Chapter VI

312 LATIN CONVENT—MONKS—ESCAPE OF ANTONIO.

place for refreshment; and as we had hitherto seen al most nothing of the monks of Palestine, we were not unwilling for once to pay a visit to their secret recesses. Our visit to them was not like that of Paul to the Christians of Ptolemais, when he "saluted the brethren, and abode with them one day." * The main object of the visit, on either side, was that of giving and receiving s traveller's fare. No price is exacted, but the visitor is expected to leave behind an adequate remuneration for the provision furnished. The monks we found to be coarse men, with no appearance of seriousness, or even of learning. The news of the day seemed to form the whole of their conversation. We were led into a large hall, with a plain wooden table and benches round. Here half a dozen of the fraternity sat down with us, while two of them served. One repeated a Latin grace in a coarse irreverent manner, and then many dishes of solid food, fowls, meat, and vegetables, were brought in on a large board and handed round. The polite invitation to take our place at the table was, "Favoriaca noi" (" Do us the favour"). After dinner, one of their number left us to embark in a vessel that was to take him to the convent on Mount Carmel; the rest sat with us a while, and talked over our providential escape from the Bedouins.

Meanwhile, to our great joy, our servant Antonio made his appearance. The story of his adventure was very much what we had suspected. Having gone back to Sephourieh in search of the cloak, and not finding it, he rode quickly after us in order to regain our company. But meeting a woman on the road of whom he inquired the way, he was directed to a route different from that which we had taken. He had entered the valley at the very time when we were waiting for him at the old khan, and had not proceeded far, when six or eight Bedouin Arabs, fully armed and mounted on horseback, rushed out upon him. They demanded who he was— what he was doing there—where he was going—and where his company were. Antonio forged a story in reply, saying, that he was servant to a scribe, who had gone on before with a company of twelve men, and would be out of their reach. The Arabs said that he must come with them; and immediately with their long lances pricked his horse up to the hills. When thev had got him out of sight of the road, they tied him hand

* Acta xxi. 7.

of fear. From the same cause, his mouth was filled with bile, and his voice almost inaudible. As soon as the light of morning dawned, he came down from the tree, and found out the road to Acre. The first person he met was the Pasha's dromedary post, who gave him a small piece of clothing,—and then he reached a village where the people supplied him with more. After this he made out his way to Acre, and sought for us at the convent, where he found us to his unfeigned joy and ours. We could not but perceive the special providence of God in our escape, and again we had reason to sing as at Mount Tabor, " Our soul is escaped as a bird out of the snare of the fowlers; the snare is broken and we are escaped." Even the monks seemed to acknowledge the hand of God in it.

At night, we heard Antonio and the other servants of our company, singing a song of vengeance on the robbers. It was in the style of those songs we had usually heard from Arabs, a single voice leading, and then a chorus responding, with clapping of hands. It was to this effect—

Singh voice—" The curse of Allah rest!"
Chorus— "Upon the Bedouins."
Claming hand*.
Single voice" The sword of Allah come!"
Chonu— "Upon the Bedouina."
Clapping handi.

S14 ACRE—VICE-CONSUL—AGA—SYNAGOGUE.

In style, this resembled Psalm cxxxvi, though in send ment it was the reverse of its strain of thankful love.

We visited the English Vice-Consul, Mr. Finch, an intelligent Jew, who speaks German, Italian, and a little English. He showed us every attention, and when we told him the whole matter, his remark was, "that surely we were upon God's errand; otherwise God would not so protect us." He conducted us to the Governor, or Aga, a mild, placid old man, with an immense turban, and long beard, seated in state upon a carpet in one corner of his chamber. Taking off our shoes at the door,* we sat down on the floor, and related our story, Mr. Caiman and Antonio being the narrators. He caused his secretary to write it down, and promised to send twenty soldiers to the Wady Abilene to find out the robbers. Probably, he thought no more of the matter after we had left him. While we were in the court, a poor man came in to complain that his garden had been plundered by the Arabs. The days are not come when "violence shall no more be heard in thy land."f

We were anxious to visit the Jews of Acre. Meeting one in the bazaar, we invited him to partake with us of some melons with which we were refreshing ourselves. He consented, and three others soon joined us. They then led us to their synagogue, a very humble one, with a short inscription on a pane of glass above the door. About a dozen Jews gathered round, one of whom recognised us, having seen us at Tyre. They said that there are sixty of their brethren residing here. We had some interesting conversation with three young men, one of whom eagerly read a chapter in the New Testament, though his companion stood by, watching us very iuspiciously, and apparently uneasy at seeing his friend so employed. An old man then came into the synagogue, and mounted the reading-desk. He placed ajar of water beside him, then opened his prayer-book, washed his hands, and put on his Tallith. We were informed that he meant to spend six hours in prayer that day, and the jar of water was intended to keep his throat from becoming dry during his exercise of bodily devotion. How remarkably this illustrates the words of Christ, "Wo unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye, for a pretence, make long prayer; therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation."J

* Perhaps this oriental custom is derived from Exod. iii- i
t Isa. U. 1& t Matt, xxiii. M.

a high situation near the sea, and is surroundcu v»m palm-trees. A shepherd in the neighbourhood of this place was playing on his pipe at the head of his flock—a sweet soothing sound in the stillness of evening, and all the sweeter because so rarely heard in Palestine.

After one hour more we came to Boussa, situated in carse ground, and bordered with trees. Here the fertile plain of Acre ends, and the low range of swelling hills that form its eastern boundary for twelve or thirteen miles run out into the sea, forming a high rocky promontory. Looking back from the height, the view of the plain, enclosed by the hills on the one hand and the sea on the other, was rich and beautiful. The plain along the coast south from Carmel, the plain of Tyre, and the plain of Acre, are all very like each other, although the last seems to be the most fruitful.

The sun went down behind the Mediterranean Sea as we passed a small mined fort or khan on the highest point of Nakoura. The khan of Nakoura is nearly an hour further north, and we made haste to reach it before dark. The graceful gazelles were sporting along the shore, and bounding on the rocky heights above us. Sandys mentions that, in his time, leopards and boars used to come down from the brushwood of these hills, but we neither saw nor heard of any. We slept that night in a stubble-field near the khan of Nakoura; and

316 SHORE OP THE MEDITERRANEAN CAPE BLANCO.

early next morning were on our way, journeying north by the edge of the sea. The shore in this vicinity is often grand and picturesque, the white rocks being worn into curious forms by the incessant dashing of the waves; and in addition to the natural beauty of the scene, the associations of the past invest the very waters with a profound interest. One of our company thus expressed the impressions of the moment:—

These deep blue waters lave the shore
Of Israel, as in days of yore!
Though Zion like a field is ploughed,
And Salem covered with a cloud—
Though briers and thorns are tangled o'er.
Where vine and olive twined before—
Though turbancd Moslems tread the gate,
And Judah sits most desolate—
Their nets o'er Tyre the fishers spread,
And Carmel's top is withered—
Yet still these waters clasp the shore
As kindly as they did before!
Such is Thy love to Judah's race,
A deep unchanging tide of grace.
Though scattered now at Thy command.
They pine away in every land,
With trembling heart and failing eyes—
And deep the veil on Israel lies—
Yet still Thy word thou canst not break,
"Beloved for their fathers' sake-"

In a short time we came to a well-built and copious fountain, where we obtained a plentiful draught of delicious water. It had a pointed arch and Arabic inscription, and still bears the name of the great conqueror of Tyre, "Iscanderoon." Soon after leaving it, we found ourselves on the remains of an ancient causeway, said to be the work of Alexander the Great. This is the "Scalce Tyriarum" leading over a high rocky promontory of limestone, which here descends precipitously into the sea, the Album Promontorium or Cape Blanco, about eight miles from Tyre. The steps on the northern side are cut out of the rock with immense labour, and a solid parapet is left along the margin, over which we looked into the clear deep waters of the Mediterranean. We saw fish swimming about in great numbers at the base of the rocks, and over our heads the owl perched on solitary cliffs as in the days of the Psalmist.* From this

* P» cii. 6.

OLD TYRE RAS-EL-AIN. 317

point we began to search along the shore with deep interest for any remains of ancient Tyre. About half an hour/rom Cape Blanco, we came upon the ruins of some ancient place, where were several cisterns, but no distinct remains. These were the only traces we could find of any thing like a city along the bay south of Tyre.

Within an hour of Tyre, we turned aside from the shore to the right, to visit the famous pools said to have been made by Solomon for Hiram, King of Tyre. The place is called Itas-el-Ain, or " Head of the Fountain," evidently because it was the source from which Tyre was anciently supplied with water. It is about three miles from the gate of modern Tyre. There are four large and remarkable reservoirs, three of which we examined. They are considerably elevated above the plain by means of solid mason-work, and you ascend by steps to a broad border, on which you may walk round the water. The fountains springing up from beneath keep them constantly full. Two of them are connected with each other; the one measuring 17 yards by 15 at the water edge, the other 13 yards by 10. The third is a regular octagon, measuring 8J yards on each side. From the first two the water is conveyed by a fine old aqueduct to the rocky hill Marshuk, and from thence anciently to Tyre; but the only use that seems to be now made of the water of the largest one, is to turn a mill for grinding corn. The work is beautifully executed, and the abundance of water makes every thing around look verdant and beautiful, so that we lingered near enjoying the pleasant situation.

While we were refreshing ourselves with bread and lehan, a man from Tyre joined our party, who told us that, a few days before, a number of Jews from Saphet had come to take refuge in the town till the disturbances of the country should pass over. So truly are the words of Moses still undergoing their fulfilment, "Thou shalt find no ease, neither shall the sole of thy foot have rest."*

It was after midday when we set out again. We did not enter Tyre, but passed at a distance, nearly in the course of the old aqueduct. We came near the hill of Marshuk. which some have supposed to mark the site of Pake Tyrus; though this cannot he the case, for Strabo says that it lay thirty stadia to the south of the island, whereas Marshuk is less than a third of that distance to

* Deul. XTviii fi5.

