will nicht lernen mehr—the old ox will not learn. If you do any thing for them you must hide the good." They had employed teachers to teach the young grammatically, but the parents would not send them; the children themselves, however, got so fond of them, that they used to follow them on the streets, seeking instruction. When we turned up to Isaiah liii. he said he believed it referred to Jesus; but that it was written by some Christian after the event. As a similar case of interpolation, he referred to Num. xxi. 27, 28, as written after Jer. xlviii. 45, 46. He got this idea from Jost's History of the Jews; but could not give any proof, nor could he answer the arguments that show the authenticity of the passage. When we pressed him about sin and the need of pardon, he said, " We do not sin against God, because he is infinitely beyond us; but we sin against our neighbours, and the punishment of sin is solely in our conscience." The young man was much less imbued with Neologian opinions, and said to us, "that he was now more a Christian than a Jew." He acknowledged that we do sin against God, and that nothing but a sense of pardon can give peace. But when we stated that Christians believe themselves forgiven on the ground of the atonement, he said, " I may have as much peace as they, if I believe myself forgiven even on other grounds." He admitted the inspiration of the Pentateuch, but not of the Prophets. The old man told us that both he and his son belonged to a secret society in Tarnapol, a town of Austrian Poland, and that the chief die Jews. In Qalicia many fathers are bringing up their children to Christianity, and it is said that there are more baptisms than births, " so that in a century (said the old man) there will not be a Jew in all Galicia." When he heard that we were ministers and Calvinists, he said he had read a great deal, and knew the Calvinistic system; that it was the most philosophical, and added, "If I were turning Christian I would become a Calvinist." Both these Jews were very kind to us, the old man saying that this was one of the happiest days of his life. What an awful scene does this interview lay open—half the nation of Israel tottering on the brink of infidelity! Those who have light enough to see the folly of the Talmud have not grace enough to believe the Word of God. The rusty shackles of Judaism are beginning to fall off, but the withered arms of Israel have no life to lay hold on the Saviour promised to their fathers. Thousands in Israel are in a transition state, but it is not such a change as lhat spoken of in the Prophets, "I will go and return to my first husband, for then was it better with me than now."* The door is open and the time critical, and it seems plainly the duty of the Christian Church without delay to interpose in their behalf, to allure Israel, and speak comfortably unto her, and to say, "O Israel, return unto the Lord thy God, for thou hast fallen by thine iniquity."f
We next called at the house of the chief Rabbi, where they were beginning to erect a booth for the Feast of Tabernacles. The rabbi was a fine-looking man. out not learned. He seemed fatigued with the hard services of the preceding day. We explained our object in gen
* Hos. ii. 7. t Hos. xiv 1.
till it was purchased. "Can a maid forget her ornaments, or a bride her attire ?" * is a natural question in Israel at this day. As we were walking to and fro before the door, Mr. Caiman spoke with a tall Jew upon the evils of the Talmud. He seemed to be much convinced, and said, " Well, I see that we are a people without a religion. But what shall we do 7 shall we become Christians like the Greeks, who have not the Word of God?"
Returning to the house some hours after, we found that the marriage ceremony had been concluded, and that the company were now seated at the marriage-feast . From Mr. Caiman we received an account of the previous part of the ceremony. Early on the marriage day the Bathan (inna), or poet, who performs a very prominent part, comes to the bride's house, and addresses her most solemnly upon her sins, urging her to cry for for
fiveness;—for marriage is looked upon as an ordinance y which sins are forgiven, just as the day of atonement, pilgrimages, and the like; and the Jews believe that it will be destined that day whether her luck is to be good or not. She and her attendant maidens are often bathed in tears during this address, which sometimes lasts two hours. The Bathan next goes to the bridegroom, and exhorts him in the same manner. This done, the bridegroom puts on the same white dress which he wears on the day of atonement, and spends some time in prayer
* Jer. ii. 32.
wine: after which they taste it,
and the glass is thrown down and
broken, to signify that even in their
joy they are no better than a bro-
ken sherd. They are then led to-
gether to the bride's house, where
we found them sitting at the head
of the table in silence. The bride
had her face veiled down nearly to
the mouth with a handkerchief
which she wears during the whole f
ceremony. Her dress, and that of
most of her companions, was pure
The table was filled with guests, the men being seated on one side, and the women on the other. Before eating, all wash their hands out of a dish with two handles,} so formed that the one hand may not defile the other.
