312 LATIN CONVENT—MONKS—ESCAPE OF ANTONIO.
place for refreshment; and as we had hitherto seen al most nothing of the monks of Palestine, we were not unwilling for once to pay a visit to their secret recesses. Our visit to them was not like that of Paul to the Christians of Ptolemais, when he "saluted the brethren, and abode with them one day." * The main object of the visit, on either side, was that of giving and receiving s traveller's fare. No price is exacted, but the visitor is expected to leave behind an adequate remuneration for the provision furnished. The monks we found to be coarse men, with no appearance of seriousness, or even of learning. The news of the day seemed to form the whole of their conversation. We were led into a large hall, with a plain wooden table and benches round. Here half a dozen of the fraternity sat down with us, while two of them served. One repeated a Latin grace in a coarse irreverent manner, and then many dishes of solid food, fowls, meat, and vegetables, were brought in on a large board and handed round. The polite invitation to take our place at the table was, "Favoriaca noi" (" Do us the favour"). After dinner, one of their number left us to embark in a vessel that was to take him to the convent on Mount Carmel; the rest sat with us a while, and talked over our providential escape from the Bedouins.
Meanwhile, to our great joy, our servant Antonio made his appearance. The story of his adventure was very much what we had suspected. Having gone back to Sephourieh in search of the cloak, and not finding it, he rode quickly after us in order to regain our company. But meeting a woman on the road of whom he inquired the way, he was directed to a route different from that which we had taken. He had entered the valley at the very time when we were waiting for him at the old khan, and had not proceeded far, when six or eight Bedouin Arabs, fully armed and mounted on horseback, rushed out upon him. They demanded who he was— what he was doing there—where he was going—and where his company were. Antonio forged a story in reply, saying, that he was servant to a scribe, who had gone on before with a company of twelve men, and would be out of their reach. The Arabs said that he must come with them; and immediately with their long lances pricked his horse up to the hills. When thev had got him out of sight of the road, they tied him hand
* Acta xxi. 7.
of fear. From the same cause, his mouth was filled with bile, and his voice almost inaudible. As soon as the light of morning dawned, he came down from the tree, and found out the road to Acre. The first person he met was the Pasha's dromedary post, who gave him a small piece of clothing,—and then he reached a village where the people supplied him with more. After this he made out his way to Acre, and sought for us at the convent, where he found us to his unfeigned joy and ours. We could not but perceive the special providence of God in our escape, and again we had reason to sing as at Mount Tabor, " Our soul is escaped as a bird out of the snare of the fowlers; the snare is broken and we are escaped." Even the monks seemed to acknowledge the hand of God in it.
At night, we heard Antonio and the other servants of our company, singing a song of vengeance on the robbers. It was in the style of those songs we had usually heard from Arabs, a single voice leading, and then a chorus responding, with clapping of hands. It was to this effect—
Singh voice—" The curse of Allah rest!"
Chorus— "Upon the Bedouins."
Single voice—" The sword of Allah come!"
Chonu— "Upon the Bedouina."
In style, this resembled Psalm cxxxvi, though in send ment it was the reverse of its strain of thankful love.
We visited the English Vice-Consul, Mr. Finch, an intelligent Jew, who speaks German, Italian, and a little English. He showed us every attention, and when we told him the whole matter, his remark was, "that surely we were upon God's errand; otherwise God would not so protect us." He conducted us to the Governor, or Aga, a mild, placid old man, with an immense turban, and long beard, seated in state upon a carpet in one corner of his chamber. Taking off our shoes at the door,* we sat down on the floor, and related our story, Mr. Caiman and Antonio being the narrators. He caused his secretary to write it down, and promised to send twenty soldiers to the Wady Abilene to find out the robbers. Probably, he thought no more of the matter after we had left him. While we were in the court, a poor man came in to complain that his garden had been plundered by the Arabs. The days are not come when "violence shall no more be heard in thy land."f
We were anxious to visit the Jews of Acre. Meeting one in the bazaar, we invited him to partake with us of some melons with which we were refreshing ourselves. He consented, and three others soon joined us. They then led us to their synagogue, a very humble one, with a short inscription on a pane of glass above the door. About a dozen Jews gathered round, one of whom recognised us, having seen us at Tyre. They said that there are sixty of their brethren residing here. We had some interesting conversation with three young men, one of whom eagerly read a chapter in the New Testament, though his companion stood by, watching us very iuspiciously, and apparently uneasy at seeing his friend so employed. An old man then came into the synagogue, and mounted the reading-desk. He placed ajar of water beside him, then opened his prayer-book, washed his hands, and put on his Tallith. We were informed that he meant to spend six hours in prayer that day, and the jar of water was intended to keep his throat from becoming dry during his exercise of bodily devotion. How remarkably this illustrates the words of Christ, "Wo unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye, for a pretence, make long prayer; therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation."J
* Perhaps this oriental custom is derived from Exod. iii- i
t Isa. U. 1& t Matt, xxiii. M.
a high situation near the sea, and is surroundcu v»m palm-trees. A shepherd in the neighbourhood of this place was playing on his pipe at the head of his flock—a sweet soothing sound in the stillness of evening, and all the sweeter because so rarely heard in Palestine.
After one hour more we came to Boussa, situated in carse ground, and bordered with trees. Here the fertile plain of Acre ends, and the low range of swelling hills that form its eastern boundary for twelve or thirteen miles run out into the sea, forming a high rocky promontory. Looking back from the height, the view of the plain, enclosed by the hills on the one hand and the sea on the other, was rich and beautiful. The plain along the coast south from Carmel, the plain of Tyre, and the plain of Acre, are all very like each other, although the last seems to be the most fruitful.
The sun went down behind the Mediterranean Sea as we passed a small mined fort or khan on the highest point of Nakoura. The khan of Nakoura is nearly an hour further north, and we made haste to reach it before dark. The graceful gazelles were sporting along the shore, and bounding on the rocky heights above us. Sandys mentions that, in his time, leopards and boars used to come down from the brushwood of these hills, but we neither saw nor heard of any. We slept that night in a stubble-field near the khan of Nakoura; and
316 SHORE OP THE MEDITERRANEAN CAPE BLANCO.
early next morning were on our way, journeying north by the edge of the sea. The shore in this vicinity is often grand and picturesque, the white rocks being worn into curious forms by the incessant dashing of the waves; and in addition to the natural beauty of the scene, the associations of the past invest the very waters with a profound interest. One of our company thus expressed the impressions of the moment:—
These deep blue waters lave the shore
Of Israel, as in days of yore!
Though Zion like a field is ploughed,
And Salem covered with a cloud—
Though briers and thorns are tangled o'er.
Where vine and olive twined before—
Though turbancd Moslems tread the gate,
And Judah sits most desolate—
Their nets o'er Tyre the fishers spread,
And Carmel's top is withered—
Yet still these waters clasp the shore
As kindly as they did before!
Such is Thy love to Judah's race,
A deep unchanging tide of grace.
Though scattered now at Thy command.
They pine away in every land,
With trembling heart and failing eyes—
And deep the veil on Israel lies—
Yet still Thy word thou canst not break,
"Beloved for their fathers' sake-"
In a short time we came to a well-built and copious fountain, where we obtained a plentiful draught of delicious water. It had a pointed arch and Arabic inscription, and still bears the name of the great conqueror of Tyre, "Iscanderoon." Soon after leaving it, we found ourselves on the remains of an ancient causeway, said to be the work of Alexander the Great. This is the "Scalce Tyriarum" leading over a high rocky promontory of limestone, which here descends precipitously into the sea, the Album Promontorium or Cape Blanco, about eight miles from Tyre. The steps on the northern side are cut out of the rock with immense labour, and a solid parapet is left along the margin, over which we looked into the clear deep waters of the Mediterranean. We saw fish swimming about in great numbers at the base of the rocks, and over our heads the owl perched on solitary cliffs as in the days of the Psalmist.* From this
* P» cii. 6.
OLD TYRE RAS-EL-AIN. 317
point we began to search along the shore with deep interest for any remains of ancient Tyre. About half an hour/rom Cape Blanco, we came upon the ruins of some ancient place, where were several cisterns, but no distinct remains. These were the only traces we could find of any thing like a city along the bay south of Tyre.
Within an hour of Tyre, we turned aside from the shore to the right, to visit the famous pools said to have been made by Solomon for Hiram, King of Tyre. The place is called Itas-el-Ain, or " Head of the Fountain," evidently because it was the source from which Tyre was anciently supplied with water. It is about three miles from the gate of modern Tyre. There are four large and remarkable reservoirs, three of which we examined. They are considerably elevated above the plain by means of solid mason-work, and you ascend by steps to a broad border, on which you may walk round the water. The fountains springing up from beneath keep them constantly full. Two of them are connected with each other; the one measuring 17 yards by 15 at the water edge, the other 13 yards by 10. The third is a regular octagon, measuring 8J yards on each side. From the first two the water is conveyed by a fine old aqueduct to the rocky hill Marshuk, and from thence anciently to Tyre; but the only use that seems to be now made of the water of the largest one, is to turn a mill for grinding corn. The work is beautifully executed, and the abundance of water makes every thing around look verdant and beautiful, so that we lingered near enjoying the pleasant situation.
While we were refreshing ourselves with bread and lehan, a man from Tyre joined our party, who told us that, a few days before, a number of Jews from Saphet had come to take refuge in the town till the disturbances of the country should pass over. So truly are the words of Moses still undergoing their fulfilment, "Thou shalt find no ease, neither shall the sole of thy foot have rest."*
It was after midday when we set out again. We did not enter Tyre, but passed at a distance, nearly in the course of the old aqueduct. We came near the hill of Marshuk. which some have supposed to mark the site of Pake Tyrus; though this cannot he the case, for Strabo says that it lay thirty stadia to the south of the island, whereas Marshuk is less than a third of that distance to
* Deul. XTviii fi5.
318 TYRE TO SIDON SAREPTA.
the east of modern Tyre. Crossing the plain, we soon came upon the same track by which we had travelled in a contrary direction a fortnight before. At the bridge of Kasimieh, we were refreshed by a draught of goat's milk which some shepherds gave us. An hour before sunset, we came to that part of the plain overlooked by Sarfend, the ancient Sarepta. Two of us rode up the steep hill on which the modern village is built by a path worn deep in the rock. We visited the mosque, said to be erected over the widow's house where Elijah dwelt, and the cave beneath it, where a lamp is kept continually burning, and where miraculous cures are reported to have been performed. The view from the village commands the plain and the sea, and is very fine. A deep ravine on the south is clad with an olive-grove, and the hills around bear marks of having been at one time covered with the vine, for the terraces still remain. We passed through a village on the shore immediately opposite to Sarfend, called Ain-teen (" the well of the fig,") which some believe to be the true site of Sarepta.
The sun being set, we now pressed forward toward Sidon. The gazelles were gamboling on the rocky shore. Seven large stones stand on the roadside, of which a curious legend is told. It is said that these are seven Moslems turned into stone for pursuing a Christian, whose companions were guilty, but who himself was innocent. A little farther on is a cairn, or heap of stones raised over the tomb of a slave, who was executed on this spot for murdering and plundering passengers. It is customary for travellers to add a stone to the heap as they pass. Arriving at a khan called Ain-el-Burak, the owner, who was on the roof, invited us in,* but we thanked him and pressed on. The near approach to Sidon seemed peculiarly beautiful in the soft moonlight. A sweet fragrance was breathing from shrubs and flowers, and our road conducted us through groves of luxuriant trees, while the eye was not pained by the sight of dry dusty fields. We reached the gate of Sidon by ten o'clock, having been fifteen hours on horseback. We were too late for admission into the town, and had to encamp on the outside of the walls. The ground was so rocky and uneven, that it was with difficulty we managed to drive in the pins of our tents, but this did not prevent us from enjoying a refreshing sleep.
* See Prov. ix. 14, 15.
and their people, who spend the day in amusements and dissipation. We were anxious to reach Beyrout in time to visit the Jewish synagogue, for that was the day set apart for the commemoration of the destruction of the Temple, a remarkable occasion among the Jews. But in this we failed. We arrived, however, before the sun went down, and rode in at the gate filled with joy and thankfulness to God for permitting us to visit Galilee, and bringing us back in safety and peace.
(July 21. Sabbath.) In the forenoon, Mr. Bonar preached on John vii. 37, to a respectable audience in the spacious apartment of the American Consul. We afterwards attended the Sabbath-school in one of the Mission-houses, and had the pleasure of addressing a class of young Syrians who understood English. In the evening, Mr. M'Cheyne expounded Acts ix. in a large prayer meeting, at which the American brethren and their families were present. And thus we drank of "the streams from Lebanon," in a dry and thirsty land.
We now found that the next Austrian steamer wGuld sail for Smyrna in a week; so that we took up our abode again at the inn of Giuseppe, who paid us every attention. We occupied ourselves during this time, chiefly in making up our journals and writing home, and in the cool of the evenings enjoyed a quiet walk along the rocky beach. One evening we saw the funeral of a poor native. The body was carried out of the town, not in a coffin,
320 SAIL FOR SMYRNA.
but on a bier, lftce the widow's son at Nain.* A few mourners followed, lamenting him with occasional cries. Another evening, we paid a short visit along with one of the merchants of the town to Sir Moses Montefiore and his lady, who were here waiting for a vessel to carry them to Egypt.
In the middle of the week, Mr. M'Cheyne was seized with fever. Dr. Gerstmannf of the Jerusalem Mission, himself a converted Jew, waited upon him with all kindness, and ordered him to be removed to a house upon the height above the town, where the atmosphere was cool. The disease seemed to abate a little on the Saturday, so that the physician recommended us to make preparations for sailing next day. He thought that there would be greater hope of Mr. M.'s recovery by enjoying the cool breeze of the sea, than by remaining three weeks longer in the confined atmosphere of Beyrout.
Accordingly, on the afternoon of Sabbath, July 28, we bade farewell to our many kind friends, and embarked in the Austrian steamer, called Schnell-Segler, "Swift Sailer," which sailed from the harbour at five o'clock. The four Jews from the Dardanelles, with whom we had sailed into Egypt, and whom we now met for the third time, to their surprise and ours, were the only faces we knew on board. There was one young man in the vessel who could speak a little English. It was a solemn and almost melancholy Sabbath evening to us. Mr. M. was laid down upon the deck, and we kept our eye upon the majestic brow of Lebanon, (the emblem of the Redeemer's countenance,J) till it faded from our view in the dim and brief twilight of evening.
But here let us for a moment review all that we have seen and heard in regard to the condition of Israel in their own land. We visited every city and village in Palestine where Jews are to be found (with the exception of Jaffa, and two small villages upon Mount Naphtali),
* Luke vii. 14.
t On the 23d August, 1841, little more than two years after, this worthy young physician died of a similar fever at Constantinople, to which station he had been removed. He was a man of an excellent spirit, one who loved Christ with all his heart, and was very bold in recommending him to others. One day Lady M. said to him with great vehemence that she would rather lose her head than forsake the laiili of her fathers; his answer was, " If you do not turn and believe on Christ, you will never see the kingdom of heaven."
t Song v. 1ft.
GENERAL REMARKS. 321
and we ha''e been led to the conclusion that the Holy Land presents the most important and interesting of all the fields of labour among the Jews.
I. The Jews are in affliction in the land of their fathers, and this makes them more friendly there than in other lands. In other countries, where they are wealthy and comfortable, or deeply engaged in worldly business, we found that they care little to attend to the words of the Christian missionary. But, in Judea, the plague, poverty, the oppression of their rabbis, and the insults of the heathen, have so humbled them, that they cling to any one who offers to show them kindness, however averse to the doctrine which he teaches.
Il . They are strictly Rabbinical Jews, untainted by the infidelity of France or the neology of Germany. They hold the Old Testament to be indeed the Word of God. They have a real expectation of the coming of the Messiah; and this expectation is certainly greater now than it was formerly. The missionary has thus firm ground to stand upon, and, with the Hebrew Bible in his hand, may expound to them, with intelligence and power, all that is written in the Law of Moses, and in the Prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning Jesus.
III. Moreover, Judea must be regarded as the centre, of the Jewish world. Every Jew, in whatever country he sojourns, turns his face toward Jerusalem in prayer. It is the heart of the nation, and every impression made there is transmitted to all the scattered members. We afterwards met a poor Jew at Ibraila, a small town upon the Danube, who told us of conversions that had taken place at Jerusalem. In this way, whatever is done for the Jews in Palestine, will make a hundred-fold more impression than if it were done in any other land.
IV. Another important consideration is, that in Palestine the Jews look upon the English as friends. Three months before our arrival in Jerusalem, an English Consul had been stationed there—a true and zealous friend of Israel, whose jurisdiction extended over the country once given to the twelve tribes, and whose instructions from the British Government were, that he should, to the utmost of his power, afford protection to the Jews. The recent changes in Syria have no doubt for a time interfered with these arrangements; but still, is not the hand of an overruling Providence visible in them 1 And is it not our duty to improve to the utmost
822 GENERAL REMARKS ON THE HOLY LAJTD
the interest we have in the affections of the Jews, by being the friends of their never-dying souls?
V. In addition to all this, there is no country under heaven to which Christians turn with such a lively interest as Immanuel's land. "God's servants take pleasure in her stones and favour the dust thereof." But especially those who love Israel bear it upon their hearts, because its name is inwoven with the coming conversion of Israel. It is upon "the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem," that God has said he will pour his Spirit.* "On the high mountains of Israel shall their fold be ;"f and "they shall feed in Bashan and Gilead, as in the days of old; ,1 and God himself has said, "/ will remember the land."!)
On these grounds, we rest our conviction that the Holy Land presents not only the most attractive, but the most important field for missionary operations among the Jews.
In the south of the Holy Land, the London Society for the Conversion of the Jews have maintained for several years an effective Mission. Jerusalem is their headquarters, so that the southern parts may be fairly regarded as pre-occupied. But the north of the land, the region of ancient Galilee, containing nearly half of the Jewish population of Palestine, still presents an open|| and uncultivated field.