318 TYRE TO SIDON SAREPTA.

the east of modern Tyre. Crossing the plain, we soon came upon the same track by which we had travelled in a contrary direction a fortnight before. At the bridge of Kasimieh, we were refreshed by a draught of goat's milk which some shepherds gave us. An hour before sunset, we came to that part of the plain overlooked by Sarfend, the ancient Sarepta. Two of us rode up the steep hill on which the modern village is built by a path worn deep in the rock. We visited the mosque, said to be erected over the widow's house where Elijah dwelt, and the cave beneath it, where a lamp is kept continually burning, and where miraculous cures are reported to have been performed. The view from the village commands the plain and the sea, and is very fine. A deep ravine on the south is clad with an olive-grove, and the hills around bear marks of having been at one time covered with the vine, for the terraces still remain. We passed through a village on the shore immediately opposite to Sarfend, called Ain-teen (" the well of the fig,") which some believe to be the true site of Sarepta.

The sun being set, we now pressed forward toward Sidon. The gazelles were gamboling on the rocky shore. Seven large stones stand on the roadside, of which a curious legend is told. It is said that these are seven Moslems turned into stone for pursuing a Christian, whose companions were guilty, but who himself was innocent. A little farther on is a cairn, or heap of stones raised over the tomb of a slave, who was executed on this spot for murdering and plundering passengers. It is customary for travellers to add a stone to the heap as they pass. Arriving at a khan called Ain-el-Burak, the owner, who was on the roof, invited us in,* but we thanked him and pressed on. The near approach to Sidon seemed peculiarly beautiful in the soft moonlight. A sweet fragrance was breathing from shrubs and flowers, and our road conducted us through groves of luxuriant trees, while the eye was not pained by the sight of dry dusty fields. We reached the gate of Sidon by ten o'clock, having been fifteen hours on horseback. We were too late for admission into the town, and had to encamp on the outside of the walls. The ground was so rocky and uneven, that it was with difficulty we managed to drive in the pins of our tents, but this did not prevent us from enjoying a refreshing sleep.

* See Prov. ix. 14, 15.

and their people, who spend the day in amusements and dissipation. We were anxious to reach Beyrout in time to visit the Jewish synagogue, for that was the day set apart for the commemoration of the destruction of the Temple, a remarkable occasion among the Jews. But in this we failed. We arrived, however, before the sun went down, and rode in at the gate filled with joy and thankfulness to God for permitting us to visit Galilee, and bringing us back in safety and peace.

(July 21. Sabbath.) In the forenoon, Mr. Bonar preached on John vii. 37, to a respectable audience in the spacious apartment of the American Consul. We afterwards attended the Sabbath-school in one of the Mission-houses, and had the pleasure of addressing a class of young Syrians who understood English. In the evening, Mr. M'Cheyne expounded Acts ix. in a large prayer meeting, at which the American brethren and their families were present. And thus we drank of "the streams from Lebanon," in a dry and thirsty land.

We now found that the next Austrian steamer wGuld sail for Smyrna in a week; so that we took up our abode again at the inn of Giuseppe, who paid us every attention. We occupied ourselves during this time, chiefly in making up our journals and writing home, and in the cool of the evenings enjoyed a quiet walk along the rocky beach. One evening we saw the funeral of a poor native. The body was carried out of the town, not in a coffin,

320 SAIL FOR SMYRNA.

but on a bier, lftce the widow's son at Nain.* A few mourners followed, lamenting him with occasional cries. Another evening, we paid a short visit along with one of the merchants of the town to Sir Moses Montefiore and his lady, who were here waiting for a vessel to carry them to Egypt.

In the middle of the week, Mr. M'Cheyne was seized with fever. Dr. Gerstmannf of the Jerusalem Mission, himself a converted Jew, waited upon him with all kindness, and ordered him to be removed to a house upon the height above the town, where the atmosphere was cool. The disease seemed to abate a little on the Saturday, so that the physician recommended us to make preparations for sailing next day. He thought that there would be greater hope of Mr. M.'s recovery by enjoying the cool breeze of the sea, than by remaining three weeks longer in the confined atmosphere of Beyrout.

Accordingly, on the afternoon of Sabbath, July 28, we bade farewell to our many kind friends, and embarked in the Austrian steamer, called Schnell-Segler, "Swift Sailer," which sailed from the harbour at five o'clock. The four Jews from the Dardanelles, with whom we had sailed into Egypt, and whom we now met for the third time, to their surprise and ours, were the only faces we knew on board. There was one young man in the vessel who could speak a little English. It was a solemn and almost melancholy Sabbath evening to us. Mr. M. was laid down upon the deck, and we kept our eye upon the majestic brow of Lebanon, (the emblem of the Redeemer's countenance,J) till it faded from our view in the dim and brief twilight of evening.

But here let us for a moment review all that we have seen and heard in regard to the condition of Israel in their own land. We visited every city and village in Palestine where Jews are to be found (with the exception of Jaffa, and two small villages upon Mount Naphtali),

* Luke vii. 14.

t On the 23d August, 1841, little more than two years after, this worthy young physician died of a similar fever at Constantinople, to which station he had been removed. He was a man of an excellent spirit, one who loved Christ with all his heart, and was very bold in recommending him to others. One day Lady M. said to him with great vehemence that she would rather lose her head than forsake the laiili of her fathers; his answer was, " If you do not turn and believe on Christ, you will never see the kingdom of heaven."

t Song v. 1ft.

GENERAL REMARKS. 321

and we ha''e been led to the conclusion that the Holy Land presents the most important and interesting of all the fields of labour among the Jews.

I. The Jews are in affliction in the land of their fathers, and this makes them more friendly there than in other lands. In other countries, where they are wealthy and comfortable, or deeply engaged in worldly business, we found that they care little to attend to the words of the Christian missionary. But, in Judea, the plague, poverty, the oppression of their rabbis, and the insults of the heathen, have so humbled them, that they cling to any one who offers to show them kindness, however averse to the doctrine which he teaches.

Il . They are strictly Rabbinical Jews, untainted by the infidelity of France or the neology of Germany. They hold the Old Testament to be indeed the Word of God. They have a real expectation of the coming of the Messiah; and this expectation is certainly greater now than it was formerly. The missionary has thus firm ground to stand upon, and, with the Hebrew Bible in his hand, may expound to them, with intelligence and power, all that is written in the Law of Moses, and in the Prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning Jesus.

III. Moreover, Judea must be regarded as the centre, of the Jewish world. Every Jew, in whatever country he sojourns, turns his face toward Jerusalem in prayer. It is the heart of the nation, and every impression made there is transmitted to all the scattered members. We afterwards met a poor Jew at Ibraila, a small town upon the Danube, who told us of conversions that had taken place at Jerusalem. In this way, whatever is done for the Jews in Palestine, will make a hundred-fold more impression than if it were done in any other land.

IV. Another important consideration is, that in Palestine the Jews look upon the English as friends. Three months before our arrival in Jerusalem, an English Consul had been stationed there—a true and zealous friend of Israel, whose jurisdiction extended over the country once given to the twelve tribes, and whose instructions from the British Government were, that he should, to the utmost of his power, afford protection to the Jews. The recent changes in Syria have no doubt for a time interfered with these arrangements; but still, is not the hand of an overruling Providence visible in them 1 And is it not our duty to improve to the utmost

822 GENERAL REMARKS ON THE HOLY LAJTD

the interest we have in the affections of the Jews, by being the friends of their never-dying souls?

V. In addition to all this, there is no country under heaven to which Christians turn with such a lively interest as Immanuel's land. "God's servants take pleasure in her stones and favour the dust thereof." But especially those who love Israel bear it upon their hearts, because its name is inwoven with the coming conversion of Israel. It is upon "the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem," that God has said he will pour his Spirit.* "On the high mountains of Israel shall their fold be ;"f and "they shall feed in Bashan and Gilead, as in the days of old; ,1 and God himself has said, "/ will remember the land."!)

On these grounds, we rest our conviction that the Holy Land presents not only the most attractive, but the most important field for missionary operations among the Jews.

In the south of the Holy Land, the London Society for the Conversion of the Jews have maintained for several years an effective Mission. Jerusalem is their headquarters, so that the southern parts may be fairly regarded as pre-occupied. But the north of the land, the region of ancient Galilee, containing nearly half of the Jewish population of Palestine, still presents an open|| and uncultivated field.

In that beautiful country, the town of Saphet at once commends itself as the most favourable point for the centre of a Jewish Mission. It is one of the four cities regarded as holy by the Jews, and therefore they cling to it in spite of the awful convulsions of nature and the ravages of war. Before the earthquake on 1st January 1837, it is said that there were 7000 Jews residing there. It has again gradually been raised out of its ruins, and there were at the time of our visit about 2000 Jewish inhabitants. A ride of six hours from Saphet brings you to Tiberias, on the margin of the Lake of Galilee, another of the holy cities, and containing 1500 Jews. Saphet is also within a few days' journey of Tyre, Sidon, Acre, Khaifa, Beyrout, and Damascus; in each of which there

* Zcch. xii. 10. t Ezck. xxxiv. 14.

t Mic. vii. 14. $ Lev. xxvi. 4i

II Of course, as a Presbyterian Church, claiming equal apostolic authority with the Church of England, the Church of Scotland will not consider the appointment of a liishop, which has taken place during this year (1812), an in any way debarring her from coming into ilia field.

AS A MISSIONARY FIELD. 323

are many Jews—so that it forms the centre of a most interesting field.

The climate of Saphet is peculiarly delightful, owing to its lofty situation. In one of the hottest days in July, the thermometer rose no higher in the shade than 76° F. In Tiberias, again, the winter's cold is scarcely felt at all.