It was singular to see this feast of bearded men, the feces of many of whom might have been studies for a painter. The feast at the marriage of Cana of Galilee was vividly presented to our minds. During the repast the music struck up; several Jews played well on the violin, violoncello, cymbals, tambourine, and a harp of a singular shape, which they said was Jewish, not Christian. It was played by beating upon the strings with two wooden instruments, and the effect was pleasing. It is remarkable that, beyond the bounds of their own
supper there was a dance, but not alter the manner of the Gentiles. Some little girls first danced together; the uncle, a tall handsome bearded Jew, then danced alone; last of all he danced with the bride, leading her round and round by a handkerchief. This forms the concluding part of the ceremony enjoined by the Talmud. Wine flowed plentifully as at Cana; but, being the simple wine of the country, not the slightest riot or extravagance was visible. When shall that marriage-day come of which the prophet speaks, "As the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee?"* On our way home we heard a party of poor Zingans
Slaying and singing for the amusement of some company 1 an inn. The convent bells were ringing, for the next day was a Greek festival.
(Sept . 20.) Our last day in Jassy was mostly spent in conversation with the many Jews who came to visit us. None seemed to be under real soul concern, but all had an open ear for our statements of the truth. They told us that most of their brethren here have little higher motive for adhering to Judaism than temporal advantage, such as the expectation of money from some relative when he dies. We discussed many passages together, and they appeared interested and anxious, though very ignorant. After breakfast two Jews came in, one, a very intelligent man, named Leb Keri, an avocat in the town, connected with the courts of law. His special object in coming was to request a New Testament in Hebrew.
* Im. lxii. 5.
Two more moved about from one group to another, listening, and sometimes putting questions. One of them, on being asked to say who was meant by " the man that is a hiding place,"* said, "that he must consult his commentators." Another spoke of our believing Christ to be the Son of God, and said, "It is impossible." A third fixed on the passage, 1 Cor. vii. 28, as teaching immorality, grounding his argument entirely on the word Sjd, which is used in some editions of the translation, and which the modern Jews always employ in a bad sense. A boy belonging to the hotel, seemed considerably interested in the visits of these Jews, and at last told us that he was himself a baptized Jew. He had lived for some time in a Greek convent, along with five other converts, to get instruction, but both he and his companions were disgusted with the superstition and behaviour of the monks.
This was an interesting day. In the evening, we bade adieu to the Consul, and setting off at nine o'clock, left Jassy far behind.
When we woke up in the morning (Sept. 21), we were passing through a fine wooded valley, adorned with pleasant villages. On the left stood a romantic-looking church; and at a row of houses by the road-side, we heard the voice of Jews at prayer, proceeding from a small synagogue, consisting of about ten persons. Over
* In. xxxii. 2.
"nor thy cattle, nor the stranger that is within thy gates." This, however, is the genuine result of the hypocrisy taught by the Talmud. Over the door of his house we noticed a framed ornament, with the single word mm (mizrach), "The East," in large characters, pointing out the direction in which Jerusalem lies.
Botouchany is a peculiarly clean town, containing 20,000 inhabitants, and having eleven Greek churches. It extends over a great space, and there are gardens and trees interposed, which give it a cheerful aspect. There are from four to five thousand Jews in it. We saw great numbers in their best attire, and they appeared far more cleanly and comfortable than those of Jassy or Bucharest. Their houses also were clean and whitewashed, with a small verandah before the windows. The Consul said that they have sixteen synagogues; but we neglected to make inquiry at the Jews themselves.
We enjoyed a pleasant evening ride, and found that three Jewish horses were equal to eight Gentile ones. Our road lay sometimes through deep shady woods, and sometimes through open meadow land. Many herds of swine were feeding in the fields. It was rather a hilly region; but beneath us was a fine plain, beyond which rose the distant Carpathian Mountains in the west. At one point we drove through a long avenue of densely planted willow-trees, till we came to the margin of a broad stream, which we forded. We then descended through a grove of pleasant trees upon the small village of Teshawitz.