In that beautiful country, the town of Saphet at once commends itself as the most favourable point for the centre of a Jewish Mission. It is one of the four cities regarded as holy by the Jews, and therefore they cling to it in spite of the awful convulsions of nature and the ravages of war. Before the earthquake on 1st January 1837, it is said that there were 7000 Jews residing there. It has again gradually been raised out of its ruins, and there were at the time of our visit about 2000 Jewish inhabitants. A ride of six hours from Saphet brings you to Tiberias, on the margin of the Lake of Galilee, another of the holy cities, and containing 1500 Jews. Saphet is also within a few days' journey of Tyre, Sidon, Acre, Khaifa, Beyrout, and Damascus; in each of which there
* Zcch. xii. 10. t Ezck. xxxiv. 14.
t Mic. vii. 14. $ Lev. xxvi. 4i
II Of course, as a Presbyterian Church, claiming equal apostolic authority with the Church of England, the Church of Scotland will not consider the appointment of a liishop, which has taken place during this year (1812), an in any way debarring her from coming into ilia field.
AS A MISSIONARY FIELD. 323
are many Jews—so that it forms the centre of a most interesting field.
The climate of Saphet is peculiarly delightful, owing to its lofty situation. In one of the hottest days in July, the thermometer rose no higher in the shade than 76° F. In Tiberias, again, the winter's cold is scarcely felt at all.
If the Church of Scotland were privileged to establish a Mission in Saphet, what an honour would it be to tread, as it were, in the very footsteps of the Saviour, to make the very rocks that re-echoed his "strong crying and tears," and the very hills where he said, " Blessed are the peacemakers," resound with the cries of believing prayer, and with the proclamation of the gospel of peace! And if God were to own and bless our efforts, would not the words of the prophet receive a second fulfilment, " The land of Zebulon and the land of Nephthalim, by the way of the sea beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles; the people which sat in darkness, saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death, light is sprung up?"*
* Matt . iv. IS, 16.
(july 29.) At seven in the morning we found ourselves approaching Cyprus. Here we anchored for some hours off Larnica, which is near the ancient Citium- There seemed at this point little to interest a traveller in the island itself; a ridge of bare limestone hills formed the prominent feature of the scene, while a dry, parching sun glowed over us like a furnace. The town itself, however, looks well, its mosque and white houses peering through tall and graceful palm-trees. At a former period, Cyprus must nave been remarkably productive and well peopled. Mr. Thomson, from whom we so lately parted at Beyrout, had travelled through the interior of the island, and in his journey visited not fewer than sixty villages, which had remains of ancient churches now ruined and desolate; and everywhere he found wide plains left uncultivated, which might yield abundant harvests. It is an island which no Christian can gaze upon without remembering the days of the apostles. For this was the native country of Barnabas,* who sold his estates and brought the money to Jerusalem for the use of the infant Church, and who afterwards, in company with Paul, traversed its whole extent from Sa-' lamis to Paphos, preaching the unsearchable riches of Christ. Here, too, Sergius Paulus had his residence, and Elymas the sorcerer; Mnason also, "the old disciple," spent his youth amidst its hills and plains. But, there is no Barnabas nor Mnason in Cyprus now; for no Jew dare plant his foot upon its shores because of the furious bigotry of the Greeks, who have persecuted without remorse every wanderer of that nation that has visit
• A els iv. 36.
RHODES COAST OP ASIA CNIDOS—COOS. 325
ed or been cast upon their coast ever since the reign of Trajan. To ourselves Cyprus is associated with some of our severest trials. For it was here that Mr. M'Cheyne's illness increased, the fever burning hot within his veins, while there was no medical help on board, nor any remedies that we could apply. A cooling drink or a fresh breeze were the only means of even momentary relief.
Nexi day we were sailing off the coast of Pamphylia, and at six in the morning of the succeeding day (July 31) were anchored off Rhodes. On the left hand of the harbour is a range of very precipitous hills. The town is on the shore, with green hills rising gently behind, and many gardens on every side. All around the sandy edge in the vicinity of the town the shore is lined with windmills, which seem to be much in use throughout this region. It is said by recent travellers that, at the entrance of the ancient harbour, there are still remains of buttresses, the distance between which is twentyseven yards, a space sufficiently wide to have afforded room for the famed Colossus. We thought upon Paul sailing past Rhodes as he hasted to Jerusalem,* and we wished to land, for there are here about 1000 Jews; but this was impossible on account of Mr. M.'s illness. It was here the well-known commentator Aben Ezra died, commanding his bones to be carried to the Holy Land.
After leaving the harbour in the afternoon, we found ourselves sailing close to the shore of Caria, the water apparently deep to the very edge, with steep rocks and hills lining the shore. Often it seemed as if we were sailing close under the base of some of our own Highland mountains, while the waves gently weltered round the base of the rocks. At a turn of the coast Cnidos was pointed out to us. A creek running up a considerable way into the land forms a complete harbour; but a ruined tower was all that we could distinctly discern of the ancient town.
We now saw before us Stanchio, the ancient Coos, and felt pleasure in gazing on it, because Paul had once done the same.f Onreaching the harbour the vessel made a short stay, giving us opportunity to pet a sight of its chief town, which is beautifully situated in the midst of gardens. The buildings are all of white stone, and the hills form a green acclivity behind. The physician Hippocrates gave this island its renown in ancient times.
• Acts xxi. I. t Act* xxi. 1.
S26 PATMOS SAMOS SCIO.
Once more afloat on the Icarian Sea, we passed an English frigate in full sail, welcome to us as being in a manner a relic of home, and in itself a very imposing object on these seas. But a far more interesting sight engaged our attention a little before sunset. An intelligent traveller on board pointed out to us the island of Patmos, now called Palmosa. It lies sixteen miles southwest from Samos, and is about eighteen miles in circumference, stretching from north to south. We saw the peaks of its two prominent hills, but our course did not lie very near it. Still it was intensely interesting to get even a glance of that remarkable spot, where the beloved disciple saw the visions of God,—the spot, too, where the Saviour was seen, and his voice heard, for the last time till he comes again. It is the only spot in Europe where the Son of Man showed himself in his humanity. John's eye often rested on the mountains and islands among which we were now passing, and on the shores and waves of this great sea; and often, after the vision was past, these natural features of his place of exile would refresh his spirit, recalling to his mind how " he stood on the sand of the sea,"* and how he had seen that "every island fled away, and the mountains were not found."f
Long after sunset some of us sat on deck under the clear brilliant firmament, "sown with stars," whose bright rays glittered on the blue waters like beams of the moon. We conversed of God's providence — "his way is in the sea, and his path in the deep waters"— and of Patmos, where the fall of that empire through whose dominion we were now passing, was long ago foretold.
(Aug. I.) Next morning we were on the shores of Ionia. We had passed Icaria, and were sailing by Santo*, the birthplace of Pythagoras. We thought of Paul touching at Samos a few days before he gave his memorable address to the elders from Ephesus. J Soon after Chios,!} now Scio, came in view, and arriving at the port, the vessel anchored for a few hours. The eye rests on many buildings on the shore, dilapidated and empty, monuments of the awful scenes of massacre that devastated this beautiful island during the revolution. The town is very finely situated, embosomed in orange-trees. There was a considerable bustle in the harbour; and boats
* Rev. xiii. 1. t Rev. rri. 20.
t Acts xx. 15. ) See Acta xx. 15.
that the eye falls upon near to the entrance of the harbour, dotted over with white flat stones. This is the Jewish burying-ground.
On anchoring, our first care was directed to get medical advice for Mr. M'Cheyne. But we found that we were too late that evening to get any medical help in the town, the best physicians always retiring to the country at night. On that account, and as the town itself was oppressively close and sultry, Mr. M., though so little able for any journey that we feared every moment he would sink under the fatigue, urged us to proceed at once to Bouja, a village three miles off, where we were assured of finding an English physician. The innkeeper soon furnished us with asses, and agreed to be himself our conductor. The road was pleasant, rows of cypresstrees often meeting our eye in the gloom. The air, too, was fresher than in the town, yet even here it was sultry. On arriving at the inn of Bouja, we found the surgeon of an English frigate in the house at the moment, and soon after a Greek physician, named Dr. Drncopoli, well skilled in the diseases of the country, was recommended to us. Later in the evening, Mr. Lewis (formerly a labourer in the Jewish cause, and now chaplain to the English Consulate in Smyrna), visited us, and not only most readily aided us in our perplexity, but insisted on all of us removing next day to his own residence. Never did any in our circumstances meet with more unremitting attention and true Christian kindness, than we did during our stay under the roof of Mr. and Mrs. Lewis. Perhaps Mr. M'Cheyne's recovery was, in the good providence of God, to be mainly attributed to their care. The Lord grant to them the blessing that Paul sought for "the angel of the church of Smyrna," ODeyeu mc ... tation and received his reward. To us tiiis was "a day better than a thousand."
Our next Sabbath was not so still, but it, too, had its peculiar enjoyments. It was spent in Smyrna. Early in the morning the sound of bells ringing loudly in the town caused not a little surprise, till we ascertained that it proceeded from the Romish churches in the city. For the Roman Catholics, every where zealous, have here erected three large and splendid churches, and already number 5000 members in Smyrna. They have also a flourishing school, to which they give the name of a College "di Propaganda." We worshipped in the forenoon in the English chaplaincy; and Mr. Bonar preached upon Acts viii. 8, "There was great joy in that city." Pleasant it was to pray and then proclaim the Gospel in a place to which the Lord had once spoken by name. In the afternoon, we joined the worship of the American Missionaries in the Dutch Consulate, and then reached Bouja in time to enjoy part of Mr. Jetter's evening service. These Sabbaths in a foreign land were seasons of peculiar refreshing. On more than one occasion also we enjoyed a week-day evening service in the village, maintained by our American brethren, and attended by an audience of about fifty individuals. Mr. Bonar preached one evening on Isaiah xii.; and these pleasant meetings brought vividly to mind the similar services in our own parishes at home.
* 2 Tim. i. 1& t Rev. ii. 10.
n. |» K-iuu lcarning Ucic ia laugui uy cxpel iencf, UU1 lllg
all hours of the day, the meaning of Anacreon's references to the " raixif" or grasshopper, which in a manner peoples the trees and chirps incessantly, as he describes:
(" King-like you sit upon your tree and sing.") Oftentimes during our stay Mr. Lewis gave us interesting information in regard to his labours among the Jews at a former period. One evening, telling us of his residence in Italy, he related the case of a young Jewess of Ancona, whose name was Sarina. She was a teacher, and being the only Jewess of any education in the town, even boys were put under her tuition. Besides Italian, she knew Latin and some other languages, and could teach geography and other branches of education. Though occupied with the children from eight in the morning till eight at night, she used, as soon as her work was done, to come to the house of Mr. and Mrs. Lewis to converse with them. They found her a most amiable and intelligent young woman, willing to listen to the teaching of a Christian instructor. She read Christian books which they lent her; translated them into Italian; and told them frankly the ignorance and wretched state of Jewesses in Ancona. On their departure, the grief of Sarina was extreme; indeed, she would gladly have accompanied them, but she had an aged mother depending on her exertions for support. They heard no more of her till recently, when they received notice of her death. She died about two years ago; and the last book she was found translating was one "on the Truth of Christ tlanity."
* Ezek. xxxiii. 30. Jews not unfrequently meet with at the hands of both Turks and Greeks. He saw a Greek go to a Jew who was walking before him, and strike him so violent a blow, that the poor Jew burst into tears, but made no resistance. Mr. B. went up and asked the Greek why he had been guilty of this unprovoked outrage? "Because he is a hater of Christ" was the cool reply of the Greek. A few days ago, also, a Jew was bathing in the sea along with a Turk. In plunging into the water, the Turk struck upon an anchor, which caused his death. The Jew was immediately imprisoned on the charge, "that perhaps he was the cause of the accident;" and no one could tell what might be the result. How truly did Moses foretell of Israel, "thou shalt be only oppressed and crushed alway." *
Our most important information regarding the Jews was obtained from Giovanni Baptist Cohen, a converted Israelite, who is employed by the London Jewish Society to labour among his brethren in Smyrna. Not long after our arrival we called upon him, when he kindly offered to visit the Jews along with us. Accordingly, on Saturday (Aug. 10) we set out at six o'clock in the morning. As we went along we met a considerable number of Jews at that early hour returning from synagogue worship. These, we were told, had already finished their morning service; for, being more devout, or at least adhering more rigidly to the letter of the Scriptures than their brethren, they have service before sunrise, referring to Ps. lxxii. 5, as their authority, "they shall fear thee before the sun"—that is, before the sun rises, as they under
* Dent, xxviii. 33 .
JEWS—MR. COHEN. 331
stand the Hebrew. We met also more females on their way to the synagogue than we had usually observed in other places. All the synagogues were clean and commodious, with porches before the entrance for the sake of coolness. These were often shaded by the spreading vine, and many of the worshippers were reading their prayers under its shelter. There appeared to be sincere devotion among them, for their attention was not diverted from the service by the entrance of strangers.
The Jewish population of Smyrna is about 9000, and that it is on the increase is proved by the fact that they are at present building an additional synagogue, although they have already ten or twelve. The only missionary here is Mr. Cohen, mentioned above, a native of Constantinople, who is a great linguist, and able to speak with some ease, Italian, French, Spanish, Greek, English, Turkish, Armenian, and Hebrew. His wife is a Sciote by birth, one of those who were rescued from the massacre, and educated in England. He has free intercourse with all the Jews, and they return his visits.
While we were with him in the forenoon, three intelligent and respectable Jews called, who spent fully three hours in conversation. He led them to speak of Isaiah liii. Turning up the works of Jarchi (or Rashi,) they were very free in their remarks on that commentator; and one of the three on going away, said that " he was more than two-thirds persuaded that Christianity was true." Mr. Cohen told us after they had gone, that their state of mind was not an uncommon one among the Jews of Smyrna. He knew at least five families in the town, who were inclined to leave Judasim to this extent, that they would admit Jesus as Messiah, but keep up their national rites and customs. Most of these were careless till he visited them; but now they diligently read the Old Testament, and allow him to read to them out of the New.
In the evening, a great many Jews called; they sat in the lower room, and at the door, which stood open to the street.* One of them, a very liberal-minded Jew, called our attention to a Roman catholic priest who was passing by, and remarKed, "Our rabbis and these priests are alike impostors."
Mr. Cohen has been ten years here, and has found great freedom of inquiry among the Jews. At the same time, no sooner is a baptism proposed than the Jews stir • See Ezek. xxxiii. 3"; and p. 329.
332 JEWISH SCHOOL—3ALONIKI.
up the Government, and the convert is obliged to leave the place. Several, however, have been baptized in the Greek and Romish churches, because the members of these communions have means of protecting them.
The Jews have many schools, but their system of teaching is most deplorable. No enlightened attempt has ever been made for the instruction of the Jewish children under fourteen years of age. Missionaries might establish schools with good hope of success, because these children are cruelly used, as well as ill instructed, under their present teachers; and the Old Testament being made their school-book, the teacher might explain it, and ground the whole truth thereon. The inducements of a solid education in Hebrew grammar, and perhaps in some of the modern languages, would lead them to come. The common people among the Jews are simple, not very superstitious, and easily affected by kindness. It would be important to instruct the Jews in the grammar of the Spanish; and a cheap edition of a Spanish dictionary and grammar would be of great use. They have about thirty libraries in the town, all on a private footing, and of no great importance. Several individuals, well qualified to judge, spoke much regarding the want of good tracts suited to the capacities and modes of thinking of those for whom they are intended. Mr. Lewis mentioned the case of an English tract translated into Italian so literally that it was unintelligible; and many are unacceptable because not idiomatic. On the other hand, a polished Italian will frequently be induced to read a tract, if only it be written in elegant Italian for the sake of the language.
From various individuals we heard of Saloniki, the ancient Thessalonica. Drs. Black and Keith had proposed to visit it; but were not able to accomplish their intention. The Jewish community there are very exclusive, quite a nation by themselves. They have great influence in the city, and their numbers are reckoned at 50,000. Their real condition could be known only by long residence among them, for they are reserved, and keep aloof from all strangers. On this account, the reports of merchants cannot be very accurate. They are very strict Jews. Many poor people among them spend their time in reading and study, receiving money for their support by charity. They publish many books, almost every Jew there aspiring to be the author of some treatise. They study astronomy, and publish the best Jewish these are rich, possessed 01 large magazines or stores, and under European protection, so that they are not affected by the common inducements of a worldly nature; but they are weary of the bondage of the rabbis. They said that they have read the New Testament, and found in it nothing against keeping Saturday as the Sabbath; and the Saturday they will not consent to renounce, for they believe that they would be traitors to their people, if they threw off this mark of nationality. They proposed to keep their feasts also as memorials that Jehovah, whom they now worship as Messiah, is the same God who redeemed them of old. They would call themselves " Believers in Messiah," but not " Christians" because all whom they have ever known under the latter name are given to idolatry and immorality. If a church were formed on these principles, and had the sympathy of influential friends in England, they have no doubt but hundreds would soon join them. Mr. Caiman thought them well versed in Scripture, but that they did not feel the burden of sin. Their assent to Christianity is intellectual; they would embrace it as a deliverance' from a superstition of which they are weary. The same feeling begins to prevail among the Jewish females. An old Jewess, named Medina, whom Mr. Cohen was instrumental in arousing to a concern about her soul, has become very zealous in doing good to others, delights in reading the Scriptures, visits other Jewesses, and has succeeded in leading many of them to her views.
(Aug. 15.) We were able to devote a day to visiting the Jewish schools. One of them meets in an extensive two of these thick whips hanging in his room, along with this miniature bastinado. The whips seemed wel l used, being worn to fibres at the end. We saw also the stocks, ready for fixing the feet of those who were to be less severely punished. The boy whom we rescued from punishment was guilty of absenting himself from the school—a line of conduct we did not much wonder at, when such was the teacher and his discipline. We bought from one of the teachers a whip and a bastinado, as memorials of Jewish darkness. The rabbi who taught the highest class, where the Talmud is the text-book, put many questions to us about the Jews in Palestine, and said, "he himself was a poor man, but had sent already 200 piastres to them."
In reviewing the information we obtained regarding the Jews here, we feel convinced that Smyrna presents much to invite the attention of a missionary. Independently of the interest attached to the place as having been the seat of a Jewish community since the Christian era,—independently, too, of its being a place whose associations with the Apocalypse, and with the history of Polycarp, give it a peculiar interest in the eyes of every Christian, it deserves regard on account of the large population of Jews residing in the city and neighbouring villages, and the vast numbers from other countries who visit it from time to time. Jews call at this port from all parts of Asia, as well as from Constantinople and its vicinity. It might yet become the door of access even brethren. But these obstacles are to be met with every where, and are such as a devoted missionary is entitled to disregard, if "the fields are white for harvest." We are convinced that the Presbyterian form of our Church would present no obstacle, and especially that the want of a liturgy would rather be an advantage than otherwise. It is the expressed feeling of many among the Jewish converts that a liturgy reminds them of their former bondage. The field is nearly unoccupied, and yet it is most inviting. We would look for interesting results from the efforts and prayers of thorough Christian labourers in this place, who would not needlessly offend Jewish prejudices on the one hand, and who, on the other, would be as far from trifling with the awful truths of the Gospel, by letting men suppose themselves Christians on any other ground than thorough conversion. Oh that another Barnabas could be sent to Smyrna, and another Apollos, fervent in spirit, and instructed in the way of the Lord!