If the Church of Scotland were privileged to establish a Mission in Saphet, what an honour would it be to tread, as it were, in the very footsteps of the Saviour, to make the very rocks that re-echoed his "strong crying and tears," and the very hills where he said, " Blessed are the peacemakers," resound with the cries of believing prayer, and with the proclamation of the gospel of peace! And if God were to own and bless our efforts, would not the words of the prophet receive a second fulfilment, " The land of Zebulon and the land of Nephthalim, by the way of the sea beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles; the people which sat in darkness, saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death, light is sprung up?"*

* Matt . iv. IS, 16.

J

(july 29.) At seven in the morning we found ourselves approaching Cyprus. Here we anchored for some hours off Larnica, which is near the ancient Citium- There seemed at this point little to interest a traveller in the island itself; a ridge of bare limestone hills formed the prominent feature of the scene, while a dry, parching sun glowed over us like a furnace. The town itself, however, looks well, its mosque and white houses peering through tall and graceful palm-trees. At a former period, Cyprus must nave been remarkably productive and well peopled. Mr. Thomson, from whom we so lately parted at Beyrout, had travelled through the interior of the island, and in his journey visited not fewer than sixty villages, which had remains of ancient churches now ruined and desolate; and everywhere he found wide plains left uncultivated, which might yield abundant harvests. It is an island which no Christian can gaze upon without remembering the days of the apostles. For this was the native country of Barnabas,* who sold his estates and brought the money to Jerusalem for the use of the infant Church, and who afterwards, in company with Paul, traversed its whole extent from Sa-' lamis to Paphos, preaching the unsearchable riches of Christ. Here, too, Sergius Paulus had his residence, and Elymas the sorcerer; Mnason also, "the old disciple," spent his youth amidst its hills and plains. But, there is no Barnabas nor Mnason in Cyprus now; for no Jew dare plant his foot upon its shores because of the furious bigotry of the Greeks, who have persecuted without remorse every wanderer of that nation that has visit

• A els iv. 36.

RHODES COAST OP ASIA CNIDOS—COOS. 325

ed or been cast upon their coast ever since the reign of Trajan. To ourselves Cyprus is associated with some of our severest trials. For it was here that Mr. M'Cheyne's illness increased, the fever burning hot within his veins, while there was no medical help on board, nor any remedies that we could apply. A cooling drink or a fresh breeze were the only means of even momentary relief.

Nexi day we were sailing off the coast of Pamphylia, and at six in the morning of the succeeding day (July 31) were anchored off Rhodes. On the left hand of the harbour is a range of very precipitous hills. The town is on the shore, with green hills rising gently behind, and many gardens on every side. All around the sandy edge in the vicinity of the town the shore is lined with windmills, which seem to be much in use throughout this region. It is said by recent travellers that, at the entrance of the ancient harbour, there are still remains of buttresses, the distance between which is twentyseven yards, a space sufficiently wide to have afforded room for the famed Colossus. We thought upon Paul sailing past Rhodes as he hasted to Jerusalem,* and we wished to land, for there are here about 1000 Jews; but this was impossible on account of Mr. M.'s illness. It was here the well-known commentator Aben Ezra died, commanding his bones to be carried to the Holy Land.

After leaving the harbour in the afternoon, we found ourselves sailing close to the shore of Caria, the water apparently deep to the very edge, with steep rocks and hills lining the shore. Often it seemed as if we were sailing close under the base of some of our own Highland mountains, while the waves gently weltered round the base of the rocks. At a turn of the coast Cnidos was pointed out to us. A creek running up a considerable way into the land forms a complete harbour; but a ruined tower was all that we could distinctly discern of the ancient town.

We now saw before us Stanchio, the ancient Coos, and felt pleasure in gazing on it, because Paul had once done the same.f Onreaching the harbour the vessel made a short stay, giving us opportunity to pet a sight of its chief town, which is beautifully situated in the midst of gardens. The buildings are all of white stone, and the hills form a green acclivity behind. The physician Hippocrates gave this island its renown in ancient times.

• Acts xxi. I. t Act* xxi. 1.

S26 PATMOS SAMOS SCIO.

Once more afloat on the Icarian Sea, we passed an English frigate in full sail, welcome to us as being in a manner a relic of home, and in itself a very imposing object on these seas. But a far more interesting sight engaged our attention a little before sunset. An intelligent traveller on board pointed out to us the island of Patmos, now called Palmosa. It lies sixteen miles southwest from Samos, and is about eighteen miles in circumference, stretching from north to south. We saw the peaks of its two prominent hills, but our course did not lie very near it. Still it was intensely interesting to get even a glance of that remarkable spot, where the beloved disciple saw the visions of God,—the spot, too, where the Saviour was seen, and his voice heard, for the last time till he comes again. It is the only spot in Europe where the Son of Man showed himself in his humanity. John's eye often rested on the mountains and islands among which we were now passing, and on the shores and waves of this great sea; and often, after the vision was past, these natural features of his place of exile would refresh his spirit, recalling to his mind how " he stood on the sand of the sea,"* and how he had seen that "every island fled away, and the mountains were not found."f

Long after sunset some of us sat on deck under the clear brilliant firmament, "sown with stars," whose bright rays glittered on the blue waters like beams of the moon. We conversed of God's providence — "his way is in the sea, and his path in the deep waters"— and of Patmos, where the fall of that empire through whose dominion we were now passing, was long ago foretold.

(Aug. I.) Next morning we were on the shores of Ionia. We had passed Icaria, and were sailing by Santo*, the birthplace of Pythagoras. We thought of Paul touching at Samos a few days before he gave his memorable address to the elders from Ephesus. J Soon after Chios,!} now Scio, came in view, and arriving at the port, the vessel anchored for a few hours. The eye rests on many buildings on the shore, dilapidated and empty, monuments of the awful scenes of massacre that devastated this beautiful island during the revolution. The town is very finely situated, embosomed in orange-trees. There was a considerable bustle in the harbour; and boats

* Rev. xiii. 1. t Rev. rri. 20.

t Acts xx. 15. ) See Acta xx. 15.

that the eye falls upon near to the entrance of the harbour, dotted over with white flat stones. This is the Jewish burying-ground.

On anchoring, our first care was directed to get medical advice for Mr. M'Cheyne. But we found that we were too late that evening to get any medical help in the town, the best physicians always retiring to the country at night. On that account, and as the town itself was oppressively close and sultry, Mr. M., though so little able for any journey that we feared every moment he would sink under the fatigue, urged us to proceed at once to Bouja, a village three miles off, where we were assured of finding an English physician. The innkeeper soon furnished us with asses, and agreed to be himself our conductor. The road was pleasant, rows of cypresstrees often meeting our eye in the gloom. The air, too, was fresher than in the town, yet even here it was sultry. On arriving at the inn of Bouja, we found the surgeon of an English frigate in the house at the moment, and soon after a Greek physician, named Dr. Drncopoli, well skilled in the diseases of the country, was recommended to us. Later in the evening, Mr. Lewis (formerly a labourer in the Jewish cause, and now chaplain to the English Consulate in Smyrna), visited us, and not only most readily aided us in our perplexity, but insisted on all of us removing next day to his own residence. Never did any in our circumstances meet with more unremitting attention and true Christian kindness, than we did during our stay under the roof of Mr. and Mrs. Lewis. Perhaps Mr. M'Cheyne's recovery was, in the good providence of God, to be mainly attributed to their care. The Lord grant to them the blessing that Paul sought for "the angel of the church of Smyrna," ODeyeu mc ... tation and received his reward. To us tiiis was "a day better than a thousand."

Our next Sabbath was not so still, but it, too, had its peculiar enjoyments. It was spent in Smyrna. Early in the morning the sound of bells ringing loudly in the town caused not a little surprise, till we ascertained that it proceeded from the Romish churches in the city. For the Roman Catholics, every where zealous, have here erected three large and splendid churches, and already number 5000 members in Smyrna. They have also a flourishing school, to which they give the name of a College "di Propaganda." We worshipped in the forenoon in the English chaplaincy; and Mr. Bonar preached upon Acts viii. 8, "There was great joy in that city." Pleasant it was to pray and then proclaim the Gospel in a place to which the Lord had once spoken by name. In the afternoon, we joined the worship of the American Missionaries in the Dutch Consulate, and then reached Bouja in time to enjoy part of Mr. Jetter's evening service. These Sabbaths in a foreign land were seasons of peculiar refreshing. On more than one occasion also we enjoyed a week-day evening service in the village, maintained by our American brethren, and attended by an audience of about fifty individuals. Mr. Bonar preached one evening on Isaiah xii.; and these pleasant meetings brought vividly to mind the similar services in our own parishes at home.

* 2 Tim. i. 1& t Rev. ii. 10.

n. |» K-iuu lcarning Ucic ia laugui uy cxpel iencf, UU1 lllg

all hours of the day, the meaning of Anacreon's references to the " raixif" or grasshopper, which in a manner peoples the trees and chirps incessantly, as he describes:

(" King-like you sit upon your tree and sing.") Oftentimes during our stay Mr. Lewis gave us interesting information in regard to his labours among the Jews at a former period. One evening, telling us of his residence in Italy, he related the case of a young Jewess of Ancona, whose name was Sarina. She was a teacher, and being the only Jewess of any education in the town, even boys were put under her tuition. Besides Italian, she knew Latin and some other languages, and could teach geography and other branches of education. Though occupied with the children from eight in the morning till eight at night, she used, as soon as her work was done, to come to the house of Mr. and Mrs. Lewis to converse with them. They found her a most amiable and intelligent young woman, willing to listen to the teaching of a Christian instructor. She read Christian books which they lent her; translated them into Italian; and told them frankly the ignorance and wretched state of Jewesses in Ancona. On their departure, the grief of Sarina was extreme; indeed, she would gladly have accompanied them, but she had an aged mother depending on her exertions for support. They heard no more of her till recently, when they received notice of her death. She died about two years ago; and the last book she was found translating was one "on the Truth of Christ tlanity."

