 10. Leviticus 24:16; Matthew 26:63-66
  • 11. John 5:18; John 10:33
  • 12. John 18:33
  • 13. Matthew 26:63; Matthew 27:12, 14; John 18:34-37
  • 14. Romans 13:1
  • 15. John 18:13f, 28f; Acts 3:13
  • 16. Luke 23:2; John 18:33f
  • 17. Matthew 27:19
  • 18. John 5:2; John 19:17, 20
  • 19. Matthew 27:62; John 19:31, 42
  • 20. Matthew 27:45; Mark 15:25
  • 21. John 19:19, 21
  • 22. Luke 23:18
  • 23. Matthew 27:26; Mark 15:15; Luke 23:25
  • 24. John 19:17-24: {Matthew 27:33-44; Mark 15:22-32; Luke 23:33-43}
  • 25. Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 14:27; Luke 23:26
  • 26. Luke 23:33
  • 27. John 19:13
  • 28. Luke 23:32
  • 29. Matthew 27:37; Mark 15:26; Luke 23:38
  • 30. John 19:14, 21
  • 31. John 19:13
  • 32. John 19:14, 19
  • 33. John 19:14, 19
  • 34. Genesis 43:14; Esther 4:16
  • 35. Matthew 27:35; Mark 15:24; Luke 23:34
  • 36. Acts 12:4
  • 37. Exodus 28:32; Matthew 27:35; Mark 15:24; Luke 23:34
  • 38. John 19:28, 36
  • 39. Psalms 22:18
  • 40. Matthew 27:55; Mark 15:40; Luke 23:49
  • 41. Matthew 12:46
  • 42. Luke 8:2; John 20:1, 18
  • 43. John 13:23
  • 44. John 2:4
  • 45. Luke 18:28; John 1:11; John 16:32; Acts 21:6
  • 46. John 13:1; John 17:4
  • 47. John 19:24, 36
  • 48. Psalms 69:21
  • 49. John 19:29, 30: {Matthew 27:48, 50; Mark 15:36; Luke 23:36}
  • 50. John 17:4
  • 51. Matthew 27:50; Mark 15:37; Luke 23:46
  • 52. John 19:14, 42
  • 53. Deuteronomy 21:23; Joshua 8:29; Joshua 10:26
  • 54. Exodus 12:16
  • 55. John 19:18
  • 56. 1 John 5:6, 8
  • 57. John 15:27; John 21:24
  • 58. John 19:24, 28
  • 59. Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12; Psalms 34:20
  • 60. Zechariah 12:10; Revelation 1:7
  • 61. John 19:38-42: {Matthew 27:57-61; Mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56}
  • 62. Mark 15:43
  • 63. John 7:13
  • 64. John 3:1
  • 65. Mark 16:1
  • 66. Psalms 45:8; Proverbs 7:17; Song of Songs 4:14; Matthew 2:11
  • 67. John 12:3
  • 68. Matthew 26:12; Mark 14:8; John 11:44
  • 69. Luke 24:12; John 20:5, 7
  • 70. Matthew 27:60
  • 71. Luke 23:53
  • 72. John 19:14, 31
  • 73. John 19:20, 41

Footnotes 18

  • [a]. Or "had Him scourged"
  • [b]. I.e. governor's official residence
  • [c]. Lit "against"
  • [d]. Lit "was seeking to"
  • [e]. Or "speaks against"
  • [f]. Gr "The Lithostrotos"
  • [g]. I.e. Jewish Aramaic
  • [h]. Perhaps 6 a.m.
  • [i]. Lit "bearing the cross for Himself"
  • [j]. I.e. Jewish Aramaic
  • [k]. I.e. Jewish Aramaic
  • [l]. Gr "khiton," the garment worn next to the skin
  • [m]. Lit "from the upper part through the whole"
  • [n]. Lit "a lot"
  • [o]. Lit "for the day of that Sabbath was great"
  • [p]. Or "crushed" or "shattered"
  • [q]. Two early mss read "package of"
  • [r]. Lit "100 litras" (12 oz each)

John 19 Commentaries

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