Smyrna must ever possess attractions to all who are interested in ancient Asia, or in the churches of the East. Being the chief city of this region because of its commerce, it forms a very important centre for missionary labour. There are, accordingly, missionaries from several societies established in it. With one of these, Mr. Jetter, from the Church Missionary Society, we became intimately acquainted during our stay at Bouja, and received much interesting information from him. He told us that the messengers of the gospel have carried on their
336 THE SEVEN CHURCHES SMYRNA—PERGAMOS.
labours in this part of the world for thirty years; and yet that little success has attended them. Not a single instance of the conversion of a Mahometan has occurred The eye of man can discern few real followers of the Lamb among native Christians, whether of Greek or Armenian churches, in Smyrna. But to revive the truth among them is the main effort of all the missionaries that have laboured here. The Spirit seems at present withheld, and the opposition of man is great .
We repeatedly sought for information in regard to "the seven churches of Asia," though we had no opportunity of visiting any of them but Smyrna. In regard to Smyrna, we have already given some details. It has a population of 120,000, of whom 9000 are Jews, 1000 Europeans, 8000 Armenians, and perhaps 20,000 Greeks. Many of the latter are falling under the sway of Rome. The Armenians and Greeks form the nominal church of Smyrna, the degenerate successors of the tried but richly endowed Christians of the days of John; yet it is the most flourishing of all the cities where the seven churches stood, perhaps because God remembers his faithful winesses who here poured out their blood for his caust May it not be for a similar reason that Pergamos, where Antipas was his faithful martyr, is still a prosperous town! If is now called Bergamo, and contains 1500 Greeks,and 200 Armenians, amidst 13,000 Mahometans. It istheonly town of the seven besides Smyrna that retains any Jewish population; and of these it has a hundred. There are in it remains of an ancient church called St . John's, and many extensive ruins of theatres, temples, and walls. It stands in a magnificent plain, with a strong acropolis, occupying a majestic hill above the city. This was the place where " Satan had his seat," commanding the whole of the gay and rich city at his will, more effectually than did the frowning battlements of the acropolis. It was the most warlike of all the cities, being the capital of the kingdom of Attalus, and hence is addressed in a warlike strain by him who had the sharp two-edged sword.*
Ephesus, on the other hand, has disappeared from being a city, and its "candlestick is quite removed out of its place." It is not the ruins called Aisaluk which mark the true site, but some remains near that spot, at the foot of the hills Corissus and Prion. This latter hill is said
* Rev. ii. 12.
saints which were at Ephesus, exhibiting Christ's love in order to keep theirs alive, were forgotten.} The elders did not imitate his tears and labours ;|| the hearts of the people were no more stirred by the fervour of Apollos ;1T and even the Epistle from Patmos, and the residence among them of the beloved disciple till the day of his death, could not prevent their falling from their "first love." All her faithful ones have long ago been removed to " eat of the fruit of the tree of life that is in the midst of the Paradise of God."**
Thyatira, called now Akhisar, or "white castle," stands in a plain embosomed in groves, and is still, as in former days, a busy scene of manufactures. The dyers of the town are noticed in ancient inscriptions, and our friend Mr. Calhoun had very lately verified what has been observed by other travellers, that to this day the best scarlet dye in all Asia is produced here, and sent to Smyrna and other places for sale. Lydia's occupationff remains characteristic of the place to this day. Two churches, one belonging to the Greeks, the other to the Armenians, keep up the memory, though they do not retain the living faith, of the primitive Christians.
Philadelphia is now called Alah-Sher, "the high city, or city of beauty," because of its splendid situation in the midst of gardens and vineyards, with the heights of Tmolus overhanging it, and in front one of the finest plains in Asia. Its comparatively retired situation might be one of the means used by God in fulfilling the promise,
• Acts xix. 29. t Acta Tat. 24. t 2 Tim. i. 1&
$ Eph. iii. 18,19. II Act* tx. 31. V Acts xviii. 25
•• Rev. ii. 7. tt Acta xvi. 14.
whose walls the throng of formal worshippers—who had only " a name to live"—used to assemble.
Laodicea, now Eski-hissar, or "old castle," stands upon a hill. Some interpreters discover a literal fulfilment of the words, "I will spue thee out of my mouth,"} in the earthquakes which often occur here, and the fire that then bursts up from the ground. But even the utter emptiness of a place once so populous, is an exact fulfilment of the threatening on the city; though it is only that eye which penetrates the shades of death, and sees the self-satisfied Laodicean cast out as vile into utter darkness, that can discern how full has been the accomplishment. It has remains of three theatres, and of a circus that could contain 30,000 people—places, perhaps, occasionally visited by the lukewarm Christians there, who saw not the sin of tasting the world's gaieties, while they also " drank the cup of the Lord." In Paul's days, they were a people separate from the world, a people for whom he had much wrestling in prayer ;|| but the current of the world was too strong for the generation that succeeded.
Besides these seven churches, we find in Scripture mention made otllierapolis,^ seen from one of the ruined theatres of Laodicea, now Pambouk Kalasi, i. e. "cotton tug near mem. During the year 1838, the plague, smallpox, and other diseases, carried off most of the children in Asia Minor under two years of age. In one part of the plain of Cayster, where 300 yoke of oxen used to be employed, the ground is now tilled by only twelve. A village near Smyrna, including the Aga's house, and 1200 acres of land, was lately offered for sale for 20,000 piastres, a sum equal to 200/. In fact, the country is drained of its inhabitants, by the frequent draughts on their young men to serve in the army. The Governors complain that they cannot get people for any service. Every thing indicates that the strength of the empire is gone, and that the time is at hand when "the waters of the great river Euphrates shall be dried up."f This state oP things has contributed very much to direct the attention of English Christians in Turkey to the study of prophecy, and to make them watch every new sign of" the way of the kings of the east being prepared," and the glorious events that are to follow. Few, however, of our American brethren there have been led to take any deep interest in these views.
* Rev. iii. 10. t Rev. iii. 12. t Rev. iii. 4.
i Rev. iii 16. II Col. ii. 1; iv. 15, 16. 1 Col. iv. 13.
With our friends at Bouja we enjoyed many pleasant arid profitable walks, breathing the soft "Ionian air." The whole district is interesting. Mount Corax rises in the neighbourhood of the village, and beyond this range appear in the distance the splendid heights of Tmolus, now called Bous-dag. On the north is Mount Sipylus, Meles, on whose banks Homer is said to have been born, and from which he got the name " blind Melesigenes." A cave is shown where, it is said, he used to seek retirement. Water flows in this channel during all the summer, but its course is very short; its source being in the neighbouring hills, from which it flows through the town into the sea. The most picturesque object about Smyrna is the splendid grove of cypresses which wave over the large Turkish burying-ground, near the town. These handsome trees shoot up majestically to the sky, and cast their dark shade around. Beneath them, as far as the eye can reach through the sombre light of the grove, are innumerable small figures above the graves. These are short pillars about two feet high, (reminding one of the figure of the Roman god Terminus,) on whose top is carved the head of the deceased, with the coloured turban or fez that characterized him in his lifetime. The most frequent colours are red and yellow. Those painted green cover the graves of Moslems who were descendants of the prophet. The inscriptions on the tombs are commonly written in an oblique direction, for the convenience of the passer by, that his eye may more easily run along the lines. Many of them are adorned with gilding, reminding us of the practice of the Pharisees, " Ye garnish the sepulchres of the righteous." f Mahometans never bury more than one body in a grave, so that the
* AcU xx 4. t Rev. xvi. 12.
* Dr. Keith visited this town during the few days that he and Dr Black spent in Asia Minor, and there he met with au interesting young Iew. who sremed in search of the truth.
T Matt, xxiii. 29.
SMYRNA STREETS. 341
number or gravestones is immense. At such a spot there is awful solemnity in the thought of the resurrection, when those myriads of sleeping dead, who once worshipped the false prophet in their blindness, shall "hear the voice of the Son of God, and come forth."
We used to enter the city by a street which is watered by a branch of the Meles, or an artificial canal supplied from it . In this street the water occupies the place of the causeway; trees grow on each side of it; and the houses are behind the trees. Coolness is thus secured to the inhabitants at all hours of the day. We thought of the street, river, and trees mentioned in Revelation ;* and of the words of David, " There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God."f The constant peace and refreshment afforded by God's love and favour are faintly shadowed forth by these images, which an Eastern could fully appreciate. In one street we passed a fountain, erected by some benevolent Mahometan long ago, as the Turkish inscription indicates. The water gushes plentifully into a trough; and for the greater convenience of passengers, there is a large spoonlike cup attached to the well by a chain. No one injures or thinks of removing this. The " bowl is not broken, nor its cord loosed"J a* tne fountain. The houses are built sometimes after the Italian and sometimes after the Eastern fashion. A luxuriant vine is ofttimes trained over the portico, and a spreading fig-tree occupies the middle of the court. The inhabitants need every such means of refreshment, for the town in summer is very hot. There is, however, a pleasant breeze called Inbat (that is tfitan,, "incoming") which generally visits the town in the afternoon, and affords a time for refreshment in the hottest part of the season.
In one of our walks, Mr. Riggs gave us some illustrations of Scripture from what he had seen in Greece. There every shepherd uses a large wooden crook, with which he guides and defends the sheep. This is the shepherd's rod mentioned in the Psalm and by the prophet.} It is a common mode of expression among the Greeks to say " such a thing happened three days ago" when they mean that a day only intervened. They include the two extreme days, as if they had been complete,—a mode of speech which illustrates the words of our Lord in Matt .
• Rct. xxii 2. t Pa xlvi. 4.
t Eccl . xii. 6. $ Ps. xxiii. L Mic. vii. 14
new kingdom of Greece. The ratriarcn is auuwcu uy the Turkish Government to do what he pleases, so that he may use his arbitrary power to procure the death of any persons opposed to his authority. In Greece, however, Mr. Riggs found that at Napoli, where he was formerly stationed, and indeed throughout the whole kingdom, the Greeks are far less under the control of their priests, and are often anxious to be taught the truth. Occasionally at Napoli the Bishops came to hear the preaching of the word, and a few of them seemed to have real concern for their own souls. There is nothing of this kind in Turkey. The candlestick has been entirely removed from Smyrna, as far as vital religion among the Greek Christians is concerned. They are thieves, liars, and immoral in a thousand ways. The American Missionaries print a Penny Magazine in the Greek and Armenian languages, which has a considerable circulation; but this is an instrument of little value in the way of saving the souls of the people, as its pages contain only general and scientific information.
On Saturday morning (Aug. 9), in company with Mr. Riggs, we enjoyed a pleasant walk up the hill that rises behind the city, where are ruins of the old castle, and where, in the opinion of many, was the original site of Smyrna. We visited the Stadium, where Polycarp was martyred for the truth, A. D. 167. It stands on the deathrand received the crown of life. * The Epistle to the Church of Smyrna was to us doubly interesting now. A voice seemed still to echo round the spot, "Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer!" A grave close by, over which a tall cypress grows, is said to be the grave of Polycarp.
* John xxi. 12. See original dj>«mj'rari.
In the narrative of the martyrdom given in the Epistle by the Church of Smyrna, it is recorded that the Jews distinguished themselves by gathering fuel for the pile; and it is a singular fact, coinciding with this notice, that at present the Jewish quarter lies close under the hill where the stadium stands, and the Jews are much employed in gathering and selling torch-wood.
We wandered on to the ruins of a theatre. A fine arch, forming the gateway, remains in tolerable preservation. We could distinctly trace the walls, that enclosed a wide circular space; and near the stadium some remains of the ancient wall of the town are still found. Part of the castle also is of great antiquity, and on the hill to the south of it is the Temple of Esculapius.
The prospect from this hill is very splendid. The town below is seen to the greatest advantage. The houses are mostly red-tiled, but the tall dark cypress grove, and the clusters of the same tree shooting up in different quarters, with the calm sea beyond, give the town a rich and noble appearance. There is a full view up to the very top of the gulf, with Bournabat and other villages on the
* Rev. it 10.
country with his pruning-hook in his hand, a long piece of iron curved toward the point. This pruning-hook might once have been a spear, and could easily be converted into one again. The prophets attended to the nature of things when they said, "They shall beat their spears into pruning-hooks;" * and again, reversing the command, "Beat your pruning-hooks into spears."f We entered one of the Greek churches at the time when the people were assembling for worship; for all the Eastern churches begin their Sabbath at six on the Saturday evening. The worshippers were summoned together, not by the ringing of bells (for this privilege is not enjoyed by any of the Christians here except the Roman Catholics), but by beating time, on a plank of wood, somewhat in the same way in which our workmen in towns are summoned to their meals. As the people entered one by one, they kissed the pictures on the wall of the church, and crossed themselves with three fingers. Near another church we met many Armenians on their way to worship. The most remarkable part of their costume is the head-dress worn by the men, called the kalpack. It is like a four-cornered cushion surmounting their cap, and appears very singular to a stranger.
On reaching our dwelling, we received intelligence of an awful conflagration which had taken place in Constantinople, by which 30,000 or 40,000 persons, it was said, had been made houseless. We were the more interested in this information, as we were making preparations for
• Isa. ii. 1. t Joel iii. 10.
SAIL FROM SMYRNA. 345
visiting that great city. During the second week of our stay at Bouja, Mr. M'Cheyne's health was much improved; yet it was thought advisable that Mr. Bonar and Mr. Caiman should leave him, in the mean time, under the care of our kind friends, and should themselves proceed together to Constantinople by the first steamer, to carry on their inquiries there, till by the blessing of God their brother should be enabled to join them.
It was not without melancholy apprehensions that we parted for a season, and with unfeigned regret we took leave of our truly kind and never-to-be-forgotten friends at Bouja. But, remembering how the Lord had helped us hitherto, we trusted Him again, and went forward.
In the afternoon of August 17, we embarked in an Austrian steamer called the Stamboul. On the deck, we found ourselves in the midst of people of all nations, but the most were Turkish soldiers, and Greek and Armenian merchants. Many Turkish women sat apart with their faces veiled, and a group of poor Israelites were seated between the cabin door and window, a part of the vessel so frequently occupied by Jews, that we began to call it the Jewish quarter. Pacing up and down the deck were two American officers, belonging to a vessel near at hand; next were three Englishmen, then two Maltese, some Germans, and two or three Frenchmen. The engineers were from our own land, one an Irishman and .the other a Scotchman, and both had their wives on board with them. A Hungarian, with a large beard and whiskers, and a broad brimmed hat, kept himself in perpetual motion. Three Moors also, and four Persians, who wore high sugar-loaf caps, attracted our attention, and still more, two Turkish Dervishes, marked by their conical white hats. There was something indescribably saddening in the thought which often rose in our mind, that of all this company perhaps not one knew the Saviour. There is a "veil spread over all nations." Yet in such a state of things is the light suddenly to shoot from Zion over the whole world, " For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee; and the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising."*
(Aug. 18. Sabbath.) About three in the morning we were off Lesbos, now called Mytilin, where Sappho and
* In. \x. 2, 3. riches both of the wisdom and knowieugeo. ward the top of this same gulf stood Adramyttium,\ one of whose vessels bore Paul to the coast of Lycia in his voyage to Rome.
About seven A. M. we were opposite the Island of Tenedos, and our early classical recollections came here fresh to mind—
Est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fami
Insula, dives opum, l'riami dum regna manebant.$
(" In sight of Troy lies Tenedos, an isle,
While fortune did on Priam's kingdom smile.
Renowned for wealth.")
It is six miles from the coast of Troy, and is considerably elevated above the sea, rising at the north-west extremity into an eminence. At the time we passed, many vessels lay at anchor wind-bound, and unable to enter the Dardanelles. We continued sailing along the coast off Troas, the morning being calm and cool, with a bright sunshine, and a deep blue sky. Soon we found ourselves in the midst of the combined English and French fleets, consisting of about twenty ships of the line,—more majestic than those of Greece, which once carried its thousand warriors to Dium. They lay there watching the movements of Russia on Constantinople. The large island of Lemnos was toward the west on our left, and before us to the north-west Imbros, behind which lies Samothrace.H But still a deeper interest was excited in
Acts xx. 14. t Acts xx. 13. t Acts xxvii. 2.
Virg. i£n. ii, 21. II Acts xvi. 11.
kindly pointed out the different localities, and added, that at present English officers might be found fishing every day in these classical streams.
In a few hours we entered the Hellespont, now called the Straits of the Dardanelles, and passed between the far-famed Sestos and Abydos. Near this, the strait is said to be seven stadia, or not quite a mile in breadth, so that two mighty continents seem to approach and gaze upon each other. The modern castles of Romania and Natolia, which have come in place of the ancient towns, are of no great height; their situation is in low ground near the water-edge; but under skilful management their command of the strait would be complete. Each fortress is furnished with more than 100 pieces of cannon. It was here that Leander immortalised himself by his adventurous exploit. It was here, too, that Xerxes, the king that " stirred up all against the realm of Grecia,"} built his bridge of boats, joining Asia to Europe, in order to transport his enormous hosts. When he surt veyed them lining the shores of both continents, he wept in the vexation of his proud heart, because in a hundred years not one of all that multitude would remain to
• Acts xvi. 8, 9. t 2 Tim. iv. 13.
t Acts xx. 7. $ Dan. xi. 2.
far north of the banks of the stream yEgospotamos, at the mouth of which Lysander gave a fatal blow to the power of Athens. The Sea of Marmora, the ancient Propontis, opened upon us; but night came on, and we sailed through it in darkness.