* Ezek. xxxiii. 30. Jews not unfrequently meet with at the hands of both Turks and Greeks. He saw a Greek go to a Jew who was walking before him, and strike him so violent a blow, that the poor Jew burst into tears, but made no resistance. Mr. B. went up and asked the Greek why he had been guilty of this unprovoked outrage? "Because he is a hater of Christ" was the cool reply of the Greek. A few days ago, also, a Jew was bathing in the sea along with a Turk. In plunging into the water, the Turk struck upon an anchor, which caused his death. The Jew was immediately imprisoned on the charge, "that perhaps he was the cause of the accident;" and no one could tell what might be the result. How truly did Moses foretell of Israel, "thou shalt be only oppressed and crushed alway." *

Our most important information regarding the Jews was obtained from Giovanni Baptist Cohen, a converted Israelite, who is employed by the London Jewish Society to labour among his brethren in Smyrna. Not long after our arrival we called upon him, when he kindly offered to visit the Jews along with us. Accordingly, on Saturday (Aug. 10) we set out at six o'clock in the morning. As we went along we met a considerable number of Jews at that early hour returning from synagogue worship. These, we were told, had already finished their morning service; for, being more devout, or at least adhering more rigidly to the letter of the Scriptures than their brethren, they have service before sunrise, referring to Ps. lxxii. 5, as their authority, "they shall fear thee before the sun"—that is, before the sun rises, as they under

* Dent, xxviii. 33 .

JEWS—MR. COHEN. 331

stand the Hebrew. We met also more females on their way to the synagogue than we had usually observed in other places. All the synagogues were clean and commodious, with porches before the entrance for the sake of coolness. These were often shaded by the spreading vine, and many of the worshippers were reading their prayers under its shelter. There appeared to be sincere devotion among them, for their attention was not diverted from the service by the entrance of strangers.

The Jewish population of Smyrna is about 9000, and that it is on the increase is proved by the fact that they are at present building an additional synagogue, although they have already ten or twelve. The only missionary here is Mr. Cohen, mentioned above, a native of Constantinople, who is a great linguist, and able to speak with some ease, Italian, French, Spanish, Greek, English, Turkish, Armenian, and Hebrew. His wife is a Sciote by birth, one of those who were rescued from the massacre, and educated in England. He has free intercourse with all the Jews, and they return his visits.

While we were with him in the forenoon, three intelligent and respectable Jews called, who spent fully three hours in conversation. He led them to speak of Isaiah liii. Turning up the works of Jarchi (or Rashi,) they were very free in their remarks on that commentator; and one of the three on going away, said that " he was more than two-thirds persuaded that Christianity was true." Mr. Cohen told us after they had gone, that their state of mind was not an uncommon one among the Jews of Smyrna. He knew at least five families in the town, who were inclined to leave Judasim to this extent, that they would admit Jesus as Messiah, but keep up their national rites and customs. Most of these were careless till he visited them; but now they diligently read the Old Testament, and allow him to read to them out of the New.

In the evening, a great many Jews called; they sat in the lower room, and at the door, which stood open to the street.* One of them, a very liberal-minded Jew, called our attention to a Roman catholic priest who was passing by, and remarKed, "Our rabbis and these priests are alike impostors."

Mr. Cohen has been ten years here, and has found great freedom of inquiry among the Jews. At the same time, no sooner is a baptism proposed than the Jews stir • See Ezek. xxxiii. 3"; and p. 329.

332 JEWISH SCHOOL—3ALONIKI.

up the Government, and the convert is obliged to leave the place. Several, however, have been baptized in the Greek and Romish churches, because the members of these communions have means of protecting them.

The Jews have many schools, but their system of teaching is most deplorable. No enlightened attempt has ever been made for the instruction of the Jewish children under fourteen years of age. Missionaries might establish schools with good hope of success, because these children are cruelly used, as well as ill instructed, under their present teachers; and the Old Testament being made their school-book, the teacher might explain it, and ground the whole truth thereon. The inducements of a solid education in Hebrew grammar, and perhaps in some of the modern languages, would lead them to come. The common people among the Jews are simple, not very superstitious, and easily affected by kindness. It would be important to instruct the Jews in the grammar of the Spanish; and a cheap edition of a Spanish dictionary and grammar would be of great use. They have about thirty libraries in the town, all on a private footing, and of no great importance. Several individuals, well qualified to judge, spoke much regarding the want of good tracts suited to the capacities and modes of thinking of those for whom they are intended. Mr. Lewis mentioned the case of an English tract translated into Italian so literally that it was unintelligible; and many are unacceptable because not idiomatic. On the other hand, a polished Italian will frequently be induced to read a tract, if only it be written in elegant Italian for the sake of the language.

From various individuals we heard of Saloniki, the ancient Thessalonica. Drs. Black and Keith had proposed to visit it; but were not able to accomplish their intention. The Jewish community there are very exclusive, quite a nation by themselves. They have great influence in the city, and their numbers are reckoned at 50,000. Their real condition could be known only by long residence among them, for they are reserved, and keep aloof from all strangers. On this account, the reports of merchants cannot be very accurate. They are very strict Jews. Many poor people among them spend their time in reading and study, receiving money for their support by charity. They publish many books, almost every Jew there aspiring to be the author of some treatise. They study astronomy, and publish the best Jewish these are rich, possessed 01 large magazines or stores, and under European protection, so that they are not affected by the common inducements of a worldly nature; but they are weary of the bondage of the rabbis. They said that they have read the New Testament, and found in it nothing against keeping Saturday as the Sabbath; and the Saturday they will not consent to renounce, for they believe that they would be traitors to their people, if they threw off this mark of nationality. They proposed to keep their feasts also as memorials that Jehovah, whom they now worship as Messiah, is the same God who redeemed them of old. They would call themselves " Believers in Messiah," but not " Christians" because all whom they have ever known under the latter name are given to idolatry and immorality. If a church were formed on these principles, and had the sympathy of influential friends in England, they have no doubt but hundreds would soon join them. Mr. Caiman thought them well versed in Scripture, but that they did not feel the burden of sin. Their assent to Christianity is intellectual; they would embrace it as a deliverance' from a superstition of which they are weary. The same feeling begins to prevail among the Jewish females. An old Jewess, named Medina, whom Mr. Cohen was instrumental in arousing to a concern about her soul, has become very zealous in doing good to others, delights in reading the Scriptures, visits other Jewesses, and has succeeded in leading many of them to her views.

(Aug. 15.) We were able to devote a day to visiting the Jewish schools. One of them meets in an extensive two of these thick whips hanging in his room, along with this miniature bastinado. The whips seemed wel l used, being worn to fibres at the end. We saw also the stocks, ready for fixing the feet of those who were to be less severely punished. The boy whom we rescued from punishment was guilty of absenting himself from the school—a line of conduct we did not much wonder at, when such was the teacher and his discipline. We bought from one of the teachers a whip and a bastinado, as memorials of Jewish darkness. The rabbi who taught the highest class, where the Talmud is the text-book, put many questions to us about the Jews in Palestine, and said, "he himself was a poor man, but had sent already 200 piastres to them."

In reviewing the information we obtained regarding the Jews here, we feel convinced that Smyrna presents much to invite the attention of a missionary. Independently of the interest attached to the place as having been the seat of a Jewish community since the Christian era,—independently, too, of its being a place whose associations with the Apocalypse, and with the history of Polycarp, give it a peculiar interest in the eyes of every Christian, it deserves regard on account of the large population of Jews residing in the city and neighbouring villages, and the vast numbers from other countries who visit it from time to time. Jews call at this port from all parts of Asia, as well as from Constantinople and its vicinity. It might yet become the door of access even brethren. But these obstacles are to be met with every where, and are such as a devoted missionary is entitled to disregard, if "the fields are white for harvest." We are convinced that the Presbyterian form of our Church would present no obstacle, and especially that the want of a liturgy would rather be an advantage than otherwise. It is the expressed feeling of many among the Jewish converts that a liturgy reminds them of their former bondage. The field is nearly unoccupied, and yet it is most inviting. We would look for interesting results from the efforts and prayers of thorough Christian labourers in this place, who would not needlessly offend Jewish prejudices on the one hand, and who, on the other, would be as far from trifling with the awful truths of the Gospel, by letting men suppose themselves Christians on any other ground than thorough conversion. Oh that another Barnabas could be sent to Smyrna, and another Apollos, fervent in spirit, and instructed in the way of the Lord!

Smyrna must ever possess attractions to all who are interested in ancient Asia, or in the churches of the East. Being the chief city of this region because of its commerce, it forms a very important centre for missionary labour. There are, accordingly, missionaries from several societies established in it. With one of these, Mr. Jetter, from the Church Missionary Society, we became intimately acquainted during our stay at Bouja, and received much interesting information from him. He told us that the messengers of the gospel have carried on their

336 THE SEVEN CHURCHES SMYRNA—PERGAMOS.

labours in this part of the world for thirty years; and yet that little success has attended them. Not a single instance of the conversion of a Mahometan has occurred The eye of man can discern few real followers of the Lamb among native Christians, whether of Greek or Armenian churches, in Smyrna. But to revive the truth among them is the main effort of all the missionaries that have laboured here. The Spirit seems at present withheld, and the opposition of man is great .