At half-past five in the morning we came in sight of Constantinople, and every moment as we advanced nearer the scene broke upon us with increasing magnificence. The situation is splendid. Having the straits of the Dardanelles for its gate on the south, and the Bosphorus for its gate on the north, it could rest securely on its seven hills, and look around on all its prosperity undisturbed by the fear of an enemy. The morning sky was cloudy, but this of itself was delightful to us, who had scarcely seen a cloud for nearly "Tour months. It was like a pleasant summer morning in Scotland, when the mist is still lying on the hills, and the clouds are lingering on the face of the heavens. The first part of the city which meets the view upon entering the Bosphorus from the south, is called Stamboul. Here the massy dome of St. Sophia, and graceful minarets of every kind, crowd upon the sight. Palaces, mosques, and baths, seem to be without number in this renowned capital. And then the rich verdant trees that surround so many of the white marble buildings, and the clear blue sea, which like a deep full river laves the shore and flows up our quarters in Romboli's inn, to which we had been directed. The inn, however, was already more than full; the recent conflagration and an overflow of travellers having united to fill it, so that no vacancy was left for us. Alone in this great city, we allowed a young man, a Maltese, to guide us to a lodging in Galata, two porters (here called hamals) bearing our luggage. It was by no means a desirable locality. The American Missionaries, however, Mr. Goodell and Mr. Calhoun, on hearing of pur arrival, sought us out that same day, and insisted upon our taking up our residence with them in Pera. These American brethren and their families were full of kindness and brotherly love; and under their roof we enjoyed all the comforts of a home. From their fellow-labourers also, Mr. Adger and Mr. Hamlin, we received unremitting attention.
We went out in the afternoon to visit the English Consul, riding up the steep streets on horseback, as the day was excessively hot. Somewhat to our surprise, the state of the public mind in the city was calm; Ibraim Pasha's recent victory at Nezib had made no impression. Indeed, the Turks seem to take every thing with apathy. Sometimes an order is issued on occasions of political excitement, forbidding two people to be seen together in the streets talking about the weather; in other words, about the state of public affairs. But at this time there was less excitement in Constantinople than in Smyrna, and less known in public of the real state of things.
350 CONSTANTINOPLE TURKISH CARRIAGES.
In the streets we noticed the Turkish carriages for ladies, called arabah, drawn by two horses, and not much raised above the ground. The windows have no glass, but curtains, resembling veils. Within, it is said, the sides are often ornamented with mottoes and curious devices, by which some have illustrated the description given of the chariot in the Song, "the midst thereof being paved with love." * Wagons drawn by oxen are as common on the streets here as at Smyrna. We saw melons growing on the house-tops, in the very heart of the town, and many vines trained up the walls of houses. The buildings are in general miserable. Often the lower part of the house is of marble (brought like common stone from the neighbouring islands), while all above is a clumsy shed of wood. We passed one of the Dervish establishments, resembling that of a monastery. It was that of the Dancing Dervishes; some of whom were sauntering in the court, wearing the round, high cap, a mark by which they are easily known.
In the evening, we walked among the ruins occasioned by the fire. Several tents, chiefly of Armenian merchants, who had lost their all, were pitched among the smoking ruins. One of these was overheard to say, as a funeral passed by, "Would to God that I too had been carried to my grave." f In the bitterness of his soul, he unconsciously imitated the impatient burst of Job.
In our way home, we observed several persons wrapt in their hyke, preparing to sleep under the open sky. Indeed, it is a frequent custom here, and in all the East, to sleep in the open air all night, and this may explain the case of the young man who followed Christ, "having a linen cloth cast about his naked body." \
(Aug. 20.) We were visited by Mr. Farman, the Jewish Missionary of the London Society, who brought along with him a converted German Jew, named Merkuson. Another Jewish convert, since dead, named Jeruschalmai, was prevented by domestic circumstances from accompanying them. From them we received much valuable information with regard to the Jews. But as yet, no one has been able to obtain accurate statistical information as to the numbers and condition of the Jewish population of Constantinople. They reckon their numbers, including the Jews of Scutari, Ortakoy, and the
* Song iii. 10. t Job iii. 30, 21. t Mark m. 51.
fifteen boys and as many girls might be persuaded to attend it at once. These remarks apply only to the German Jews.
In regard to the Spanish Jews, who constitute the mass of the population, they are very bitter in their enmity to Christianity. But if the experiment were tried with the others, it is possible that they also might be induced to follow the example set them by their German brethren.
The reason why the German Jews would be willing to send their children is, that they have brought with them to this country some of the spirit and principles of Germany—they know the value of education, and wish for it. If a German Christian lady were appointed female teacher of the school, it would not be objected to by the Jews. The expenses of a missionary in Constantinople are necessarily great; it is not uncommon to pay 400/. as the rent of a moderately-sized dwelling. But the great hinderance in the way of carrying the gospel to Israel here is the total want of protection to converts and inquirers ; for the Jews, being recognised by Government as a community, have power to get any one of their brethren banished if they desire it. If a Jew is con
* Rabbi Bibas of Corfu, whom we afterwards met, reduced the number to 20,000; but without stating any evidence to induce us to credit his assertion, lie may have meant the Jews of the city without those of the suburbs.
the blessing of God upon the teaching of the missionary, be made the beginning of a saving change.* There is a strict adherence to the Talmud among the Spanish Jews. They uersally expect Messiah; and many of them had fixed the year 1840 as the era of his appearing.
Almost all the large synagogues have a school attached to them; and at Ortakoy, there are some large schools unconnected with the synagogues. In that quarter, they have frequently purchased Bibles from the missionary for their schools.
Mr. Farman told us that he had laboured here about four years; Mr. Schauffler, the American missionary to the Jews, (and the only one, we believe, that America has hitherto sent to the house of Israel,) had laboured longer; but had hitherto turned his attention chiefly to translation. To him, the Jew Merkuson owes his knowledge of the truth. Mr. Wolff was the first to visit his brethren in this great city. Then Mr. Farman and Mr. Nicolayson came, and decided upon its claims to be one of the stations of the London Jewish Society.
The Jews here have been superseded as bankers by the Armenians, and so have lost much of their influence with Government. They are poor and unlearned; making money is their great object. They have this re
* TV Basle "Freiind des Israel." in 1838, states that there were200 nr 300 Jews in Constantinople ready to become Christiana But the bove statement explains what kind of Christians they intended to be.
SAIL UP THE BOSPHORUS—SCENERY. 353
markable feature that they are very stationary, not moving from place to place. In Ortakoy alone reside 0000 Jews; in Scutari, 3000; in lsmid, the ancient Nicomedia, there are 1000, and in Brousa, 0000 or 7000.* The whole population of Constantinople is generally reckoned to be 500,000.
The same evening we walked out with Mr. Calhoun, and saw on the hill opposite to us the aqueduct of Valens, and the place where Mahommed, the conqueror of Constantinople, entered the city. We traced also what had been the course of the ancient city walls, and returned homewards through the now ruined houses of Pera.
Early next morning (Aug. 21) we enjoyed a sail up the Bosphorus in one of the light caiques to pay a short visit to Mr. Farman, the converted jew Merkuson accompanying us. His residence was at the village of Beyukdere, twelve miles, or almost the whole extent of the Bosphorus, from Pera. As we set sail the caiques were shooting across the harbour in all directions, and the scene varied every moment. We kept near the shore, in order as much as possible to avoid the strong current from the Black Sea, and yet we were so retarded by it, that though we set sail at half-past seven, it was half-past eleven before we reached Beyukdere. On our left the winter-palace of the Sultan, though irregularly tinuous line of houses for ten or twelve miles. The chimneys of many of them are in the form of a well-shaped pillar, which gives them an air of superior neatness. They are built close upon the water, and often there seemed not above a hundred yards of level ground between the sea and the steep hills that sloped up behind. On the brow of these hills gardens and cypress trees were waving, which give freshness and beauty to the scene, while the sea flows up to the very steps of many of the houses. We came to Ortakoy,—that is, " middle village," —a large suburb of the city, poor and ill-built, inhabited by Jews, but generally of the lower class. Beyond this is one ledge of sunken rocks, marked by an elegant marble fountain erected above them, and two other similar ledges of rocks, marked by groups of trees planted on them. The English Admiral, Sir JR. Stopford, passing the Seraglio, was saluted by twenty guns, the sound of which echoed deep among the surrounding hills. The water was all the time clear, and the channel pebbly to the very edge, the current often so strong as to compel the men to leave the caique, and instead of rowing, to drag the boat with ropes round the point where the current met it. We were met by a steamer from Trebizond coming down from the Black Sea. The sea-fowl were flying round us; and innumerable porpoises were sporting beautifully in the water. A breeze from the Black Sea and some overhanging clouds gave a grateful coolness to the air. White towers occasionally meet the eye perched on the sur
* We were here occasionally led by curiosity to compare our inquiries with the Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela, himself a Jew, of the 1-th century. He visited Constantinople some centuries before the Jews from Spain sought refuge in it; and tells us that there he found 2000 Jews living in Pera, ana 100 Karaites; and that the Jew6 suffered much at the hands of the Creeks, who used to excite the whole world against them. Fie then sailed southward by Rodosto, the ancient Bimnthe, where are still about 1000 Jews. "From this place (says he) Rodoste is distant a sea voyage of two days, where is a Jewish congregation of nearly 400 persons: whose chief men are Rabbi Moses, R. Abia, and K. Jacob. Then, two days distant is Gallipoli, where are about -200 Jews; and two days further, Calash, where are 50 Jews. * * Two days from thence is Mitilin, one of the islands of the sea, in which the Jews have synagogues at ten different places. And three days from this is Chios, where are nearly 400 Jews, whose chief men are Rabbi F.has, Rabbi Thoma, and Rabbi Sabbatai. It is here they find trees from which mastyx is gathered. Two days from this is Sainos. where bre nearly 300 Jews. Throughout these islands are many synagogues of the Jews. Three days off from this is Rhodes, where are about 400 Jews; and four days distant is Cyprus, in which is a synagogue of Jews who follow the customs of their fathers; but also another synagogue of Jews, called F.picurcans, or heretics of Cyprus. These latter are every where excommunicated by the oilier Jews, for they profane the evening of the (Jewish) Sabbath, and observe the evening of tha first day of the week."
BEYUKDERE VISIT TO MB. FARMAN—ARMENIANS. 355
rounding heights, and small forts, defended with cannon, stand close upon the shore. One remarkable fortress occurs near the head of the strait, said by some to be of Genoese origin, and by others to be the work of Const.antine. Its towers are not round but sharp-cornered, and the walls surmounted with a battlement. If it be the work of Constantine, it would be valuable and interesting, for no remains of that illustrious Emperor are to be found in his own city. Passing Therapia, where Lord Ponsonby, the British Ambassador, was then residing, we at length reached Beyukdere, pleasantly situated within sight of the opening into the Black Sea. After visiting Mr. Farman, and hearing more of his labours, both among the Jews and European residents, we returned to the city. The sail back occupied only two hours, the current being with us, and the whole trip cost us only thirty piastres.
In the evening one qf the American Missionaries, Mr. Hamlin, once assistant to the devoted Dr. Payson, but who has now consecrated himself to missionary labour, gave us some account of the Armenians of Constantinople. They are a social community, enjoying much domestic happiness. Their feelings against Protestantism are very bitter, and they hold no open communication with the missionaries. Still there seems to be a secret work of the Spirit begun in the hearts of some of them. One young priest is decidedly pious, and labours silently among his brethren. A rich banker, who had done all he could for the schools, continues to be enthusiastic in that object, and friendly to the missionaries. There used to be about sixty young men attending the missionary schools; and all these still manifest great kindness to the missionaries.
This night we remarked the howling of the dogs that prowl about the city. All foreigners are struck with their noise and unsightly appearance. They wander about the streets with fierce hungry looks, and occasionally even attack the lonely passenger in the night. They answer precisely to the description given in the Psalm, "At evening let them return, and let them make a noise like a dog, and go round about the city: let them wander up and down for meat, and grudge if they be not satisfied."*
Next day (August 22), accompanied by Mr. Calhoun, we took a caique at Tophana, and crossed the Golden Horn, hoping to get a sight of the interior of the famous • Pa lu. 14,15.
We then visited the mosque of St. Sophia, whose dome is the largest in the world. It is a magnificent building, but the Turks have added many of the present portions of the edifice. The mosque of Achmet stands adjoining it, having six minarets, covered, not with gilding, but with gold itself, which retains its lustre unimpaired. There is first an outer court, a space set round with trees; then, an inner court, or square, adorned with eight-and-twenty pillars, some of marble, others of granite, and the capitals of each finished off in the form of fringes. The pavement of the court is all marble, and in the centre a fountain pours forth its refreshing streams. Through the open windows we got a glance of the interior also, though a surly Turk from within commanded us to withdraw. The roof is supported by immense pillars, and is compacted of layers of stone; the walls are finely ornamented, and the floor spread with clean mats and carpets. Adjoining the mosque of Achmet is the square called Achmedan or Atmeidan, the ancient Hippodrome,, in which Belisarius was seen in the height of his renown, celebrating his victories by a Roman triumph. In the midst of it is an obelisk, brought from Egypt by the Emperor Theodosius, according to the inscription on the pedestal, written in Latin on one side, and in Greek on the other. Beside the inscription is carved a representation of the Emperor's procession, with the people presenting him with gifts, while he himIt is a favourite resort of devout Mahometans at the time of prayer.
We then visited the bazaar, which occupies a wide space. It consists of many streets and rows of shops, all roofed over for shade and coolness. In one street there is a row of tent-makers; in another, shoemakers; in another, sellers of pipes; in another, shops exhibiting every variety of rich cloth; then a row of silks and furs; so that almost every article of common use has a row of shops for itself. At one shop-door we asked for a dish of yaout,—that is, meat boiled with sauce and teban, and eaten with toasted bread. We did not find it possible to visit the slave-market .
In the afternoon, we crossed over to Scutari, the ancient Chrysopolis, which was the seaport of Chalcedon, on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus. Our chief object was to visit the howling Dervishes. They were beginning their devotions as we entered. At first they prayed moderately, in a kind of chanting voice. In about half an hour they formed a semi-circle round their chief, to whom each went up before taking his place, doing obeisance, while he took off the cap they wore, and replaced it with a lighter one, more fit for the part they were to act. They prayed with every imacinnble gesture and movement, the body, head, and hands all being in motion at once. From time to time their chief seemed to excite them to greater vehemence, by crying out with a loud scream, "Ullah, Illah!" in a tone that made us shudder. In a short time, the whole company were engaged in the
358 CONSTANTINOPLE—HOWLING DERVISHES.
most frantic movements. Some of them, nearly overpowered with their intense efforts, were gasping for breath, and all uttering a sound, "ocha, ocha," like one panting and ready to sink under exhaustion. A dancing dervish then entered the room, who sat down and played calmly on a pipe, while the rest kept time to the tune in the violent gestures of their bodies. Then three more appeared, and kept whirling about in a circle for twenty minutes without ceasing. The whole scene was a frightful exhibition of human impiety and fanaticism, and yet we were told that it is often much more extravagant and revolting. The missionaries at Brousa lately saw one of these dervishes work himself up to such a frenzy, that the foam came from his mouth, his face grew pale, and he fell on the ground, like the demoniacs mentioned in the New Testament, till one of his company restored him by beating on his breast, and other restorative processes. We observed hanging on the wall the instruments with which they used to torture themselves, like the priests of Baal. * There were hooks, and sharp-pointeid instruments, and wires that used to be thrust through their cheeks from side to side; balls also, attached to sharppointed spikes. These balls were made to strike the ground, and to recoil in such a way, that the spike struck its point into their breast. It required a decree of the late Sultan to put a stop to these self-torturing practices. Many persons came in to be blessed by the dervishes. As they entered, they kissed the hands of the chief . Two soldiers were among the number of the dervishes, and several soldiers came in to receive a blessing. One man, who had sore eyes, came forward to the chief, who prayed over him and sent him away. Clothes also and sick children were carried in to receive a blessing. And yet these dervishes are exceedingly immoral in their lives, being guilty of the grossest licentiousness. We witnessed this painful scene for about two hours, and learned to cry with more intense desire, "Have respect unto the covenant, for the dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of cruelty."
Close to Scutari stood the ancient Chalcedon, now called Kadikoy, "the village of the judges," in allusion to the famous Council once held within its walls, the Council which condemned the opinions of Eutyches, who held that there was but one nature in Christ . Crossing to Galata,
* 1 Kings xviii. 2&
them before us, to prevent us from making any attempt to cross the Russian frontier. Had he known that we were sent on a mission of Jove to Israel, he would no doubt have been still more determined in his refusal, for Russia holds Israel with a grasp as firm as that of Pharaoh; though the day is at hand when God "will say to the north, Give up." * We were thus obliged to give up the hopes of returning by Warsaw, and to make up our mind to shape our course through Cracow. Meanwhile, we occupied our time in fresh inquiries into the state of Israel in the city of Constantinople.
(Aug. 23.) Setting out for the Jewish quarter, we met two strong Circassians, wearing the caftan and conical Persian cap. We also met a Roman Catholic funeral; that of a young person. The priest walked before in his black dress, reading the prayers; many boys following him joined in the chant; and the bier was covered with flowers. We sailed up the Golden Horn, passing by a wooden bridge and a dockyard, in which we saw no more than two ships building and a few under repair. We landed at the Jewish quarter, called Huski, and soon got a pleasant young Jew, named Nisim, who spoke Italian, to be our guide. He knew no Hebrew, and had little of an Israelite in his character. He said he was anxious to be away from his countrymen and to get to England. We asked what he hoped to find in England; and, in reply, he showed us that the sum of his expec
* Iaa. xliii. 6.
We came to a synagogue standing on an eminence, and enclosed within a wall. It was not unlike one of our churches, well built, airy, and clean. The drapery in front of the ark was embroidered in a beautiful manner, and the lamps were handsome lustres of brass. There were sixteen synagogues in this quarter alone, and three in Pera. The Jews seemed very suspicious of us: they scarcely entered into conversation at all, but stood silent, and sullenly noticed what we did and where we went. With some difficulty we now found our way to the synagogue of the Karaite Jews, of whom there are about a hundred families here, all living together in one quarter, being despised and hated by the other Jews. Their synagogue is built in a low situation. You descend a stair, over which a vine is spreading its branches, and there find yourself in the area where the synagogue stands. Perhaps it is a satire on their fondness for the literal meaning of Scripture, but it is said—that the Karaites always have their synagogue low, that so they may literally use the Psalm. "Oat of the depths have I cried unto thee, O Iiord."\ The apartment was neat and clean, the floor covered with mats and carpets. We examined their copies of the Bible, and found one of the London Society's edition among them. They wear "the fringes" or Tsitsith, according to the commandment in Numbers,J of a different form from those of other Jews. It ia
• 1st. liv. 7. t Ps. cxxx. 1. t Num. xv. 3a
KARAITE SYNAGOGUE. 30
with them a sort of sash or girdle, at the two ends of which are fringes of white and blue,—not merely white threads, like that of the other Jews. We saw also the mezuzaU at the door of the synagogue, so that they are not altogether free from pharisaical traditions. But they have no Tephillin or phylacteries; on the contrary, they deride them, and call them "donkey-bridles." They have only one school for their children. Inquiring for the rabbi, we learned he was absent in Stamboul, so that we resolved to return on the morrow to get better acquainted with this interesting people, the Protestants of the house of Israel. We made inquiry of many Jews about the place which Joseph Wolff calls "the Valley of Job," and which he said that some Jews thought was "the land of Uz." There is such a spot, but none of the Jews connected it with that patriarch. It gets its name from a famous Saracen named Yob, who was killed in the valley in the great assault on Constantinople, and whose tomb was erected there. It is said that the spot of his burial was discovered in a miraculous manner, and a mosque has been built over it, called, after him, the Mosque of Yob, which is much frequented by devout Moslems.
(Aug. 24.) A little after five in the morning, we again sailed up the Golden Horn to Huski, and soon reached the Karaite Synagogue. The Jews were already met, in number about eighty persons. Their shoes were all piled up at the door, and they themselves seated upon the ground. A few who came in late seemed to show some reverence to the mezuzah on the door-post . All sat while reading their prayers; but when the Law was produced, all stood up in token of reverence, and then sat down again.* After reading the usual portion, in which two boys took the chief share, the rabbi, who had invited us to sit by his side, read a passage in Deuteronomy, and gave an oral exposition, of which Mr. Caiman took notes. The passage was Deut. xxi. 10—23. "From v. 10 to 15," the rabbi said, "there are given directions regarding the captive woman who was to be married to her Jewish conqueror; her hair was to be shaved, her nails pared, and her raiment changed." "Now (said he), the heart is to be kept with all diligence, for if we allow our hearts to think upon an object, then the desire to have it springs up." This he applied to the case of the
• See Neh. viii. 5.
Illll perSUIIS IIIIU IilCII IIUUaC», \U n IIUSC }»ii i y uilU ninrg
rity they had no evidence. The captive woman was obliged to make a profession of the religion of her conqueror before she could be married to him; but you see (said he) the chain of misfortunes that succeed when the profession is not a true one." He referred, in conclusion, to the wise provision of the Karaite Jews, that none be admitted into their communion, who have not passed through a probation of five years, during which time they are instructed, and their manner of life watched. If they are found to be sincere and faithful, then, at the end of that time, they are received as brethren, and married into one of their families.
There was no greater appearance of real devotion in the Karaite congregation than in other Jewish synagogues. They often spoke to each other even during prayer; and we observed that some of them fell asleep as they sat on the ground. When service was over, the rabbi, Isaac Cohen, invited us to his house—a clean and airy habitation; and after entering, according to the custom of the country, a servant brought us water and jelly. The rabbi is an elderly man, of some intelligence and learning—able to speak Hebrew fluently. He admitted the ignorance of his people, and highly approved of the proposal that Christians should institute schools among them, saying that lie would send his own son to be a scholar. He remarked that their sect had suffered less four copies remaining; the rest had been all disposed of to Karaites. Before taking leave, we purchased from him at a moderate price, the following works, all of them very rare, and connected with the Karaite Jews.
1. A Hebrew Prayer-book, used by the Karaite Jews.
2. A Hebrew Pentateuch, with a translation into the Tartar and Osmanli
Turkish language, used by the Karaite Jews. This is the work above mentioned of our friend R. Isaac Cohen.
3. A Commentary on the Books of Moses, by rabbi Joseph Solomon, a
4. A Commentary on the Prophets, by rabbi Aaron, a Karaite Jew.
5. A Commentary on all the Commandments of the Old Testament, by
rabbi Klijah Bsitzi, a Karaite Jew.
All these are now deposited in the Library of the General Assembly of our Church.
We were highly gratified that we had been permitted to visit this interesting community; and all the information that we received concerning them, confirms the report which we had previously heard, that they are a peculiarly upright and respectable class of Jews. The Karaites of the Crimea are so highly esteemed, that on one occasion, when the Emperor wished them to serve as soldiers, they asked him to inquire if ever during (300 years any public crime had been laid to the charge"of a Karaite, and pleaded, that if they were sent to the war, he would lose some of his best subjects. The Emperor admitted the truth of their plea, and desisted from his demand. Many of them carry on trade at Odessa; and it is said that there is a colony of them in Lithuania, by the side scattered Christians, to whom Peter wrote both his Epistles, encouraging them to bear " the fiery trial," f which came upon them under the governor Pliny, in the reign of Trajan.
We were ready to depart on the morrow, having completed our arrangements during the preceding week. We had discovered that, to ascertain accurately the state of the Jewish mind in Constantinople, one must take up his residence there, and gradually penetrate the mass. No missionary has ever done this; so that this great city is yet an unexplored territory. Mr. Schauffler from America, and Mr. Farman from England, may be said to have laboured on the outskirts. Any efforts hitherto made have been effective, at the most, only on the German Jews residing here; whereas the Spanish Jews form the immense bulk of the vast community of the children of Israel. No aggressive effort has been made on this mass; and yet the spontaneous visits made to the two missionaries who have resided here are enough to shew that there is some stirring among the dry bones in this open valley. Oh for an Elijah, "very jealous for the Lord of Hosts," to go forth on the work of salvation to these untold thousands of Israel, who are
• Sec Mr. Caiman's account in his recent work, " Errors of Judaism, p. TOG. t 1 Pet. iv. 12.
KARAt-ra Jews. 365
sitting in the region and shadow of death! He would require the same qualifications as a missionary at Smyrna, but not more; for the ancient learning of the Jews of Constantinople is nearly gone. The obstacles, too, are the very same as in Smyrna, with the addition, perhaps, of greater political power, and more bitter and watchful jealousy on the part of the rabbis. But many of the people are weary of the bondage in which their rabbis keep them. It is of consequence, also, to remember, that any impression made on the Karaites of this city, whose friendliness to Christians seems like the Macedonian cry, "Come over and help us," would soon reach their brethren of the same community in the Crimea, and other parts of the world. Indeed, we may well ask, Why have not special advances been made to this class of Jews ere now? They are far less bewildered by tradition and prejudice than their brethren; and the veil seems not to be so closely drawn over their heart as over that of their brethren. Oh that God would raise up some devoted missionary to carry to them the good tidings of the Gospel!" Oh that the salvation of Israel were come out of Zion.'"
with heartfelt gratitude and joy, we lound Mr. M'Cheyne on board, wonderfully recovered, and able to proceed on the voyage. A few hours after, we took farewell of our kind American brethren, who had made their house our home, and sailed for the Danube. The steamer in which we sailed was named "Ferdinando Primo," and though belonging to an Austrian company, was commanded by a kind, intelligent Englishman. The wellknown Prince Piccolomusci was on board, on his way home to Germany from Abyssinia, from which country he had brought a ransomed female slave, and several Nubian boys. As we left the harbour, we enjoyed our last view of this wonderful city. The marble towers and dark green cypresses of the Seraglio, the ample dome of St. Sophia, the towering mosques, and the crescent* on at least ninety minarets that rise over the red-tiled houses of the city, were all glowing beneath the rays of a noonday sun. We were able to sit on the deck, and enjoy the scenery all the way up the Bosphorus; but soon after entering the Black Sea, a head-wind sprung up, and we experienced something of the storms that led the ancients to call it "afcvos," "the inhospitable sea." We did not, however, experience any of those thick dark fogs which often envelope its bosom, and are said to have suggested the modern name. We forgot to look for the famous rocky islands about two miles north of the entrance,
* May not this emblem of Turkishpower be derived from the horn, to common as a Reure of strength and dominion in Eastern countries! The rreiceni would thus be like the two horns in 1 Kings xxii. 11
BLACK SEA—VARNA. 367
known to the ancients by the name of Cyaneae or Symplegades. It was fabled by the unskilful, and therefore timid navigators, of those days, that these rocks used to dash on each other; and the renowned ship Argo ran no small risk in passing between them. Our vessel, however, knew none of these dangers, although, in search of the lost sheep of the house of Israel, we were traversing the same dangerous seas which Jason and his band explored, when they sought the Golden Fleece. These shores used to be thickly set with altars, and other devout tokens of gratitude for deliverance, which seamen erected in honour of their gods.
Next morning the sea was like a sheet of glass, and we found ourselves rapidly sailing along the western shore. The coast was low, and the country nearly flat, so that the eye wandered over plains partially wooded, without any marked object to arrest it. We passed Cape Emineh Bourun, which is the termination of the range of the Balkan,—the renowned Ha-mus of ancient days. Between this range and the Danube lay the country called Masia. At noon, we anchored opposite the town of Varna, which occupies the site of the ancient Odys«us. It is 128 miles from the Bosphorus, and stands on the flat shore of a fine bay. The houses are all of wood, low-built and red-tiled, with eight minarets rising over them; and a white wall, with musket loop-holes, surrounds the town. We landed, and after going through the ceremonies of fumigation for a few minutes, entered the town, and wandered through its half-deserted streets. There was pointed out to us the pass in the neighbouring hills where the Russian army was attacked by the Turks. In the streets we met some Jewish children, and a little after three German Jews, one of whom was bitterly complaining of having been left here by the captain of the last steamer, contrary to promise. "The precious sons of Zion, comparable to fine gold, how are they esteemed as earthen pitchers, the work of the hands of the potter!" *
At three o'clock we re-embarked and left the bay of Varna. It was a fine calm evening, and the eye could see to a great distance. No land appeared to the east, but a few distant sails lay on the line of the horizon. The western coast now became elevated and picturesque. A range of bold white cliffs overhung the sea, terminating in Cape Kalacria, the ancient Tiristria; and the • Lam. iv. 2
luuuwiug unu Uiiuuk-i. i\ inut; Iuiuicti uu wc uasscu
the south-west mouth of the Danube, and soon after another of its mouths, marked only by the deep woods upon its banks. The sea now exchanged its clear deep blue for a clay colour, being tinged by the muddy waters of the river; and the depth was only five fathoms. The coast was flat and low, marked by nothingbut the tall reeds that skirted it, and the trees beyond. Two large flocks of pelicans were dipping themselves in the water. About midday our vessel entered the Danube by the mouth called Seluna. A Russian village was near, at which several vessels were anchored. The rapidity of the stream and the shallowness of the channel make the navigation at the entrance very dangerous, so that many vessels are wrecked here. Indeed, it is said that the chief dangers attending the navigation of the Black Seaare to be attributed to the rivers that flow into it . There are nearly forty rivers which empty themselves into it, and these are continually altering the channel by the large deposits of mud which they carry down. Here the "dark-flowing" Danube appeared to be about the breadth of the Forth immediately above Alloa, but much more rapid. The territory on the right hand was Bessarabia, under the dominion of Russia. A few wretched huts of reeds, plastered over with mud, appeared on the bank, before which some Russian sentinels were patrolling to guard the frontier. A vessel lay at anchor near, bearing the Russian flag. As we sailed slowly up the river, the banks continued flat and uninteresting, covered with reeds and bordered by marshes. Before sun• Trist. i. 10. t Trat . iii. x. 43.
During this voyage, we had many interesting conversations with the captain of the vessel and with the Prince. The latter told us that he had been educated when a boy at a Moravian seminary, and that he used to weep at the story of the sufferings of Jesus; but he had afterwards attended one of the Neologian Uersities of Germany, where the seeds of infidelity were sown in his heart. And now he had cast off the authority of the Bible, seemed scarcely to believe in a God, and held Pythagorean notions as to the transmigration of souls. VVe were enabled to bear an honest testimony to this bewildered man, showing, chiefly from what we had so lately witnessed of fulfilled prophecy, that the Bible was the Word of God, and proving from that Word his ruined condition and the great salvation.
(Aug. 29.) Before daybreak we had reached Galatz, the part of Moldavia near which we intended to perform our quarantine. We were not allowed to land, but, leaving the steamer, sailed down to the quarantine station, two miles below. Here, in an elevated situation, we found a large enclosure of wood, with many wooden cottages in the centre, one of which was to be our place of confinement for a week. It formed a striking contrast to our quarantine at the foot of Carmel, but the atmosphere was cooler, and we felt that we were on European ground. The only objects visible around were the low dusty hills between us and Galatz, and on the west, the hills of the Little Balkan, and the Five Mountains on the opposite side of the Danube.
370 QALATZ—aUARANTINS VICE-CONSUL.
As night came on, we were at a loss how to procure necessary articles of food; no guardiano had been yet appointed to serve us, and the keeper of the locanda or store, where provisions are supplied to those in quarantine by means of a board on which they are placed, could speak no language but Romaic and Wallachian. Besides, not being aware of the difficulty of procuring articles of comfort in a quarantine station, we had provided nothing for such an emergency, except mats for the night, which we brought from Constantinople. We now found the benefit of being inured to the rude life of those who dwell in tents.
Next morning, however, we were visited by a countryman of our own, Charles Cunningham, Esq., British Vice-Consul at Galatz, who, with the utmost kindness, procured for us all we needed. We, and all that we had, underwent a thorough fumigation, our clothes being suspended in the smoke for twenty-four hours. We were then removed into a more comfortable apartment, and a guardiano was appointed to take charge of us, a poor Russian named Constandi, very devout in observing the usages of the Greek Church.
We had now leisure to look around and think upon the region which we had entered. We had entered the ancient Dacia; the river before us was the Ister, and the people who were driving along their clumsy vehicles, dressed in linen frock-coats, with broad leathern girdles, and Roman sandals of skin on their feet, uncombed hair hanging over brow and neck from under broad-brimmed black hats, are descendants of the barbarians who so often troubled the Empire of Rome. We saw large herds of dun cattle on the wide pasture land, and on the roads clumsy carts, drawn by oxen, creaked loudly as they went along.* Occasionally ships coming up the river gave a pleasant variety to the scene. A soldier guarded the quarantine, wearing a European coat and trousers of clean white fustian, with a black belt and black cap, his musket on his shoulder. Between us and the town lay the rude tents of a company of Zingans or Gipsies, engaged in making bricks. Before sunset some heavy drops of rain fell, the first that had refreshed us since we left the moist shores of England. It was accompanied with loud thunder.
• Ovid- Trist. iii. 10, 59, has noticed these features of this region:— "Runs opes parvae, pecut el stridentia plauttra."
received mucn important iniormanon regarding ttie province of Moldavia. It is an interesting country, but far behind in civilization. It is only lately that Galatz has got any thing like an inn. The Government oppress the people by taxes; and every landed proprietor is allowed to exact from the peasants eighty days' labour in the year, besides receiving one-tenth of all they possess. Labour, however, brings a good price; a labourer may earn six piastres a-day, and a piastre here will purchase 2 lbs. of meat. The country is very fertile if it were cultivated; indeed, it is called " The Peru of the Greeks;" but many of its vast plains are lying waste. There are 400,000 oxen killed annually for the production of tallow, and about 250,000 sheep are carried every year to the market of Constantinople. The languages used by the higher classes are chiefly Modern Greek and French. The Wallachian is the native dialect, and is used by all the common people. The religion of Moldavia and Wallachia is that of the Greek Church. A few strangers in Galatz, who are Roman Catholics, have lately erected a chapel for their own use.
There are many Jews in Galatz, but most of them in a very degraded condition. The English Consul's duty here is to protect the mercantile interests of British subjects, and these are chiefly Greeks from the Ionian Islands. The Gipsies or Zingans (a name, according to
372 OALATZ GIPSIES—NOBLES PRIESTS.
some, derived from Zoan, the ancient capital of Egypt though others trace it to the famous Tartar conqueror,) are in this province about 18,000 in number, and in Wallachia there are 80,000. They are almost all slaves bought and sold at pleasure. One was lately sold for 200 piastres; but the general price is 500. Perhaps 31. is the average price, and the female Zingans are sold much cheaper. The sale is generally carried on by private bargain. Their appearance is similar to that of Gipsies in other countries, being all dark, with fine black eyes, and long black hair. They have a language peculiar to themselves, and though they seem to have no system of religion, yet are very superstitious in observing lucky and unlucky days. The men are the best mechanics in the country; so that smiths and masons are taken from this class. The women are considered the best cooks, and therefore almost every wealthy family has a Zingan cook. They are all fond of music, both vocal and instrumental, and excel in it. There is a class of them called the Turkish Zingans, who have purchased their freedom from Government, but these are few in number, and all from Turkey. Of these latter, there are twelve families in Galatz. The men are employed as horsedealers, and the women in making bags, sacks, and such articles. In winter they live in town, and almost underground; but in summer they pitch their tents in the open air, for though still within the bounds of the town, yet they would not live in their winter houses during summer.
The Boyards or nobles of the country are not men of education, and spend their time chiefly in idle amusements, such as balls and playing cards. The Greek priests of Moldavia are low in character; so much so. that half a dozen of them may be found openly drinking in a tavern at any hour of the day. Though they are priests, yet they often carry on business, and they oppose the Bible.
(Sept. 5.) Early in the morning, we left our quarantine, glad to be once more at liberty. On our way to Galatz, we got a nearer view of the colony of Zingans. Their whole appearance reminded us of the poor villagers on the banks of the Nile. They were clothed in rags, and their little children were carried naked on the shoulder, or at the side, in the very manner of the Egyptians. They were toiling in the sun at the laborious the consideration of those benevolent persons who have taken up the cause of the Gipsies in our own land, whether it might not be possible to extend their labours, so as to send the light of the Gospel to these benighted exiles in other countries J Their numbers, their ignorance, their degradation, call loudly for the help of a Christian Missionary.