We repeatedly sought for information in regard to "the seven churches of Asia," though we had no opportunity of visiting any of them but Smyrna. In regard to Smyrna, we have already given some details. It has a population of 120,000, of whom 9000 are Jews, 1000 Europeans, 8000 Armenians, and perhaps 20,000 Greeks. Many of the latter are falling under the sway of Rome. The Armenians and Greeks form the nominal church of Smyrna, the degenerate successors of the tried but richly endowed Christians of the days of John; yet it is the most flourishing of all the cities where the seven churches stood, perhaps because God remembers his faithful winesses who here poured out their blood for his caust May it not be for a similar reason that Pergamos, where Antipas was his faithful martyr, is still a prosperous town! If is now called Bergamo, and contains 1500 Greeks,and 200 Armenians, amidst 13,000 Mahometans. It istheonly town of the seven besides Smyrna that retains any Jewish population; and of these it has a hundred. There are in it remains of an ancient church called St . John's, and many extensive ruins of theatres, temples, and walls. It stands in a magnificent plain, with a strong acropolis, occupying a majestic hill above the city. This was the place where " Satan had his seat," commanding the whole of the gay and rich city at his will, more effectually than did the frowning battlements of the acropolis. It was the most warlike of all the cities, being the capital of the kingdom of Attalus, and hence is addressed in a warlike strain by him who had the sharp two-edged sword.*

Ephesus, on the other hand, has disappeared from being a city, and its "candlestick is quite removed out of its place." It is not the ruins called Aisaluk which mark the true site, but some remains near that spot, at the foot of the hills Corissus and Prion. This latter hill is said

* Rev. ii. 12.

saints which were at Ephesus, exhibiting Christ's love in order to keep theirs alive, were forgotten.} The elders did not imitate his tears and labours ;|| the hearts of the people were no more stirred by the fervour of Apollos ;1T and even the Epistle from Patmos, and the residence among them of the beloved disciple till the day of his death, could not prevent their falling from their "first love." All her faithful ones have long ago been removed to " eat of the fruit of the tree of life that is in the midst of the Paradise of God."**

Thyatira, called now Akhisar, or "white castle," stands in a plain embosomed in groves, and is still, as in former days, a busy scene of manufactures. The dyers of the town are noticed in ancient inscriptions, and our friend Mr. Calhoun had very lately verified what has been observed by other travellers, that to this day the best scarlet dye in all Asia is produced here, and sent to Smyrna and other places for sale. Lydia's occupationff remains characteristic of the place to this day. Two churches, one belonging to the Greeks, the other to the Armenians, keep up the memory, though they do not retain the living faith, of the primitive Christians.

Philadelphia is now called Alah-Sher, "the high city, or city of beauty," because of its splendid situation in the midst of gardens and vineyards, with the heights of Tmolus overhanging it, and in front one of the finest plains in Asia. Its comparatively retired situation might be one of the means used by God in fulfilling the promise,

• Acts xix. 29. t Acta Tat. 24. t 2 Tim. i. 1&

$ Eph. iii. 18,19. II Act* tx. 31. V Acts xviii. 25

•• Rev. ii. 7. tt Acta xvi. 14.

whose walls the throng of formal worshippers—who had only " a name to live"—used to assemble.

Laodicea, now Eski-hissar, or "old castle," stands upon a hill. Some interpreters discover a literal fulfilment of the words, "I will spue thee out of my mouth,"} in the earthquakes which often occur here, and the fire that then bursts up from the ground. But even the utter emptiness of a place once so populous, is an exact fulfilment of the threatening on the city; though it is only that eye which penetrates the shades of death, and sees the self-satisfied Laodicean cast out as vile into utter darkness, that can discern how full has been the accomplishment. It has remains of three theatres, and of a circus that could contain 30,000 people—places, perhaps, occasionally visited by the lukewarm Christians there, who saw not the sin of tasting the world's gaieties, while they also " drank the cup of the Lord." In Paul's days, they were a people separate from the world, a people for whom he had much wrestling in prayer ;|| but the current of the world was too strong for the generation that succeeded.

Besides these seven churches, we find in Scripture mention made otllierapolis,^ seen from one of the ruined theatres of Laodicea, now Pambouk Kalasi, i. e. "cotton tug near mem. During the year 1838, the plague, smallpox, and other diseases, carried off most of the children in Asia Minor under two years of age. In one part of the plain of Cayster, where 300 yoke of oxen used to be employed, the ground is now tilled by only twelve. A village near Smyrna, including the Aga's house, and 1200 acres of land, was lately offered for sale for 20,000 piastres, a sum equal to 200/. In fact, the country is drained of its inhabitants, by the frequent draughts on their young men to serve in the army. The Governors complain that they cannot get people for any service. Every thing indicates that the strength of the empire is gone, and that the time is at hand when "the waters of the great river Euphrates shall be dried up."f This state oP things has contributed very much to direct the attention of English Christians in Turkey to the study of prophecy, and to make them watch every new sign of" the way of the kings of the east being prepared," and the glorious events that are to follow. Few, however, of our American brethren there have been led to take any deep interest in these views.

* Rev. iii. 10. t Rev. iii. 12. t Rev. iii. 4.

i Rev. iii 16. II Col. ii. 1; iv. 15, 16. 1 Col. iv. 13.

With our friends at Bouja we enjoyed many pleasant arid profitable walks, breathing the soft "Ionian air." The whole district is interesting. Mount Corax rises in the neighbourhood of the village, and beyond this range appear in the distance the splendid heights of Tmolus, now called Bous-dag. On the north is Mount Sipylus, Meles, on whose banks Homer is said to have been born, and from which he got the name " blind Melesigenes." A cave is shown where, it is said, he used to seek retirement. Water flows in this channel during all the summer, but its course is very short; its source being in the neighbouring hills, from which it flows through the town into the sea. The most picturesque object about Smyrna is the splendid grove of cypresses which wave over the large Turkish burying-ground, near the town. These handsome trees shoot up majestically to the sky, and cast their dark shade around. Beneath them, as far as the eye can reach through the sombre light of the grove, are innumerable small figures above the graves. These are short pillars about two feet high, (reminding one of the figure of the Roman god Terminus,) on whose top is carved the head of the deceased, with the coloured turban or fez that characterized him in his lifetime. The most frequent colours are red and yellow. Those painted green cover the graves of Moslems who were descendants of the prophet. The inscriptions on the tombs are commonly written in an oblique direction, for the convenience of the passer by, that his eye may more easily run along the lines. Many of them are adorned with gilding, reminding us of the practice of the Pharisees, " Ye garnish the sepulchres of the righteous." f Mahometans never bury more than one body in a grave, so that the

* AcU xx 4. t Rev. xvi. 12.

* Dr. Keith visited this town during the few days that he and Dr Black spent in Asia Minor, and there he met with au interesting young Iew. who sremed in search of the truth.

T Matt, xxiii. 29.

SMYRNA STREETS. 341

number or gravestones is immense. At such a spot there is awful solemnity in the thought of the resurrection, when those myriads of sleeping dead, who once worshipped the false prophet in their blindness, shall "hear the voice of the Son of God, and come forth."

We used to enter the city by a street which is watered by a branch of the Meles, or an artificial canal supplied from it . In this street the water occupies the place of the causeway; trees grow on each side of it; and the houses are behind the trees. Coolness is thus secured to the inhabitants at all hours of the day. We thought of the street, river, and trees mentioned in Revelation ;* and of the words of David, " There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God."f The constant peace and refreshment afforded by God's love and favour are faintly shadowed forth by these images, which an Eastern could fully appreciate. In one street we passed a fountain, erected by some benevolent Mahometan long ago, as the Turkish inscription indicates. The water gushes plentifully into a trough; and for the greater convenience of passengers, there is a large spoonlike cup attached to the well by a chain. No one injures or thinks of removing this. The " bowl is not broken, nor its cord loosed"J a* tne fountain. The houses are built sometimes after the Italian and sometimes after the Eastern fashion. A luxuriant vine is ofttimes trained over the portico, and a spreading fig-tree occupies the middle of the court. The inhabitants need every such means of refreshment, for the town in summer is very hot. There is, however, a pleasant breeze called Inbat (that is tfitan,, "incoming") which generally visits the town in the afternoon, and affords a time for refreshment in the hottest part of the season.

In one of our walks, Mr. Riggs gave us some illustrations of Scripture from what he had seen in Greece. There every shepherd uses a large wooden crook, with which he guides and defends the sheep. This is the shepherd's rod mentioned in the Psalm and by the prophet.} It is a common mode of expression among the Greeks to say " such a thing happened three days ago" when they mean that a day only intervened. They include the two extreme days, as if they had been complete,—a mode of speech which illustrates the words of our Lord in Matt .

• Rct. xxii 2. t Pa xlvi. 4.

t Eccl . xii. 6. $ Ps. xxiii. L Mic. vii. 14

new kingdom of Greece. The ratriarcn is auuwcu uy the Turkish Government to do what he pleases, so that he may use his arbitrary power to procure the death of any persons opposed to his authority. In Greece, however, Mr. Riggs found that at Napoli, where he was formerly stationed, and indeed throughout the whole kingdom, the Greeks are far less under the control of their priests, and are often anxious to be taught the truth. Occasionally at Napoli the Bishops came to hear the preaching of the word, and a few of them seemed to have real concern for their own souls. There is nothing of this kind in Turkey. The candlestick has been entirely removed from Smyrna, as far as vital religion among the Greek Christians is concerned. They are thieves, liars, and immoral in a thousand ways. The American Missionaries print a Penny Magazine in the Greek and Armenian languages, which has a considerable circulation; but this is an instrument of little value in the way of saving the souls of the people, as its pages contain only general and scientific information.

On Saturday morning (Aug. 9), in company with Mr. Riggs, we enjoyed a pleasant walk up the hill that rises behind the city, where are ruins of the old castle, and where, in the opinion of many, was the original site of Smyrna. We visited the Stadium, where Polycarp was martyred for the truth, A. D. 167. It stands on the deathrand received the crown of life. * The Epistle to the Church of Smyrna was to us doubly interesting now. A voice seemed still to echo round the spot, "Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer!" A grave close by, over which a tall cypress grows, is said to be the grave of Polycarp.

* John xxi. 12. See original dj>«mj'rari.