The appearance of the country was quite new to us, and Galatz, embosomed in acacia trees, appeared pleasant to our eyes, accustomed to the dismal walls of the quarantine. No tree is so frequent in this region as the acacia-tree, and we were told that, at Galatz, Odessa, and some other places near, no tree thrives so well. Everywhere we met patient oxen, and sometimes strings of small horses, four or even eight at once, dragging unwieldy wagons, which go creaking along the highway. The driver guides the oxen by striking them on the head. The constant creaking of the unoiled wheels of the wagons, giving loud notice of their presence, has given rise to a saying, that "no one greases his wheels except rogues and thieves." In winter it is not uncommon to see twenty oxen yoked to a single wagon. These reminded us of the prayer of David, "that our oxen may be strong to labour." J
Galatz contains above 10,000 inhabitants. Many of the streets are paved with wooden planks laid across, something after the manner of American corduroy. Many are totally unpaved, and consequently dusty in summer, and miry in winter. The houses are chiefly built of wood, white-washed, and covered over with
• Exod. i. 14. t Ezek. xxix. 12—16; xxx. 23-26. t Ps. cxliv. K
374 GALATZ—YPSILANTI—JEWISH RABBI.
clay. Even the churches are wooden edifices. Brandyshops abound in every street. In the market, we saw the cusa, so common in Syria, exposed for sale. We were interested in the number of Jews we met, and the numbers we saw busy in their shops. All wear the broad German hat or Russian fur-cap, and Polish gown. All have the mustach, beard, and ringlets, and all appeared to be either mechanics, or money-changers, seated at little tables on the street . The people seem very industrious, not, as in the East, sitting lazily with the pipe in their mouth. The women share in the general industry. They spin from the distaff even when walking to and fro. Their dress is not very peculiar, except the head-dress, which is generally a shawl over the head, fastened under the chin. It is often white, resembling that of the Genoese women. The soldiers oppress the people. A few days ago, a party of soldiers came to a man who had got leave to fish for an hour on the river, entered his boat, took away his written permission, and then laid claim to all the fish he had caught.
On the top of one of the steeples, we observed a large stork's nest. These are often seen also upon the chimney-tops of the houses; for the chimneys are built with a covering on the top, and open at the sides. The natives do not often allow these to be disturbed, as that would be considered unlucky. These remarkable birds come regularly on the 16th of April; "Yea, the stork in the heaven knoweth her appointed time," * so that you may calculate upon their appearance to a day.
The burying-grounds are near the entrance of the town; and not far from the fosse that surrounds Galatz, is a mound of earth that marks the spot where, during the late Greek revolution, Ypsilanti and 600 Greeks bravely defended themselves till they were cut in pieces by 5000 Turks.
In the afternoon we set out to visit the Jews of Galatz. We entered the shop of a respectable money-changer, who, after making our acquaintance, put on his best broad hat, and conducted us to the Rabbi, whom we found in the court of his house. He was a mild intelligent man, with the eye of a student; at first he seemed suspicious of us, because (as we learned afterwards) the Greek Church persecutes him, and hearing that we were Christians, he supposed that we were Greeks. We told him
* Jer. viii. 7.
now "Epicureans (that is, unbelievers) even at Jerusalem, and that they had built a synagogue there." He referred no doubt to the Christian church now building on /ion, and the few converts already gathered in Jerusalem. They said that they could not but hate Christians, for they were everywhere oppressed by them. For example, the preceding year, some Jews had caricatured the Greek priests and their religious service in a play— in consequence of which, twelve of their number were cast into prison, and forced to pay 5000 ducats to save their lives. The Ionian Greeks also burn a Jew in effigy every year at Easter, though the Government has at last forbid it. They asked us, "if we belonged to the Epicureans"—and on hearing us quote Hebrew texts, they would scarcely be persuaded that we were Christians. They have no idea of a Christian possessed of feelings of kindness and love towards them. Few of them speak Hebrew, all use German, and they also know the Wallachian language. They said that they had no want of employment, and that every one had a trade. Most of the money-changers are Jews. The rabbi said that there were 500 Jews in Galatz; but the Vice-Consul thought that there must be 2000.
In the evening, Mr. Cunningham conveyed us in his brisca to Ibraila, the port of Wallachia, three hours distant. The drive was interesting; more because of the novelty of our circumstances, than because of any peculiar beauty in the country. The fields seem often ungive us, although we had got a written permission from Galatz. Like all such petty officers in these countries, he wished to extort money, but the Consul's authority at last quelled his interference, and we crossed over to the Wallachian territory. It was dark when we reached Ibraila, where we were comfortably quartered in the apartments of Mr. Lloyd, the Wallachian Vice-ConsuL
(Sept. 6.) We had made preparations for starting by daybreak on our way to Bucharest. When we awoke we found that the rain fell heavily. This was like meeting an old friend, for we had not seen a rainy morning since leaving Scotland; but the time was not the most suitable for us. The ordinary way of travelling in this country is by a post-cart, which is a vehicle
rude in the extreme, being entirely of wood, the frame slight, the sides made of coarse wicker-work, (he wheels small. The harness is made of ropes or cords, some of which on this occasion had given way, but were retied for further use. The interior is filled irees Iuii grown, i ne ornamented aouoie cross on tne Greek churches, attracts the eye by its glittering in the sun, being either gilded or made of polished tin. Alas! they hide the divine glory that shines from the true cross of Christ, and try to make up for what they hide by dazzling the carnal eye with its gilded image. The stork's nest was common here as in Galatz, and in one courtyard two or three tame storks were walking about, no one venturing to injure them. In the Bazaar, stones were used for The Danube flows deep and full past the town. The trade in grain is increasing, and the town rapidly rising into importance. It has at present a thriving population of G000.
The dress of the Wallachian is similar to that of the Moldavian, but as the day was wet, many of the peasants wore a coat made of rough sheep-skin with the wool inside, and a cap of the same. We met several Russians in the streets, known by their long high hats, peculiar physiognomy, and light blue eye. The peasantry take off their hats when they meet you, and a boyard in his carriage saluted us in the same fashion. There are not few as they are, there is a disunion among them. They have no rabbi, and hence every one tries to be above the other, and does what is right in his own eyes. He said that he had in his possession two tracts addressed to Jews, distributed by missionaries at Jerusalem, and brought here by a travelling Jew, for no missionary had ever visited this country. This simple account convinced us of the vast importance of furnishing our missionaries with abundance of clear, spiritual, and pungent tracts addressed to the Jews. Who can tell to what bosom the good seed may be carried, and there be made to spring up? He had also heard that in England several Jewish students had become Christians; and that Christian tracts addressed to Jews had found their way into Russia. By this time about a dozen Jews had gathered round, who conducted us to the synagogue. Among them was a mild young man, a Spanish Jew, of a remarkably fine appearance, and very kind to us; but he could not speak any language except Spanish, though he understood a little German. Along with him was a friend, a German Jew, equally interesting and very affable. We were standing at the spot where the new synagogue was building, while the Jewish workmen were sitting down to their midday meal at our side. They asked Mr. Caiman if he wore the tsitsith. In reply, he told them that "they wore none, for the real tsitsith should have a fringe of blue, and not white strings." They then said, they believed Messiah would come yet; and that many in Smyrna and other parts of Turkey thought he would come next year. On this Mr.
weights, as in the East.
CONVERSATION WITH JEWS. 370
Caiman told them that the main thing to be known was the object of his coming, which was to take away sin; whereas, the Jews have at present no way of pardon. "You keep Sabbath," said he, "that you may be forgiven—you go a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, that you may be forgiven—you think whoever walks four yards on the Holy Land will be forgiven—you eat three meals on Sabbath, pray over graves, keep the day of atonement, all in order to find forgiveness; and yet you are never satisfied that you have found it. Your conscience is never at rest, which it would be, if that were the true way of pardon. Would God leave his people without some atonement for sin, after Jerusalem was destroyed and sacrifices done away? No; he left them Messiah. You yourselves offer a cock and a hen on the evening before the day of atonement, which proves your own conviction that you still need a sacrifice. Now, Christians have peace, not terror, during life, and can die without fear, knowing that they are going to a reconciled Father —not like you, who are so uncertain of your state, that even in the hour of death you engage the prayers of rabbis and of your children to be made for you after you are dead." The young German Jew heard with great interest, and then said, " That the Jews now had more faith than Abraham; for they believed God's word without having seen miracles." Mr. Caiman replied, " That to believe these things merely would not save them; the devils also believed, and were devils still." Another Jew standing by said, " We have no sin; for we keep Sabbath, eat no pork, drink no wine which a Got, (a Gentile) has touched, never eat without washing our hands; and we wear the tsitsith." Mr. C. turned to him, "God wishes something more than all this—the heart. Is your heart right with God? Do you dare to say that you love him at all times t Even while you are putting on the tephillin, do not your thoughts wander? Therefore, you are sinners, and where are your sacrifices? You have none even on the day of atonement." The Jew answered, that repeating or reading the passages of the Torah, that describe sacrifices, was as good as offering the sacrifices themselves. Mr. C. replied, "God has never said so; and you yourselves are not satisfied that it is so; for if you were, you would not go away to seek pardon still by pilgrimages." He then told him of those Jews at Smyrna who are willing to be Christians, only retaining their Saturday and festivals.
are meant, such as music, astronomy, &c. When a man is well, if he take medicine it will do him harm; but if he be ill, then he must put away bread and take the medicine. Now, the law is bread; but the Jews are sick, they are ignorant and degraded. You must therefore lay aside the study of the law and take the medicine, which is the seven wisdoms or sciences spoken of here." This rabbi had left a deep impression upon the Jews here and elsewhere. The young man spoke with great admiration of him and of his sentiments, and especially of this one, that the Jews must be instructed in science and in arms, that they may wrest the land of Palestine from the Turks under the conduct of Messiah, as the Greeks wrested their country.
The Jews think themselves better treated in Wallachia than in Moldavia, where lately an additional tax was attempted to be imposed on them; and this may account for the great freedom with which they spoke to us. Yet even here they suffer. A Jew going down to the river will often be ridiculed by the porters and wagoners. We were told the number of Jews at Bucharest, and that at Pitesti, a village twenty miles from it, were seventy Jewish families.
It was nine in the evening when we left Ibraila for Bucharest, the capital of Wallachia, a distance of 120 miles. Mr. Cunningham's kindness was unremitting to the last, and we endeavoured to repay it, in the only way within the reach of ministers of Christ, whose best description is to be " poor yet making many rich." The brashovan* ca or covered carriage, (so called from Brashova, a town near Cronstadt, in Austria, where it was invented,) proved of the greatest value to us. As we had hired twelve man at the post-house who examines these documents. The
post-houses are no more than solitary cottages, containing one or perhaps two unfurnished rooms; and the horses with which a traveller is to be supplied, are generally in the adjacent fields, only caught on the arrival of a vehicle. Many a time we had to wait long till the straggling ponies were brought in from the fields. And it was any thing but pleasant to sit sleeping in the brashovanca in the cold night-air, conscious that we were making no progress, yet unable, from ignorance of the language, to urge on the drivers. Frequently, too, the postillions would stop of their own accord, in order to run to a house to get their pipe lighted. At the end of the second stage, our horses were reduced to eight, a more manageable number, the foremost pair of the team having a bell attached to their necks, to give notice to passers-by of the approach of some vehicle over the soft ground.
(Sept. 7.) When morning dawned, we were in the midst of a vast uncultivated plain, in many parts soft and marshy, with a few rude cottages near us. The drivers were waiting at the post-house, until the horses should be brought in from the grass. We resolved to make use of this interval; and having brought with us all the provisions we needed till we should reach Bucharest, we left the carriage and entered one of the cotta
382 IBRAILA TO BUCHAREST—DIALECT OF PEASANTRT.
ges. It resembled somewhat the interior of an Irian cabin, consisting of a single apartment, and a sleeping place lower than the ground. The peasant and his wife, good natured, but most uncivilized-looking people, were seated at the fire. Knowing that we were in the region of ancient Dacia, and that their language was derived in part from that of the Romans, we began by trying of what use our Latin might be. The man said to us that the morning was "frig, frig" that is "cold, cold." They called their fire (which was made of cowsdung) "foco." We pointed to their cow, and called it "vacca;" he smiled, and said "vac," and called the cattle " boi." We asked for milk, "lac;" he corrected us, and said "lapte." They brought us a refreshing draught of milk, and having boiled a little water on their fire we made tea. They stood by in respectful astonishment, yet apparently much amused, and expressed no small joy on our giving them a trifling present for their hospitality. We learned a little more of their language during breakfast. A horse is called cat—evidently derived from caballus; a cottage is cat; water is ami. A dog began to bark; we said, "cant* latrat;" the man corrected us, "cufn latra." Bread is puin; a pitch fork, furc; a kettle for boiling water caldare. Many other examples of the derivation of their language from the Latin we met with afterwards. On our journey, oxi one occasion the driver asked if we had fune, " a rope," which he said was to tie " ligar," the pole. Coming to a village, we asked a woman for milk, she replied, "non est," "there is none;" and another said, "aker, ni duhh est," "there is sour, not sweet," bringing out a large bowl of sour milk. A porter who carried some articles for us said, "Nosti Romanisti, domneV "Do you know Romaic, Sir?" and often the people used " spoune," that is " tell me," in conversation with one another.
Leaving the cottage, we entered the carriage, and swept along over what appeared to be an endless extent of level plains, without a single eminence to relieve the flatness, or a tree on which the eye might rest . We saw scarcely any marks of cultivation, but tracts of pasture land, with here and there an immense herd of dun oxen, or sometimes buffaloes; horses also, and sheep, and large flocks of geese. Occasionally, the cottages displayed a little neatness, being made of wicker-work, plastered over with clay, white-Washed,—and the roof in general to be fertile and soft, and seldom did a single stone occur on the road. The postillions drove well, each having four in hand; and often they plucked hair from the horses' mane to improve the lash of their whips. The horses, which were small, lean, and active, seemed to prefer the gallop as much as the riders. When any part of the road was cut up, they immediately took a new course,—so smooth and level is this country.
About eight o'clock in the morning we passed within sight of a small lake, with rocks overhanging it,—a rare sight in these plains. At the fourth post, horses were treading out corn, and in the gardens was a sort of gourd that is hard as a turnip, and much used for food. Wells now began to be common, having a tall upright pole, over the top of which lay a transverse bar, with a weight at one end to act as a lever in drawing up the bucket . We had seen this before in Egypt; and it is commonly used in Poland and Russia. The poor drivers never failed to stop once in a stage to get their pipe lighted, which they continued to use even when riding at full speed.
About midday, we came to a village (the first since leaving Ibraila,) called Slobodzi, having a Greek church, and a convent. No monks reside in the convent, but only a superior and his two deacons, to carry on the
V'utit smi, ftuuan..u till luc utuirvs Ul a aiuau lane ± uc
people seemed all busily employed, and vast herds of oxen were coming round the sides of the water. The setting sun shed a pleasing light over this scene, which was peculiarly refreshing to our eye, after the tameness and monotonous level of the preceding part of the journey. The two villages named above are the only places of the least importance which we passed in our long journey of 120 miles.
It was three o'clock in the morning (Sept. 8) when we reached Bucharest. We should have arrived at nine the preceding evening, but lost several hours at the different post-houses from our ignorance of the language, and inexperience in this mode of travelling. We went first to the Khan Rosso, to which we had been recommended; but after knocking and waiting half an hour, our answer was "Nui loghi" "no places"—"no room." Our drivers next found out the Casino di Martin; but no one would reply to our knocking. While we were lingering cold and weary in the open street of this strange city, we heard the loud hum of many voices, and saw a large upper room lighted up;—it was a Jewish Synagogue, for this being their New Year season, the devout portion of them spend the greater part of the time in continual
f>rayers. The watchmen on the street and our postilions imitated their loud cries in ridicule of their devotions; so true are the words of Moses, "Thou shalt become an astonishment, a byword, and a proverb, among all the nations whither the Lord shall lead thee." * Many Jews were now hastening through the dark streets to
• Deut. xxviii. 37.
KHAN—BR1TI.SH CONSUL. 386
the synagogue, and one seeing our dilemma offered to conduct us to a khan. No other help being at hand we thankfully accepted his services, and followed him through several streets till he brought us to a very large caravansera, called Khan Manuk, overhanging the muddy stream Dembrowitza, where we found an empty room, in which we spread our mats, and thankful for the mercies of the past day, sought repose.
(Sabbath.) A strange scene presented itself to us when we looked out in the morning. The khan was of large dimensions, covering apparently an acre of ground, with high buildings all around. The ground floor was occu
Sied with horses and carriages of all kinds.* The second oor was devoted to passing travellers, and the third to those who were to stay above six months. The second floor had a wide promenade all round, and on it were gathered groups from many different countries, especially Russians, Hungarians, and Greeks. A mixture of strange barbarian languages filled our ears. We sighed in vain for the holy quietness of a Scottish Sabbath, and being determined if possible to find a more peaceful residence, we removed in the forenoon to a much smaller and cleaner place, called Khan Simeon, kept by a Greek. Here we enjoyed the rest of the holy day, and worshipped together in peace and comfort. In the evening the British Consul-General, R. G. Colquhoun, Esq., of Fincastle, found out our dwelling, and welcomed us to Bucharest with all the kindness of a fellow-countryman.
Next morning (Sept. 9) we waited on the Consul, from whom during our stay we received much information as to the state of the country, and experienced the utmost attention and hospitality. He insisted on our dining at the Consulate every day, which, in as far as our inquiries would permit, we agreed to do. Among his servants were three from Scotland, whose faces were lighted up with joy to see fellow-countrymen in this strange land.
Wallachia is a fine country, and, if fully cultivated, might support twelve millions of inhabitants; whereas
• This is the style of all Eastern caravanaeras. and may illustrate "the stable of Bethlehem." There was no room for Joseph and Mary in the apartments set apart for travellers, so they had to betake themselves to the lowest floor; and there the shepherds found the babeLuke ii 7—12.
at present there are not much above two millons. The immense wastes through which we passed might easily be put under cultivation, and would yield ample returns; but there are no hands to hold the plough. Population is not encouraged; and the vices of the inhabitants keep it down. Nearly three-fourths of the land in this province and in Moldavia are in the possession of tbe monasteries. Many estates belong to monasteries in other countries, such as the convent of Mount Athos and that of Mount Sinai; in which case the property is let and farmed by the natives of the country at a reasonable rent . The western part of the province, called Little Wallachia, is entirely a mountainous region, and very different from that part through which we travelled. Crayova, which used to be the rendezvous of the Crusading Knights, on their way to the Holy Land, is situated there. Whole tracts of the country are occasionally devastated by the ravages of the locust . Bucharest contains 120,000 inhabitants. The Greek churches alone amount to no fewer than 366. There are also two Roman Catholic churches, one Lutheran, and one Calvinistic. There are no mosques, for, by the treaty of Adrianople in 1829, no Mahometan is allowed to possess property or hold a domicile in either province.
In addition to the exportation of grain, which is the chief product of this country, there is a considerable trade in cantharides, small beetles found chiefly in the woods of Little Wallachia, and gathered from trees in bags. The bristles of the hog are here very large and strong, and these are exported to Britain to make brushes. Immense quantities of leeches also are gathered here and sent in bags to Paris.
All the Boyards or nobles of Wallachia reside in the capital. They seldom visit their estates, and some, it is said, have never seen them, so that their property is left entirely in the hands of agents, who take good care to enrich themselves. The Prince, Alexander Demetrius Gike, is believed to be much under the influence of Russia, and is not equal in talent to the Prince of Moldavia. There is a Chamber here, elected by men of certain rank and property, who assist in carrying on the government. But the employes of government are not men of the best character, and the tribunals of justice are lamentably corrupt, so that the only sure way to gain a cause in this country is to go with a bag parties are soon married again to others.f We were often during our sojourn in this country reminded of the awful description given by Jeremiah; "From the least of them even unto the greatest of them, every one is given to covetousness; and from the prophet even unto the priest, every one dealeth falsely. Were they ashamed when they had committed abomination? nay, they were not at all ashamed, neither could they blush."}
From the top of the Consul's house we obtained a fine view of the city. It is built upon a marshy plain, and a few years ago was all paved with wooden planks thrown over canals of water, which continually sent up the ele
• See Matt. xiii. 44.
t An incident occurred during our stay at Bucharest, which forcibly illustrates this shameful state of things. The Prince gave a ball on the night of his birth-day. A certain Boyard and his lady were passed over and not invited. The lady, unable to contain her chagrin, said to her husband, "Now, you see that by marrying you I have been left uninvited to the Prince's ball. Unless you procure me an invitation, I will immediately sue for a divorce.'' The poor Boyard ran immediately to the chamberlain, and entreated nim to send an imitation to his wife;—not that he cared much for her, but because he would be obliged to pay bock her dowry. The request was granted, and the divorce prevented for that time.
t Jer. vi. 13—15
ments of fever and ague. The Russians, however, destroyed these and drained the city. The churches here are not beautiful within, but appear showy from without . The number of spires is very great, and many of them are covered with polished tin, which dazzles the eye in the sunshine. This is a recent mode of adorning; anciently the spires were all of brick, but it was found safer to dispense with these on account of the frequent earthquakes which shake the country. The buildings are beautifully interspersed with luxuriant gardens, containing vines, apricots, and splendid walnuts. Many of the houses being built of wood, fires are frequent and dangerous. We saw a tower on which a man is stationed, watching night and day to give alarm in case of fire breaking out . Not unlike the duty of this man is that of the faithful pastor!
In regard to the Jews, we were told that they are better treated in this province than in Moldavia, for there an attempt was made to overtax them; but not so here. Every Jew must bring a certificate that he can earn a livelihood by some trade before he is allowed to settle. As to the number residing here, we found it impossible to ascertain the truth with accuracy. The highest estimate was made by themselves at 7000, the lowest by the Consul at 2800. Some Jews stated the number at 5000; and the aspect of their synagogues led us to think this to be nearest the truth. There are seven synagogues belonging to the Polish Jews, who are mostly all mechanics—tailors, shoemakers, carpenters, workers in gold trinkets, &c. Those who belong to the same trade keep by the same synagogue. There is one handsome Spanish synagogue, which is frequented by the wealthy and influential men. The majority of the Jews here are corrupt to such a degree, that about three years before our visit, when one of their rabbis attempted to reform them by preaching against their vices, they never rested till they got him expelled, even stirring up his own wife and children against him. On our asking, if all the Jews here believed the Scriptures (ion, tanach) to be the word of God, the reply was. " Andere glauben, andere nicht* "Some believe, some do not."
The first synagogue which we visited was one belonging to the Polish Jews. This being the festival of ru»n wm (Rosh Hashanna), that is, New Year's Day, the place was crowded to excess, no Jew who can possibly aton the Tallith, the front of which was ornamented with a band of silver work. The old rabbi wore a white ephod or shirt, having the collar richly embroidered with silver and gold. This is called a'«i roiSn (halukah rabbonim), " The shirt of the rabbis," a dress which they wear in imitation of the writers of the Talmud, who are said to have worn the same, and in which all rabbis are buried. This rabbi commenced, and soon all joined in repeating the 47th Psalm seven times over. The rabbis think that the verse, "God is gone up with a shout, the Lord with the sound of a trumpet," gives some countenance to the peculiar ceremony of the day, namely, the blouring of a trumpet. They also believe that every New Year's Day is a kind of day of judgment . "Every year, on the festival of Rosh Hashanna, the sins of every one that cometh into the world are weighed against his merits. Every one who is found righteous is sealed to life. Every one who is found wicked is sealed to death." Accordingly, they imagine that Satan at this season comes before God specially to accuse every soul. In order, there
390 BUCHAREST—JEWISH SYNAGOGUE.
fore, "to confuse Satan," and prevent him from bringing forward his accusations, and also "to change God's attribute of judgment which was against them into mercy," their wise men of blessed memory have ordained that the trumpet should be blown on the first day of the month Elul every year.
The old rabbi made use of a small ram's horn, which he had some difficulty in getting to sound. One rabbi chanted the word of command, nvpn (takeeah), at which the other blew through the horn. Nine times this was repeated, and the last was a long blast; then all present shouted and imitated the sound with their hand and mouth. They resembled exactly a company of children imitating a military band, and but for the heart-rending fact that these very follies form part of the strong delusion to which God has given up his ancient people, the whole scene would have been irresistibly ludicrous. The prayers that followed were offered with great vehemence, and a rabbi and three young men sang well the Psalm which does not now apply to Israel, " Blessed is the people that know the joyful sound."
In another Polish synagogue close" by, we saw the same ceremony. We also visited the Spanish synagogue, where the Jews present were handsomely dressed, and the Jewesses whom we saw at the gate, were enveloped in silk mantles edged with fur. They were engaged in the same ceremony, only they did not seem to be so zealous, and went through it with greater dignity. Alas, Israel, "children are thy princes, and babes rule over thee!" * "The Lord hath taken away from Judah the stay and the staff, the judge and the prophet, the prudent and the ancient."
In the afternoon we went to the synagogue again, in expectation of seeing the Jews march down to the riverside, and " cast all their sins into the depths of the sea,"f which they do by shaking their garments over the water, as if casting their sins out of their bosom. But we were too early, and were told that they wait till it is dusk, when the people of the town will not observe them.
Mr. Caiman pointed us to a proof of the degraded character of the Jews here, as we were passing a common eating-house.—On the walls of it many German sentences of a jovial character were written in Hebrew letters. Thus,
* lea. ill. 4. f Mic. vii. 19.
lt>r iuur burnings una sixpence, unu uu otte ui uieui ^tuui
is 2J lbs.) for one piastre, that is about twopence. But firewood is very dear. A large family often pay 501. a-year for this article alone. The expense of travelling from England to Bucharest, the Consul estimated at 30/. As to the prospects of success, he thought that any direct attempt to convert the Greeks would be immediately fatal to any mission. A Jewish missionary must confine his labours to the Jews, and not interfere with the natives. The light will spread indirectly. The only danger to a mission is, that the priesthood, fearing its indirect influence, might bring in the arm of Russia to put it down: and Russia could easily do this in their own secret way if they had the will.
(Sept. 10.) In the forenoon, we set out to call on Samuel Hillel, a Jewish banker, who was to introduce us to Rabbi Bibas of Corfu. By mistake we were led to the house of a wealthy Spanish Jew, and ushered into a fine suite of apartments. Several Jewish ladies came in fully dressed for the festival of the season. They received us very politely, and after discovering our mistake, directed us to the banker's house. He was not at home, but we found his son (who said that he had seen us at the synagogue), and his three daughters, richly attired, wearing diamonds on their head—for the daughters of Judah,
392 BUCHAREST INTERVIEW WITH RABBI BIBA9.
even in their captivity, have the same love for gay apparel that they had in the days of Isaiah.* In conversation with the son, we soon discovered that he was one of those Jews who care little about Palestine, and do not expect a Messiah, believing that education and civilization alone can exalt the Je"ws; to which he added,—" a knowledge of arms, that they may defend their land when they get possession of it." We afterwards saw his father, who conducted us to the house where the rabbi of Corfu was lodging. Rabbi Bibas received us politely. He spoke English with great fluency, told us he was a native of Gibraltar, and was proud of being a British subject. He has a congregation of 4000 under his care in Corfu. On our entrance, he excused himself for not rising, a slight indisposition and the fatigue of travelling obliging him to lie on the sofa. We said, "The Eastern manner became one of his nation." He replied, "No! no! the Jews are not Easterns." We said, "Abraham came from the distant East." "True; but you are not to reckon a nation by their first parent." Immediately he began to speak of the situation of the Promised Land, asking us to say, Why God chose Israel for his peculiar people, and that portion of the earth as their land? Much conversation arose on these points, and as often as we tried to break off and introduce something more directly bearing on our object, he stopped us by affecting great logical accuracy, and holding us to the point, if we had any pretensions to the character of logical reasoners. He denied that God ever meant the Jews to be a people separate from other nations, asserting that He intended them to enlighten all the earth, a duty which they must still perform whenever it shall be in their power. If they had means like the English they ought to send out missionaries. When we gave this reason why God chose Israel to be his peculiar people, "that the Lord wished to show that he was a sovereign God," he disputed this, because His sovereignty was already known to the heathen. He thought we must be content to reckon it among the secret things that belong to God. He then suddenly started another speculative question, "Where Eden was, and how four such streams as Moses described could have existed, since they are now nowhere to be found." On this point he at length rested satisfied with the remark, that it must be true, because declared in the Word of God. At
* Ise. iii. 18-24
RABBI BIBAS CHURCH OF THE METROPOL. 393
ter this he signified to us that it was the hour of prayer, and we must excuse him from further conversation at present . He showed great craftiness and skill in keeping the conversation from turning upon matters of experimental religion; for that was evidently his aim. On our rising to take leave, and mentioning that love to Israel had brought us to visit him, he declared that he loved Christians exceedingly, and that no Christian loved the Jews more than he did the Christians. He said that he was travelling for the sake of his degraded brethren, to see what might be done for them; and was anxious to meet with Sir Moses Montefiore on his return from the Holy Land. He disliked our reference to Scripture. Thus, on his remarking that the Jews must have been a very holy people since God so preserved them, we replied in the words of Ezekiel, " Not for your sakes do I this, saith the Lord God, be it known unto you." * But he hastily changed to another topic.
(Sept. 11.) In the morning we went to the church of the Metropol, to witness the Fete of the Prince of Wallachia, on occasion of his birthday. It is a splendid building, and the walls very showy within, being covered with gilding, and paintings of apostles and saints without number, with a rich silver chandelier suspended from the roof . The splendid pulpit, which had the appearance of being seldom or never occupied, was adorned with gorgeous gilding,—a poor substitute for "the words of eternal life." The Prince himself was not present, being unwell: but all the principal Boyards of Wallachia were present, and also Milosh, the exiled Prince of Servia, a man of dull, heavy-looking aspect, dressed in a rich pur>le uniform, with a costly diamond girdle. His son stood y his side. Consuls of different nations stood around, wearing their respective uniforms; and an immense crowd of well-dressed people, all standing, filled the church. The priests, arrayed in beautiful robes, surrounded the table. The Bishop wore a splendid mitre, with a diamond cross on the top, and his garments were stiff with gold embroidery. He is said to be an amiable man; and we could not but honour him for this, that he has permitted the free circulation of the Holy Scriptures in Wallachia. The service consisted chiefly of prayers for the Prince; followed by the responsive chanting
* Ezek. xxxvi. 32.
pious young woman, before whom the waters of the river were miraculously divided. The coffin was highly ornamented with silver, and the dead body wrapped in cloth of silver and gold. A shrivelled hand was all that was left exposed; and this was the great object of attraction. The worshippers approached in great numbers, men and women, rich and poor, officers and soldiers. First they kneeled to the ground three times, crossing themselves and kissing the pavement . Then they drew near, and reverently kissed the withered hand and a cross that lay beside it, dropping a piece of money Into a little plate which lay at the feet. The priest touched their forehead with a little cross in his hand, and muttered some parting blessing. With three prostrations more the worshipper retired. One poor boy, more intense in his devotions than the rest, made about twenty prostrations, being often disturbed by the crowd; and we could not see that after all he ever got a kiss of the skinny fingers. A rustic, with long uncombed hair, and his wife, brought their little baby in their arms to be blessed beside the holy coffin. The priest laid the crucifix upon its brow.
It was altogether a scene of the grossest idolatry, and it was melancholy to see so many respectable, intelligentlooking people engaged in it. What a stumbling-block are such Christians in the way of the conversion of the Jews! And yet there are about 200 Jews in Bucharest Prince and his sons" are mentioned.J We explained that Messiah was not there spoken of, but the Prince over Israel under him. His only remark to this was, "Oh, then, you give us two rulers!" He admitted the state of his people at present to be most wretched. In Poland especially, he said, they were grossly superstitious, for they understood every thing in the Talmud literally. Indeed, he had not gone to speak with the Polish rabbi, believing that it would be useless on account of his ignorance. The first remedy was to remove their ignorance. He would have the Jews gathered and educated in schools, where they should read and learn the Bible till ten years of age; the Mishna from ten to fifteen, and the Talmud from fifteen to twenty. He thought that the collections for the Holy Land ought to be given up, and that the Jews there ought to be obliged to work even were it by the bayonet. Sir Moses Moritefiore's plan of purchasing land for them in Palestine he considered useless, as long as there is no security for property there. The people must first be educated and
• Deut. xvii. 11, 12.
t The precise passage has escaped our memory; but it was some such passage as Judg. i. 8. all Judah fighting in Jerusalem, t Ezek. xlvi. 16.
two." We then pressed upon him to compare the blind and wretched state of the dry bones of Israel described in the prophets, with what he kneto to be the real condition of his people, and solemnly urged him to inquire if the blood of Jesus, which they were rejecting, might not be the very " fountain for sin," by which Israel was to be saved. He seemed surprised by our earnestness, evidently felt our sincerity, and we parted good friends.
Mr. Caiman called on an interesting and very respectable young Jew, lately baptized into the Greek Church, named Alexander Rosiski, a teacher of music. Mr. C. asked him how a conscientious Jew could ever become an idolater, as the Greeks were. He said that he never worshipped their pictures, though he attended service in their church. He had felt a want in his soul, and, from what he heard of Jesus, thought that in Him he would find his want supplied. This first led him to the Greek Church; but he confessed that his ignorance was still so great, that he could not meet his brethren in argument, and therefore avoided them, When Mr. Caiman explained Isaiah liii, expounding to him the work of Christ and "the way of God more perfectly," the young man was overjoyed and delighted; for the instruction thus imparted was more than all he had got among the Greeks. He had a Hebrew IVew Testament, but understood little of it, and owned that often lie had asked himself, Why he had become a Christian? But now he saw the truth in a way that convinced and established him. He longed for an instructor, and rejoiced at meets the eye. Fine brushwood and low trees line the road on both sides for many miles. When we had nearly completed our first stage, the axle-tree of the brashovanca broke, and left us helpless in a wilderness. After long delay, a wood-cutter, who happened to be by the roadside, made two young trees fall for us, and we contrived by their means to support the axle, till we drove gently to the next post, where the broken part was taken to a
Zingan, who repaired it. After a detention of three hours, we set off again, swiftly as ever, through woods and shrubs. There was something quite exciting in this mode of travelling. The two postillions, with their Wallachian vest, loose shirt sleeve, large boots, small fur-cap, and unshorn locks flowing behind, cracking their strong whips, and making the woods reverberate their cries, were most picturesque objects. The air also was delicious, and the flat plains seemed to fly past. At mounting, each postillion springs into the saddle crying Hee, when all the horses start off simultaneously. Their loud, wolf-like cry is very singular. One begins very low, gently swelling his voice, till it becomes a scream, then it dies away. Before he is done the other bells were sounding deep and calm. It reminded us of Longforgan in the Carse of Gowrie, and called our flocks vividly to remembrance. During the night we forded a broad but shallow stream, and, as morning broke, reached a village called Rimnik. For a short space the country was beautiful, with wooded hills on the south-west . But soon the road again became level as formerly. As we proceeded, a wheel of our vehicle rolled off, but by means of a rope, the postillions contrived to bind it . We next crossed a stream, and ascended a steppe to the platform where stands Foxshany, which we reached about ten o'clock, A. M.
This town is situated pleasantly among trees, and adorned with glittering tin spires, which give it a finu appearance. It has a tolerable khan, dignified with the name of " Hotel de France," kept by a little Spaniard, who is also the French Consular agent, and this khan we were glad to make use of instead of sitting as hitherto to eat our meals in the carriage or on the grass. But our patience was not a little tried on finding that no post-horses could be got; Prince Milosh and the Russian Consul had so overwrought them, that they were too wearied to set out again at present. We engaged a Wallachian of salvation. Most of the Jews here are mechanics; vn., many are tailors and shoemakers. We found such a measure of sincere devotion among them, that no one would lend us his horses, or accompany us on the morrow, simply because it was the Jewish Sabbath. They have two synagogues, and one "Beth-midrash" or public room for study.
This evening was the commencement of the " Day of Repentance," (ruie>n w, yom teshuvah,) a name given to the Sabbath immediately preceding the "Day of Atonement." On the morrow the Rabbi was to preach a sermon urging them to repentance; and this is one of the two occasions during the year whereon they have a regular sermon, the only other sermon being at the Feast of the Passover. In the ten days between "the New Year and the Day of Atonement, the Jews abound more in almsgiving and prayers than during all the rest of the year. Accordingly, both their synagogues were full of worshippers, loud and active in their devotions; even the little boys were rocking to and fro, and reading prayers with great earnestness, their gestures resembling those of the Jews of Saphet more nearly than any we had seen. When the service was over, a crowd came round, and asked who we were, and whence we came. We said that " we came from a far country out of love for Israel, to tell them the way of forgiveness." Not knowing what to make of us, they at last demanded "whether Messiah had come, or was to come?" We answered, " that both were true, that he had come once to ard, the keeper of the Hotel de France, and started at three o'clock in the morning. On reaching the frontier gate, however, the soldier on guard could himself neither read nor write; and, the examiner of passports being asleep, we were forced to wait till he chose to rise, sighing in vain for the liberty of our native land. It was nearly sunrise before we were fairly clear. We were now riding briskly, in a misty cool morning, on our way to the river Seret, which we soon crossed by a bridge of boats, at a deep and rapid part where lives have frequently been lost. Nearly forty yoke of oxen, dragging heavy laden wagons to the market, were waiting on the other side, and crossing one by one, after paying toll. We then ascended a steppe into a fine plain of vast extent . Soon the country became more undulating and better wooded. Several pleasant villages appeared, with scattered white cottages. The name of one of these was Taoutchy. Most of the houses in the villages we came to are built, not continuously, but at small intervals, with trees round each, giving them a picturesque and cleanly appearance. The churches are frequently white-washed and surmounted with glittering spires. The tall poles at the well, and the large haystacks affording provision for their long winter, are characteristic objects; while the large ugly swine, with immense bristles on the ridge of the back, and the handsome shaggy dogs that rush out as you approach, enliven the scene to a passing visitor.