In the narrative of the martyrdom given in the Epistle by the Church of Smyrna, it is recorded that the Jews distinguished themselves by gathering fuel for the pile; and it is a singular fact, coinciding with this notice, that at present the Jewish quarter lies close under the hill where the stadium stands, and the Jews are much employed in gathering and selling torch-wood.

We wandered on to the ruins of a theatre. A fine arch, forming the gateway, remains in tolerable preservation. We could distinctly trace the walls, that enclosed a wide circular space; and near the stadium some remains of the ancient wall of the town are still found. Part of the castle also is of great antiquity, and on the hill to the south of it is the Temple of Esculapius.

The prospect from this hill is very splendid. The town below is seen to the greatest advantage. The houses are mostly red-tiled, but the tall dark cypress grove, and the clusters of the same tree shooting up in different quarters, with the calm sea beyond, give the town a rich and noble appearance. There is a full view up to the very top of the gulf, with Bournabat and other villages on the

* Rev. it 10.

country with his pruning-hook in his hand, a long piece of iron curved toward the point. This pruning-hook might once have been a spear, and could easily be converted into one again. The prophets attended to the nature of things when they said, "They shall beat their spears into pruning-hooks;" * and again, reversing the command, "Beat your pruning-hooks into spears."f We entered one of the Greek churches at the time when the people were assembling for worship; for all the Eastern churches begin their Sabbath at six on the Saturday evening. The worshippers were summoned together, not by the ringing of bells (for this privilege is not enjoyed by any of the Christians here except the Roman Catholics), but by beating time, on a plank of wood, somewhat in the same way in which our workmen in towns are summoned to their meals. As the people entered one by one, they kissed the pictures on the wall of the church, and crossed themselves with three fingers. Near another church we met many Armenians on their way to worship. The most remarkable part of their costume is the head-dress worn by the men, called the kalpack. It is like a four-cornered cushion surmounting their cap, and appears very singular to a stranger.

On reaching our dwelling, we received intelligence of an awful conflagration which had taken place in Constantinople, by which 30,000 or 40,000 persons, it was said, had been made houseless. We were the more interested in this information, as we were making preparations for

• Isa. ii. 1. t Joel iii. 10.

SAIL FROM SMYRNA. 345

visiting that great city. During the second week of our stay at Bouja, Mr. M'Cheyne's health was much improved; yet it was thought advisable that Mr. Bonar and Mr. Caiman should leave him, in the mean time, under the care of our kind friends, and should themselves proceed together to Constantinople by the first steamer, to carry on their inquiries there, till by the blessing of God their brother should be enabled to join them.

It was not without melancholy apprehensions that we parted for a season, and with unfeigned regret we took leave of our truly kind and never-to-be-forgotten friends at Bouja. But, remembering how the Lord had helped us hitherto, we trusted Him again, and went forward.

In the afternoon of August 17, we embarked in an Austrian steamer called the Stamboul. On the deck, we found ourselves in the midst of people of all nations, but the most were Turkish soldiers, and Greek and Armenian merchants. Many Turkish women sat apart with their faces veiled, and a group of poor Israelites were seated between the cabin door and window, a part of the vessel so frequently occupied by Jews, that we began to call it the Jewish quarter. Pacing up and down the deck were two American officers, belonging to a vessel near at hand; next were three Englishmen, then two Maltese, some Germans, and two or three Frenchmen. The engineers were from our own land, one an Irishman and .the other a Scotchman, and both had their wives on board with them. A Hungarian, with a large beard and whiskers, and a broad brimmed hat, kept himself in perpetual motion. Three Moors also, and four Persians, who wore high sugar-loaf caps, attracted our attention, and still more, two Turkish Dervishes, marked by their conical white hats. There was something indescribably saddening in the thought which often rose in our mind, that of all this company perhaps not one knew the Saviour. There is a "veil spread over all nations." Yet in such a state of things is the light suddenly to shoot from Zion over the whole world, " For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee; and the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising."*

(Aug. 18. Sabbath.) About three in the morning we were off Lesbos, now called Mytilin, where Sappho and

* In. \x. 2, 3. riches both of the wisdom and knowieugeo. ward the top of this same gulf stood Adramyttium,\ one of whose vessels bore Paul to the coast of Lycia in his voyage to Rome.

About seven A. M. we were opposite the Island of Tenedos, and our early classical recollections came here fresh to mind—

Est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fami
Insula, dives opum, l'riami dum regna manebant.$
(" In sight of Troy lies Tenedos, an isle,
While fortune did on Priam's kingdom smile.
Renowned for wealth.")

It is six miles from the coast of Troy, and is considerably elevated above the sea, rising at the north-west extremity into an eminence. At the time we passed, many vessels lay at anchor wind-bound, and unable to enter the Dardanelles. We continued sailing along the coast off Troas, the morning being calm and cool, with a bright sunshine, and a deep blue sky. Soon we found ourselves in the midst of the combined English and French fleets, consisting of about twenty ships of the line,—more majestic than those of Greece, which once carried its thousand warriors to Dium. They lay there watching the movements of Russia on Constantinople. The large island of Lemnos was toward the west on our left, and before us to the north-west Imbros, behind which lies Samothrace.H But still a deeper interest was excited in

Acts xx. 14. t Acts xx. 13. t Acts xxvii. 2.

Virg. i£n. ii, 21. II Acts xvi. 11.

kindly pointed out the different localities, and added, that at present English officers might be found fishing every day in these classical streams.

In a few hours we entered the Hellespont, now called the Straits of the Dardanelles, and passed between the far-famed Sestos and Abydos. Near this, the strait is said to be seven stadia, or not quite a mile in breadth, so that two mighty continents seem to approach and gaze upon each other. The modern castles of Romania and Natolia, which have come in place of the ancient towns, are of no great height; their situation is in low ground near the water-edge; but under skilful management their command of the strait would be complete. Each fortress is furnished with more than 100 pieces of cannon. It was here that Leander immortalised himself by his adventurous exploit. It was here, too, that Xerxes, the king that " stirred up all against the realm of Grecia,"} built his bridge of boats, joining Asia to Europe, in order to transport his enormous hosts. When he surt veyed them lining the shores of both continents, he wept in the vexation of his proud heart, because in a hundred years not one of all that multitude would remain to

• Acts xvi. 8, 9. t 2 Tim. iv. 13.

t Acts xx. 7. $ Dan. xi. 2.

far north of the banks of the stream yEgospotamos, at the mouth of which Lysander gave a fatal blow to the power of Athens. The Sea of Marmora, the ancient Propontis, opened upon us; but night came on, and we sailed through it in darkness.

At half-past five in the morning we came in sight of Constantinople, and every moment as we advanced nearer the scene broke upon us with increasing magnificence. The situation is splendid. Having the straits of the Dardanelles for its gate on the south, and the Bosphorus for its gate on the north, it could rest securely on its seven hills, and look around on all its prosperity undisturbed by the fear of an enemy. The morning sky was cloudy, but this of itself was delightful to us, who had scarcely seen a cloud for nearly "Tour months. It was like a pleasant summer morning in Scotland, when the mist is still lying on the hills, and the clouds are lingering on the face of the heavens. The first part of the city which meets the view upon entering the Bosphorus from the south, is called Stamboul. Here the massy dome of St. Sophia, and graceful minarets of every kind, crowd upon the sight. Palaces, mosques, and baths, seem to be without number in this renowned capital. And then the rich verdant trees that surround so many of the white marble buildings, and the clear blue sea, which like a deep full river laves the shore and flows up our quarters in Romboli's inn, to which we had been directed. The inn, however, was already more than full; the recent conflagration and an overflow of travellers having united to fill it, so that no vacancy was left for us. Alone in this great city, we allowed a young man, a Maltese, to guide us to a lodging in Galata, two porters (here called hamals) bearing our luggage. It was by no means a desirable locality. The American Missionaries, however, Mr. Goodell and Mr. Calhoun, on hearing of pur arrival, sought us out that same day, and insisted upon our taking up our residence with them in Pera. These American brethren and their families were full of kindness and brotherly love; and under their roof we enjoyed all the comforts of a home. From their fellow-labourers also, Mr. Adger and Mr. Hamlin, we received unremitting attention.

We went out in the afternoon to visit the English Consul, riding up the steep streets on horseback, as the day was excessively hot. Somewhat to our surprise, the state of the public mind in the city was calm; Ibraim Pasha's recent victory at Nezib had made no impression. Indeed, the Turks seem to take every thing with apathy. Sometimes an order is issued on occasions of political excitement, forbidding two people to be seen together in the streets talking about the weather; in other words, about the state of public affairs. But at this time there was less excitement in Constantinople than in Smyrna, and less known in public of the real state of things.

350 CONSTANTINOPLE TURKISH CARRIAGES.

In the streets we noticed the Turkish carriages for ladies, called arabah, drawn by two horses, and not much raised above the ground. The windows have no glass, but curtains, resembling veils. Within, it is said, the sides are often ornamented with mottoes and curious devices, by which some have illustrated the description given of the chariot in the Song, "the midst thereof being paved with love." * Wagons drawn by oxen are as common on the streets here as at Smyrna. We saw melons growing on the house-tops, in the very heart of the town, and many vines trained up the walls of houses. The buildings are in general miserable. Often the lower part of the house is of marble (brought like common stone from the neighbouring islands), while all above is a clumsy shed of wood. We passed one of the Dervish establishments, resembling that of a monastery. It was that of the Dancing Dervishes; some of whom were sauntering in the court, wearing the round, high cap, a mark by which they are easily known.

In the evening, we walked among the ruins occasioned by the fire. Several tents, chiefly of Armenian merchants, who had lost their all, were pitched among the smoking ruins. One of these was overheard to say, as a funeral passed by, "Would to God that I too had been carried to my grave." f In the bitterness of his soul, he unconsciously imitated the impatient burst of Job.