About nine o'clock we stopped and set the horses free to feed and rest, while we got a supply of milk at a cottage, and sat down upon the grass to breakfast, adjourning afterwards to the wooded banks of a stream that always are. The outside of their churches, especially where there are Russians, have pictures on the walls. In the church-yard, instead of gravestones, they have black wooden crosses; and by the way-side there are stone crosses, the same as we observed before, often two or three together.
(Sept. 15. Sabbath.) We enjoyed a comfortable Sabbath in the upper room of the khan, though it was with difficulty we procured necessary food, as the people at first told us that we could have none without going out to the bazaar to buy it. The atmosphere was pleasant, the thermometer standing at 74° in the shade, as in a summer day at home.
In the afternoon, we went first to the principal church, and found only the priest and-three deacons, without an audience, hurrying through the prayers, and chanting without feeling or even melody. We next went to a smaller church, built entirely of wood. Here the priest had six or eight boys, in ragged clothes, who repeated the responses, while two old men and half a dozen of old women made up the audience. The walls of both churches were covered over with pictures and other ornaments, and when all was done, every one kneeled down with the head to the floor three times, crossed themselves between every prostration, kissed the pictures, and retired.
The morning service commences at eight or nine, and
402 BIRLAT GREEK CHURCHES—SYNAGOGUES.
at that time all the churches are crowded; but after that is over, the whole day is spent in amusements, cards, billiards, and drinking, the priests themselves setting the example. May not a Jewish missionary be blessed to shed some light even on these dark abodes of a heartless superstition? The synagogues of Corinth ana Thessalonica brought salvation to the Gentiles in their respective towns; and it may again be so in these regions, if the Lord answer our prayers and prosper our missionaries.
We had seen Jews in the streets on Saturday when we arrived; and now we met one, who led us to their synagogue. There are 130 Jewish families from Russia, Austria, and Germany, who live quietly here, and, generally speaking, suffer no persecution. In the synagogue two lads entered very eagerly into conversation with us in German. We began by telling them how different Christians in England and Scotland were from those in their country. They wondered much, and asked, "If we wore Tephillin" i. e. phylacteries. We said, "No, for this is not commanded in the Word of God, but only in their traditions." We then spoke a long time on the Scriptures being the Word of God, whereas the Talmud was the word of man. We referred to their prayers; showing that they did not procure pardon, but that Messiah only could do this by becoming surety for us. Both of the young men were very attentive, and greatly surprised that we believed the Scriptures (top) as firmly as the Jews do. Meanwhile, a group gathered round Mr. Caiman. They told him that they all believe in the divine authority of the leader of the Chasidim, in Russia, a Rabbi of wealth, who used to have attendants and a band of music following him whenever he rode out in his carriage. He had a chamber in his house, where it was believed that Messiah will stay when he comes; and at the beginning of each Sabbath went into this chamber, pretending to salute Messiah and wish him "Good Sabbath." He had two fine horses, on one of which Messiah is to ride, and himself upon the other. Not long ago, being accused before the Emperor by the Jews who are not Chasidim, of sending great sums of money to the Holy Land, and teaching that it is no sin to cheat the Government by smuggling, he was imprisoned at Kiow, and, though large sums have been offered for his release, he is still in prison. They also spoke of another Rabbi of the Chasidim, at Navoritz in Poland,
having the frame set round with lamps that bore the marks of often being kindled in her honour. Passing some country wagons, we examined minutely the large clumsy yoke which is fastened on the necks of oxen. It
is a large wooden frame, so heavy and stiff that the animal cannot put down its head to feed, unless the side pins be taken out, and its neck released from the yoke. This opened up to us the meaning of the prophet, " I was to them as they that take off the yoke on their jaws, and I laid meat unto them."\ Windmills and acacia-trees were the common objects that varied the scene on the road. A small lake occurs not far distant from the town, and near it a pillar on which is represented St. Peter with the keys. There are several neat wells, with seats round them for the accommodation of travellers, in the not to permit him; and spoke of a Jew in Jassy, who was called an Epicurus by the Jews, because he studied the Bible so much. He said that there were fifty families of Jews at the village of Nacoush near Jassy, and more at Waslui.
* Mr. Caiman know well a pretended forerunner of Messiah at his own place of birth, Rauske in Courland. In youth he was himself led away by him. "False Christs and false prophets" continue to rise in Israel.
! Lev. xiii. 6, 13. t IIos. xi. 4.
As we proceeded, the character of the country became more varied. Our way lay through a fine open valley with meadow land enclosed by wooded hills. A smooth river flowed through the vale. Late at night we arrived at Waslui, and found one Jewish khan already fully occupied with Jews, on their way to Jassy to keep the day of atonement there. In another we found a wretched lodging, though the poor people gave us their best apartment, and slept in the verandah themselves. We spread our mats on the clay floor and attempted to sleep, but in vain. We cared less for this, however, because it was the night preceding the day of atonement, and we had thus an opportunity of seeing the curious ceremony which then takes place. On the eve of that solemn day, it is the custom of the Jews to kill a cock for every man, and a hen for every woman. During the repetition of a certain form of prayer, the Jew or Jewess moves the living fowl round their head three times. Then they lay their hands on it, as the hands used to be laid on the sacrifices, and immediately after give it to be slaughtered. We rose before one A. M., and saw the Jewish Shochet, or "slayer," going round the Jewish houses, waking ?ach family, and giving them a light from his lantern, in order that they might rise and bring out their "Cipporah" or "atonement," namely, the appointed cock and
JEWISH CEREMONIES—THE CIFPORAH SACRIFICES. 405
hen. We walked about the streets; every where the sound of the imprisoned fowls was to be heard, and a light seen in all the dwellings of Israel. In two houses the fowls were already dead and plucked. In another, we came to a window, and saw distinctly what was going on within. A little boy was reading prayers, and his widowed mother standing over him, with a white hen in her hands. When he came to a certain place in the prayer, the mother lifted up the struggling fowl and waved it round her head, repeating these words, "This be my substitute, this be my exchange, this be my atonement; this fowl shall go to death, and I to a blessed life"—or in Hebrew,
TD'bn m (zeh chaliphathi) 'm«n TM (zeh temorathi) »rniM .-it (zeh cipporathi) : a'avj Cj'ti1? -fin um nrvcS i>' (nvjunnn or) Sunnn m
This was done three times over, and then the door of the house was opened, and out ran the boy carrying the fowl to the Shochet, to be killed by him in the proper manner.
How foolish and yet how affecting is this ceremony! This is the only blood that is shed in Israel now. No more does the blood of bulls and goats flow beside the brazen altar, the continual burnt-offering is no more, even the paschal lamb is no more slain; a cock and hen killed by the knife of the Shochet is all the sacrifice that Israel knows. It is for this wretched self-devised sacrifice that they reject the blood of the Son of God. How remarkably does this ceremony show a lingering knowledge in Israel of the imputation of sin, of the true nature of sacrifice, and of the need of the shedding of blood before sin can be forgiven! And yet so utterly blind are they to the real meaning of the ceremony, that the rabbis maintain that it is not a sacrifice, but only obtains forgiveness as being obedience to the traditions of the elders. So that the words of the prophet are strictly true, "The children of Israel shall abide many days without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice."*
• Ho*, iii. 4.
miles off the city appeared of great extent, the houses white, spires glittering, and much verdure around.
We entered it before sunset, and passed through long streets of artisans, the houses all of one story, and poorer than those of Bucharest . The Jews were busily employed in shutting up their shops and dressing. Many families were already on their way to the synagogue; for no one would be absent on so solemn an occasion as the beginning of the Day of Atonement. Many of them were fine-looking men, and the Jewesses were beautifully attired, some wearing jewels. Putting up our carriage, we hastened to the synagogue, which we found crowded to excess; even the women's gallery was quite full, and there were many children. The Absolution Chant, known by the name of " Col Nidre," had been sung before we entered. This we wished much to have heard, the tune being plaintive and beautiful, and one which the Jews believe was brought from Sinai. Three rabbis stand up dressed in white, and in their own name, and in the name of God, absolve all in the synagogue from the sins committed in the year past. The number of large candles lighted, and the multitude of worshippers, made the atmosphere quite oppressive in all the synagogues we visited; and the perspiration was running down in streams from the zealous devotees, whose cries and frantic earnestness might be heard afar off. They clapped their hands, clasped them, wrung them, manner as the previous night. At one of them we saw many mothers with their children at the breast or in cradles, sitting on the outside dressed in their finest clothes. It reminded us of the fast described by Joel, "Assemble the elders, gather the children, and those that suck the breasts."* As there was not sufficient room within, many men were sitting under the shade of the walls, looking with their faces towards Jerusalem, and praying along with those inside. The floor of the synagogue was for the most part strewed with straw or hay, to add to the comfort of the worshippers in their long service; for most of them put off their shoes, the day being so holy. All day the synagogue is full of immense lighted candles. Each family provides one, and each member has a thread in the wick of the candle. These represent the soul of each person according to their interpretation of the Proverb, "The spirit of man is the candle of the Lord." f On so solemn a day as this, no Jew will touch one of these candles, even were it to fell and endanger the safety of the synagogue. To do so would be accounted servile work, and therefore they employ a Gentile servant, who is called in when any lights require to be trimmed.
In the prayers, they go over the greater part of Lev. rvi., in which the sacrifices of the day of atonement are described. The rest of the service consists in reading a Hebrew poem, of which we were assured that most of the worshippers scarcely understood one word, because it is most difficult Hebrew. Yet all were engaged in reading it aloud. Sometimes they came to a chant, when . 408
* Joel ii. 16. t Prov. XX. 27.
DAY OP ATONEMENT—SYNAGOGUES.
the deep bass voice of the chanter was contrasted with the tenor voices of a few young men; the effect was often very plaintive, and sometimes ludicrous. Again and again the whole congregation broke in with "Amen,"
pronounced " Omain." Many of the men seemed already quite wearied with their worship, or rather with their bodily exercise, and many had their eyes red and swollen with weeping; a good number of the married men wore the nDiSn (halukah), or white shirt of the rabbis. Among the women, some were weeping, and others sobbing aloud. A few boys were as seriously engaged as their elders.
There are 200 synagogues in the town, and about thirty of these are large. In one quarter there are twenty, all within the space of a street. Some of the buildings had their roofs fancifully painted with figures, representing Paradise and the Creation—wild beasts, trees, and fishes, the golden candlestick also, and table of showbread. In several parts near the entrance of the town, we noticed the Eruv, or string stretched from house to house across the street, to make it a walled town, the same as we had observed at Saphet.* • See p. 283.
JEWISH STATISTICS JEWS. 109
We found it impossible to ascertain with accuracy the numbers of the Jews in Jassy. The Consul reckoned the whole population of the city at 50,000, and the Jews at somewhat less than the half, perhaps 20,000. This would coincide with the reckoning of many of the Jews themselves, who gave their numbers at 5500 families. The highest estimate we heard from a very intelligent Jew was 10,000 families, while the lowest was 3500, or about 15,000 souls. They are regarded by the Government as a separate community, and the capitation-tax is not levied from them individually, but from their chief men, who are leit to gather the sum from their brethren in the way they think most equal and fair. Each family, at an average, pay a ducat, equal to ten shillings. The way in which the rulers of the Jews levy the tax is as follows:—They lay it not on the provisions of the poor, but on articles of luxury. For example, a goose is sold for about a zwanzig,* but they put a tax on it of half a xtcanzig and eight para.8. Thus the rich, who wish luxuries, pay a high price for them; while the poor, who are content with the necessaries of life, escape. They do not consider themselves oppressed by the Government, but the common people use them ill. As an instance of this, we were told that a Moldavian would often reply, when asked by a Jew to do something for him, "I would as soon do it for a Zingan." The name " Zingan," and the epithet "cursed," is often applied to them. All the Jews here speak a corrupt dialect of German. They follow all trades, except that of a smith; the most are tailors, shoemakers, carpenters, and watchmakers; a few are idle, and sleep in the streets. There have been about twenty converts to the Greek Church. Three of these are persons of respectability, one the keeper of the hotel, another a carpenter, and the third a student at college—but all were very ignorant . The Jews believe that their true reason for seeking baptism was, that they might get more freedom. It did not make any difference in regard to their employment. If any of the chief Jews were to profess Christianity, many would follow their example. Some of them expressed their belief that Messiah would come in the year 1840, others think it is to be in the seven-thousandth year of the world, and then a time of Sabbaths is to follow. There is a belief, too, among many of them, that the Russians (whom they sup
* For the value of the different coins eee Appendix, No. II.
About six in the evening, we went to two of the largest synagogues, to see the ceremonies of the day of atonement concluded. When the sun is setting they pray for the last time, and their crying out is intense, far beyond all their previous supplications; for if they do not obtain pardon of their sins before the stars appear, they have no hope remaining of obtaining forgiveness for that year. When about to utter their last prayer, a trumpet is sounded like that of the New Year, but only one blast . Then all is over! and forth they come to the light of the risen moon, pouring like a stream from the synagogue. They stood in groups, all turning their faces toward the moon,—for the Jews believe that the spots in the moon are the Shecinah. Each group had a lighted candle to enable one of their number to read the prayer addressed to the Shecinah in the moon. Some held up their hands, others roared aloud, and all showed by their gestures the intense feeling of their heart. It was a grotesque scene, as well as peculiarly novel, to stand amid such a company, each in his high fur-cap, the tallith round his shoulders, and generally his beard flowing wide over the book he was reading. As we looked upon the crowds of worshippers that filled the spacious court of the synagogue, and saw their white eyes ever and anon turned uptoward the bright moon, we were irresistibly reminded of the days when the fathers of that singular people forsook the worship of Jehovah, and "served Baal and Ashtaroth," and " made cakes to the queen of heaven."* This service being done, they appeared as if relieved from the pressure of an overwhelming load, for they
* Judg. u. 13; x. 6. Jer. vii. la
raony, we observed that the people of the town never interrupted them in any manner.
We got much general information from the Consul. The expenses of living in Jassy are much the same as at Bucharest. There is difficulty in getting a house at all, and the rent is very high. A carriage of some kind is indispensable; for even tailors and shoemakers require these on account of the badness of the roads. It is necessary, also, to keep many servants. But the necessaries of life are very cheap.
Jassy is much improved as a city; the streets were formerly paved with wood, but this is no longer the case. It has no fewer than seventy churches; the climate is much more healthy than that of Bucharest, though there is a Moldavian fever prevalent at a certain season. Divorce is not so common as it used to be; the stream of public feeling is now turning against it . Yet it is too evident that the fear of God is not in this place. Of this the Consul related an affecting proof.—One evening in January 1838, a great ball was given, at which most of the Boyards were to be present. He and a Moldavian gentleman were preparing to set out,—their carriage was at the door, when a dreadful shock of an earthquake startled the whole town. At his house, the tall mast that bears aloft the British flag rocked to and fro. After some minutes' silence, his friend proposed that they should still set out for the ball. The Consul replied that it would be useless, for no one would be there at such an awful
412 JASSY PRINCE OP MOLDAVIA—JEWS.
time.* However, the other pressed, and he reluctantly consented to go. They drove up to the place, and entered the room. It was brilliantly lighted, and the gay company were met; but all sat silent, pale as death. A large rent had been made in the wall, and the plaster had fallen on the floor. The Consul kept his eye on the door, expecting another shock every moment . In a few minutes, however, one of the company made an effort to strike up an air, the floor was swept, the dance began, and all was mirth and levity. "The harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts; but they regard not the work of the Lord, neither consider the operation of his hands." *
The Prince of Moldavia resides in Jassy; he is very affable to strangers, and was favourable to the circulation of the Scriptures in his dominions; but the Bishop is a bigoted man, and would not allow it . When the Consul informed the Prince of our arrival, he asked what our object was in travelling through Moldavia, and expressed a wish to see us. "We delayed our departure a day longer in order to accomplish this visit , but the Prince was taken unwell and could not receive us. There is every reason to believe that the Government will not interfere with the labours of a Jewish Missionary in this province.
Late in the evening, an intelligent Jew called on us by appointment, and from him we received some curious facts regarding the Jews here. Three years ago, a Rabbi, the greatest man in Jassy, began to read the Scriptures much, and to preach against the Talmud. The Jews were so angry that they drove him and his family from the city, so that he was obliged to go to Brody. They gave him 1000 ducats as an atonement , for it is considered a great sin to expel a rabbi. A rich Jew here, named Michael Daniel, a man of eighty years of age, has a teacher in his house to instruct him in the Cabala. In Kotsin, twenty miles from Jassy, there is a sect of the Chasidim, called ian, Habad (that is persons who profess njn ru»a nnDn, " wisdom, understanding, and knowledge "). On the night after the Day of Atonement . as a party of them were coming home, witn singing and other expressions of joy, they found a Jew driink, and who had fallen asleep. This Jew had a gipsy servant, who spoke German, and he, for the sake of amusement , dressed himself up in the sleeping Jew's clothes, and
• Ira. v. 12.
in darkness, and thou shall not prosper in thy ways; and thou shalt be only oppressed and spoiled evermore, and no man shall save thee." *
We devoted the next day (Sept . 19) entirely to visiting the Jews. First we visited a school of thirty children, both boys and girls, with fine Jewish countenances. A poor sick boy lay on a couch in the same room, far gone in consumption. The teacher was busily employed in his work. His method seemed to be to repeat over every syllable, until each scholar could fully pronounce it . The boys and girls got the same tuition, and the prayer-book seemed to be the only school-book. The children were amazed at the entrance of strangers, and ran eagerly round us. We learned from the teacher that the children were taught only to read, not to understand. Nay, he himself could not explain the wards of the passage which they were reading. When asked why he did not explain the words, he referred to Ps. cxix. 18, " Open thou mine eyes to see wondrous things out of thy law;" and drew from it the inference that it was not to be expected that a teacher should be able to explain all that he taught. Several Jews had by this time gathered round, to whom Mr. Caiman spoke, trying to show them how ruinous and deplorable their ignorance of the Word of God is. They seemed convinced,—only they said it was uersal in Jassy.
We went to see the old Jew of whom we had got information, called an Epicurus. He was a fine-looking man, of about sixty years of age, mild and thoughtful,
• Deut. xxviii. 29.