In our way home, we observed several persons wrapt in their hyke, preparing to sleep under the open sky. Indeed, it is a frequent custom here, and in all the East, to sleep in the open air all night, and this may explain the case of the young man who followed Christ, "having a linen cloth cast about his naked body." \

(Aug. 20.) We were visited by Mr. Farman, the Jewish Missionary of the London Society, who brought along with him a converted German Jew, named Merkuson. Another Jewish convert, since dead, named Jeruschalmai, was prevented by domestic circumstances from accompanying them. From them we received much valuable information with regard to the Jews. But as yet, no one has been able to obtain accurate statistical information as to the numbers and condition of the Jewish population of Constantinople. They reckon their numbers, including the Jews of Scutari, Ortakoy, and the

* Song iii. 10. t Job iii. 30, 21. t Mark m. 51.

fifteen boys and as many girls might be persuaded to attend it at once. These remarks apply only to the German Jews.

In regard to the Spanish Jews, who constitute the mass of the population, they are very bitter in their enmity to Christianity. But if the experiment were tried with the others, it is possible that they also might be induced to follow the example set them by their German brethren.

The reason why the German Jews would be willing to send their children is, that they have brought with them to this country some of the spirit and principles of Germany—they know the value of education, and wish for it. If a German Christian lady were appointed female teacher of the school, it would not be objected to by the Jews. The expenses of a missionary in Constantinople are necessarily great; it is not uncommon to pay 400/. as the rent of a moderately-sized dwelling. But the great hinderance in the way of carrying the gospel to Israel here is the total want of protection to converts and inquirers ; for the Jews, being recognised by Government as a community, have power to get any one of their brethren banished if they desire it. If a Jew is con

* Rabbi Bibas of Corfu, whom we afterwards met, reduced the number to 20,000; but without stating any evidence to induce us to credit his assertion, lie may have meant the Jews of the city without those of the suburbs.

the blessing of God upon the teaching of the missionary, be made the beginning of a saving change.* There is a strict adherence to the Talmud among the Spanish Jews. They universally expect Messiah; and many of them had fixed the year 1840 as the era of his appearing.

Almost all the large synagogues have a school attached to them; and at Ortakoy, there are some large schools unconnected with the synagogues. In that quarter, they have frequently purchased Bibles from the missionary for their schools.

Mr. Farman told us that he had laboured here about four years; Mr. Schauffler, the American missionary to the Jews, (and the only one, we believe, that America has hitherto sent to the house of Israel,) had laboured longer; but had hitherto turned his attention chiefly to translation. To him, the Jew Merkuson owes his knowledge of the truth. Mr. Wolff was the first to visit his brethren in this great city. Then Mr. Farman and Mr. Nicolayson came, and decided upon its claims to be one of the stations of the London Jewish Society.

The Jews here have been superseded as bankers by the Armenians, and so have lost much of their influence with Government. They are poor and unlearned; making money is their great object. They have this re

* TV Basle "Freiind des Israel." in 1838, states that there were200 nr 300 Jews in Constantinople ready to become Christiana But the bove statement explains what kind of Christians they intended to be.

SAIL UP THE BOSPHORUS—SCENERY. 353

markable feature that they are very stationary, not moving from place to place. In Ortakoy alone reside 0000 Jews; in Scutari, 3000; in lsmid, the ancient Nicomedia, there are 1000, and in Brousa, 0000 or 7000.* The whole population of Constantinople is generally reckoned to be 500,000.

The same evening we walked out with Mr. Calhoun, and saw on the hill opposite to us the aqueduct of Valens, and the place where Mahommed, the conqueror of Constantinople, entered the city. We traced also what had been the course of the ancient city walls, and returned homewards through the now ruined houses of Pera.

Early next morning (Aug. 21) we enjoyed a sail up the Bosphorus in one of the light caiques to pay a short visit to Mr. Farman, the converted jew Merkuson accompanying us. His residence was at the village of Beyukdere, twelve miles, or almost the whole extent of the Bosphorus, from Pera. As we set sail the caiques were shooting across the harbour in all directions, and the scene varied every moment. We kept near the shore, in order as much as possible to avoid the strong current from the Black Sea, and yet we were so retarded by it, that though we set sail at half-past seven, it was half-past eleven before we reached Beyukdere. On our left the winter-palace of the Sultan, though irregularly tinuous line of houses for ten or twelve miles. The chimneys of many of them are in the form of a well-shaped pillar, which gives them an air of superior neatness. They are built close upon the water, and often there seemed not above a hundred yards of level ground between the sea and the steep hills that sloped up behind. On the brow of these hills gardens and cypress trees were waving, which give freshness and beauty to the scene, while the sea flows up to the very steps of many of the houses. We came to Ortakoy,—that is, " middle village," —a large suburb of the city, poor and ill-built, inhabited by Jews, but generally of the lower class. Beyond this is one ledge of sunken rocks, marked by an elegant marble fountain erected above them, and two other similar ledges of rocks, marked by groups of trees planted on them. The English Admiral, Sir JR. Stopford, passing the Seraglio, was saluted by twenty guns, the sound of which echoed deep among the surrounding hills. The water was all the time clear, and the channel pebbly to the very edge, the current often so strong as to compel the men to leave the caique, and instead of rowing, to drag the boat with ropes round the point where the current met it. We were met by a steamer from Trebizond coming down from the Black Sea. The sea-fowl were flying round us; and innumerable porpoises were sporting beautifully in the water. A breeze from the Black Sea and some overhanging clouds gave a grateful coolness to the air. White towers occasionally meet the eye perched on the sur

* We were here occasionally led by curiosity to compare our inquiries with the Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela, himself a Jew, of the 1-th century. He visited Constantinople some centuries before the Jews from Spain sought refuge in it; and tells us that there he found 2000 Jews living in Pera, ana 100 Karaites; and that the Jew6 suffered much at the hands of the Creeks, who used to excite the whole world against them. Fie then sailed southward by Rodosto, the ancient Bimnthe, where are still about 1000 Jews. "From this place (says he) Rodoste is distant a sea voyage of two days, where is a Jewish congregation of nearly 400 persons: whose chief men are Rabbi Moses, R. Abia, and K. Jacob. Then, two days distant is Gallipoli, where are about -200 Jews; and two days further, Calash, where are 50 Jews. * * Two days from thence is Mitilin, one of the islands of the sea, in which the Jews have synagogues at ten different places. And three days from this is Chios, where are nearly 400 Jews, whose chief men are Rabbi F.has, Rabbi Thoma, and Rabbi Sabbatai. It is here they find trees from which mastyx is gathered. Two days from this is Sainos. where bre nearly 300 Jews. Throughout these islands are many synagogues of the Jews. Three days off from this is Rhodes, where are about 400 Jews; and four days distant is Cyprus, in which is a synagogue of Jews who follow the customs of their fathers; but also another synagogue of Jews, called F.picurcans, or heretics of Cyprus. These latter are every where excommunicated by the oilier Jews, for they profane the evening of the (Jewish) Sabbath, and observe the evening of tha first day of the week."

BEYUKDERE VISIT TO MB. FARMAN—ARMENIANS. 355

rounding heights, and small forts, defended with cannon, stand close upon the shore. One remarkable fortress occurs near the head of the strait, said by some to be of Genoese origin, and by others to be the work of Const.antine. Its towers are not round but sharp-cornered, and the walls surmounted with a battlement. If it be the work of Constantine, it would be valuable and interesting, for no remains of that illustrious Emperor are to be found in his own city. Passing Therapia, where Lord Ponsonby, the British Ambassador, was then residing, we at length reached Beyukdere, pleasantly situated within sight of the opening into the Black Sea. After visiting Mr. Farman, and hearing more of his labours, both among the Jews and European residents, we returned to the city. The sail back occupied only two hours, the current being with us, and the whole trip cost us only thirty piastres.

In the evening one qf the American Missionaries, Mr. Hamlin, once assistant to the devoted Dr. Payson, but who has now consecrated himself to missionary labour, gave us some account of the Armenians of Constantinople. They are a social community, enjoying much domestic happiness. Their feelings against Protestantism are very bitter, and they hold no open communication with the missionaries. Still there seems to be a secret work of the Spirit begun in the hearts of some of them. One young priest is decidedly pious, and labours silently among his brethren. A rich banker, who had done all he could for the schools, continues to be enthusiastic in that object, and friendly to the missionaries. There used to be about sixty young men attending the missionary schools; and all these still manifest great kindness to the missionaries.

This night we remarked the howling of the dogs that prowl about the city. All foreigners are struck with their noise and unsightly appearance. They wander about the streets with fierce hungry looks, and occasionally even attack the lonely passenger in the night. They answer precisely to the description given in the Psalm, "At evening let them return, and let them make a noise like a dog, and go round about the city: let them wander up and down for meat, and grudge if they be not satisfied."*

Next day (August 22), accompanied by Mr. Calhoun, we took a caique at Tophana, and crossed the Golden Horn, hoping to get a sight of the interior of the famous • Pa lu. 14,15.

We then visited the mosque of St. Sophia, whose dome is the largest in the world. It is a magnificent building, but the Turks have added many of the present portions of the edifice. The mosque of Achmet stands adjoining it, having six minarets, covered, not with gilding, but with gold itself, which retains its lustre unimpaired. There is first an outer court, a space set round with trees; then, an inner court, or square, adorned with eight-and-twenty pillars, some of marble, others of granite, and the capitals of each finished off in the form of fringes. The pavement of the court is all marble, and in the centre a fountain pours forth its refreshing streams. Through the open windows we got a glance of the interior also, though a surly Turk from within commanded us to withdraw. The roof is supported by immense pillars, and is compacted of layers of stone; the walls are finely ornamented, and the floor spread with clean mats and carpets. Adjoining the mosque of Achmet is the square called Achmedan or Atmeidan, the ancient Hippodrome,, in which Belisarius was seen in the height of his renown, celebrating his victories by a Roman triumph. In the midst of it is an obelisk, brought from Egypt by the Emperor Theodosius, according to the inscription on the pedestal, written in Latin on one side, and in Greek on the other. Beside the inscription is carved a representation of the Emperor's procession, with the people presenting him with gifts, while he himIt is a favourite resort of devout Mahometans at the time of prayer.

We then visited the bazaar, which occupies a wide space. It consists of many streets and rows of shops, all roofed over for shade and coolness. In one street there is a row of tent-makers; in another, shoemakers; in another, sellers of pipes; in another, shops exhibiting every variety of rich cloth; then a row of silks and furs; so that almost every article of common use has a row of shops for itself. At one shop-door we asked for a dish of yaout,—that is, meat boiled with sauce and teban, and eaten with toasted bread. We did not find it possible to visit the slave-market .

In the afternoon, we crossed over to Scutari, the ancient Chrysopolis, which was the seaport of Chalcedon, on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus. Our chief object was to visit the howling Dervishes. They were beginning their devotions as we entered. At first they prayed moderately, in a kind of chanting voice. In about half an hour they formed a semi-circle round their chief, to whom each went up before taking his place, doing obeisance, while he took off the cap they wore, and replaced it with a lighter one, more fit for the part they were to act. They prayed with every imacinnble gesture and movement, the body, head, and hands all being in motion at once. From time to time their chief seemed to excite them to greater vehemence, by crying out with a loud scream, "Ullah, Illah!" in a tone that made us shudder. In a short time, the whole company were engaged in the

358 CONSTANTINOPLE—HOWLING DERVISHES.

most frantic movements. Some of them, nearly overpowered with their intense efforts, were gasping for breath, and all uttering a sound, "ocha, ocha," like one panting and ready to sink under exhaustion. A dancing dervish then entered the room, who sat down and played calmly on a pipe, while the rest kept time to the tune in the violent gestures of their bodies. Then three more appeared, and kept whirling about in a circle for twenty minutes without ceasing. The whole scene was a frightful exhibition of human impiety and fanaticism, and yet we were told that it is often much more extravagant and revolting. The missionaries at Brousa lately saw one of these dervishes work himself up to such a frenzy, that the foam came from his mouth, his face grew pale, and he fell on the ground, like the demoniacs mentioned in the New Testament, till one of his company restored him by beating on his breast, and other restorative processes. We observed hanging on the wall the instruments with which they used to torture themselves, like the priests of Baal. * There were hooks, and sharp-pointeid instruments, and wires that used to be thrust through their cheeks from side to side; balls also, attached to sharppointed spikes. These balls were made to strike the ground, and to recoil in such a way, that the spike struck its point into their breast. It required a decree of the late Sultan to put a stop to these self-torturing practices. Many persons came in to be blessed by the dervishes. As they entered, they kissed the hands of the chief . Two soldiers were among the number of the dervishes, and several soldiers came in to receive a blessing. One man, who had sore eyes, came forward to the chief, who prayed over him and sent him away. Clothes also and sick children were carried in to receive a blessing. And yet these dervishes are exceedingly immoral in their lives, being guilty of the grossest licentiousness. We witnessed this painful scene for about two hours, and learned to cry with more intense desire, "Have respect unto the covenant, for the dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of cruelty."

Close to Scutari stood the ancient Chalcedon, now called Kadikoy, "the village of the judges," in allusion to the famous Council once held within its walls, the Council which condemned the opinions of Eutyches, who held that there was but one nature in Christ . Crossing to Galata,

* 1 Kings xviii. 2&

them before us, to prevent us from making any attempt to cross the Russian frontier. Had he known that we were sent on a mission of Jove to Israel, he would no doubt have been still more determined in his refusal, for Russia holds Israel with a grasp as firm as that of Pharaoh; though the day is at hand when God "will say to the north, Give up." * We were thus obliged to give up the hopes of returning by Warsaw, and to make up our mind to shape our course through Cracow. Meanwhile, we occupied our time in fresh inquiries into the state of Israel in the city of Constantinople.

(Aug. 23.) Setting out for the Jewish quarter, we met two strong Circassians, wearing the caftan and conical Persian cap. We also met a Roman Catholic funeral; that of a young person. The priest walked before in his black dress, reading the prayers; many boys following him joined in the chant; and the bier was covered with flowers. We sailed up the Golden Horn, passing by a wooden bridge and a dockyard, in which we saw no more than two ships building and a few under repair. We landed at the Jewish quarter, called Huski, and soon got a pleasant young Jew, named Nisim, who spoke Italian, to be our guide. He knew no Hebrew, and had little of an Israelite in his character. He said he was anxious to be away from his countrymen and to get to England. We asked what he hoped to find in England; and, in reply, he showed us that the sum of his expec

* Iaa. xliii. 6.

We came to a synagogue standing on an eminence, and enclosed within a wall. It was not unlike one of our churches, well built, airy, and clean. The drapery in front of the ark was embroidered in a beautiful manner, and the lamps were handsome lustres of brass. There were sixteen synagogues in this quarter alone, and three in Pera. The Jews seemed very suspicious of us: they scarcely entered into conversation at all, but stood silent, and sullenly noticed what we did and where we went. With some difficulty we now found our way to the synagogue of the Karaite Jews, of whom there are about a hundred families here, all living together in one quarter, being despised and hated by the other Jews. Their synagogue is built in a low situation. You descend a stair, over which a vine is spreading its branches, and there find yourself in the area where the synagogue stands. Perhaps it is a satire on their fondness for the literal meaning of Scripture, but it is said—that the Karaites always have their synagogue low, that so they may literally use the Psalm. "Oat of the depths have I cried unto thee, O Iiord."\ The apartment was neat and clean, the floor covered with mats and carpets. We examined their copies of the Bible, and found one of the London Society's edition among them. They wear "the fringes" or Tsitsith, according to the commandment in Numbers,J of a different form from those of other Jews. It ia

• 1st. liv. 7. t Ps. cxxx. 1. t Num. xv. 3a

KARAITE SYNAGOGUE. 30

with them a sort of sash or girdle, at the two ends of which are fringes of white and blue,—not merely white threads, like that of the other Jews. We saw also the mezuzaU at the door of the synagogue, so that they are not altogether free from pharisaical traditions. But they have no Tephillin or phylacteries; on the contrary, they deride them, and call them "donkey-bridles." They have only one school for their children. Inquiring for the rabbi, we learned he was absent in Stamboul, so that we resolved to return on the morrow to get better acquainted with this interesting people, the Protestants of the house of Israel. We made inquiry of many Jews about the place which Joseph Wolff calls "the Valley of Job," and which he said that some Jews thought was "the land of Uz." There is such a spot, but none of the Jews connected it with that patriarch. It gets its name from a famous Saracen named Yob, who was killed in the valley in the great assault on Constantinople, and whose tomb was erected there. It is said that the spot of his burial was discovered in a miraculous manner, and a mosque has been built over it, called, after him, the Mosque of Yob, which is much frequented by devout Moslems.

(Aug. 24.) A little after five in the morning, we again sailed up the Golden Horn to Huski, and soon reached the Karaite Synagogue. The Jews were already met, in number about eighty persons. Their shoes were all piled up at the door, and they themselves seated upon the ground. A few who came in late seemed to show some reverence to the mezuzah on the door-post . All sat while reading their prayers; but when the Law was produced, all stood up in token of reverence, and then sat down again.* After reading the usual portion, in which two boys took the chief share, the rabbi, who had invited us to sit by his side, read a passage in Deuteronomy, and gave an oral exposition, of which Mr. Caiman took notes. The passage was Deut. xxi. 10—23. "From v. 10 to 15," the rabbi said, "there are given directions regarding the captive woman who was to be married to her Jewish conqueror; her hair was to be shaved, her nails pared, and her raiment changed." "Now (said he), the heart is to be kept with all diligence, for if we allow our hearts to think upon an object, then the desire to have it springs up." This he applied to the case of the

• See Neh. viii. 5.

Illll perSUIIS IIIIU IilCII IIUUaC», \U n IIUSC }»ii i y uilU ninrg

rity they had no evidence. The captive woman was obliged to make a profession of the religion of her conqueror before she could be married to him; but you see (said he) the chain of misfortunes that succeed when the profession is not a true one." He referred, in conclusion, to the wise provision of the Karaite Jews, that none be admitted into their communion, who have not passed through a probation of five years, during which time they are instructed, and their manner of life watched. If they are found to be sincere and faithful, then, at the end of that time, they are received as brethren, and married into one of their families.

There was no greater appearance of real devotion in the Karaite congregation than in other Jewish synagogues. They often spoke to each other even during prayer; and we observed that some of them fell asleep as they sat on the ground. When service was over, the rabbi, Isaac Cohen, invited us to his house—a clean and airy habitation; and after entering, according to the custom of the country, a servant brought us water and jelly. The rabbi is an elderly man, of some intelligence and learning—able to speak Hebrew fluently. He admitted the ignorance of his people, and highly approved of the proposal that Christians should institute schools among them, saying that lie would send his own son to be a scholar. He remarked that their sect had suffered less four copies remaining; the rest had been all disposed of to Karaites. Before taking leave, we purchased from him at a moderate price, the following works, all of them very rare, and connected with the Karaite Jews.

1. A Hebrew Prayer-book, used by the Karaite Jews.

2. A Hebrew Pentateuch, with a translation into the Tartar and Osmanli

Turkish language, used by the Karaite Jews. This is the work above mentioned of our friend R. Isaac Cohen.

3. A Commentary on the Books of Moses, by rabbi Joseph Solomon, a

Karaite Jew.

4. A Commentary on the Prophets, by rabbi Aaron, a Karaite Jew.

5. A Commentary on all the Commandments of the Old Testament, by

rabbi Klijah Bsitzi, a Karaite Jew.

All these are now deposited in the Library of the General Assembly of our Church.