The sun was setting upon the peaceful scene, and it was too late to admit of our crossing the river Soutchava, and so, when the Sabbath is done, they light their candle and fire anew, and bless God for it. This Jew blessed also the incense and the drink which was to be used, praying over them all. The reason for blessing the incense is to be found in the ancient custom of using incense at the third meal on the Sabbaths. In blessing the lights, he poured out some rakee on the table, and set it on fire; then dipped his finger in it, and waved the flaming liquid over his face. This is done to show that "the commandment of the Lord is pure, giving light to the eyes." ,
After we had got some refreshment, the family were full of curiosity to see the strangers, especially on hearing that we had seen Jerusalem. The father, mother, an old aunt, two boys, and a little girl, soon gathered round us. The father (our host) talked freely. He hoped, he said, soon to be at Jerusalem himself. The mother asked if we had seen the remains of the old Temple wall? We described to her what we had seen; and then took out a plan of Jerusalem, and pointed out to the boy the various interesting places in and about the city which we had
• P». xxxvii. 35. 1 Lev. xxiii- 40. t Neh. viii. 15.
422 TESHAW1TZ—INNKEEPER'S FAMILY.
visited; and showed them some of the sketches we had taken. One of them was very ready in showing his acquaintance with Jewish history; and both became more and more free with us, wondering much at our interest in the Jews. "Do you wear Tephillin?" asked one. 'How many commandments do you keep?" said another. Our answer was, "The commandments which you as well as we ought to keep are two, 'Thou shalt serve the Lord thy God with all thy heart;' and, 'Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself' The boy, who had showed considerable knowledge of Jewish history, then asked, " Why we travelled on Sabbath?" for they were still persuaded that we were Jews. We told him we were to keep our own Sabbath next day. But he, still believing that we were brethren, said, "They have not broken our Sabbath; they did not work to-day; a Gentile drove their carriage, and had any thing been broken he would have mended it." The mother then put in a word, asking if we had heard a prediction which some Jew told them was uttered at Jerusalem, that, next year, in the month of March, a great cloud was to burst and pour out a flood that would drown the world? We said that we had not heard it, and that it must be false; for God promised to Noah never to drown the world any more by a flood. "But," said she, "after the cloud has done this, the earth is to be restored again." We opened the Hebrew Bible at the passage in Daniel, where Messiah is described as "coming with the clouds of heaven;" and showed it to the father, who read it, and said, "Perhaps that was the source of the prediction." The little girl, whose name was Esther, stood near Mr. Bonar, behind the rest. Speaking of her name, as the name of a Jewish queen, he asked her if she knew much of the Bible' She said that her mother had taught her all she knew, for she had not read the Bible herself. "I know about Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph." He asked her to go on, but she said, "I do not know more." He asked her what she knew about God!" God," said the little girl, "is better than all; better than father or mother, a hundred, hundred times. And if I were ill, my father or mother cannot help me, but God can." We told her that she ought to love Him indeed; for He had so loved us as to send his Son to save us. We asked, " Where is God?" She pointed upwards, 'There." "But is he nowhere else V She pointed round he greatly loved. The mother asked us if we could tell any thing about the rabbi in Russia whom the Emperor had imprisoned, and wondered why he had been imprisoned. "It cannot be for his own sins, for he had none; it must be for the sins of the people of Israel." How strange the ideas that float in the minds of the people of Israel! Their knowledge consists of fragments of truth, and these all tinctured by superstition. They own the principle of substitution, and yet apply it wrong, —they apply it to a rabbi; forgetting the Psalm where it is said, "None of them can by any means redeem his brother, or give to God a ransom for At?»."| The boy wondered why God punished the devil for doing evil, since (according to the Jewish belief) he made the devil as he is. We shewed him that his opinion was erroneous; for God created him a holy angel. But the boy persisted in his own view; and with true rabbinical acumen said, "He supposed that God punished the devil for being a hypocrite, for the devil never tempts any one to sin directly, but always says,' You will get this or that by doing what I propose.'" The father told us that he had been in great doubts about continuing to be an innkeeper, as it often interfered with his observance of the Sabbath; but his rabbi, whom he consulted, told him not to give it up; for if he was in danger of sinning in that way, he made up for the sin by helping poor Jews across the frontier, and assisting them when they did not know the Russian and Wallachian languages.
• In. xxxii. II. th. xlix. 7.
424 MOLDAVIA AND WALLACHIA AS
Jesuitical casuistry is as much a feature of Judaism a* of Popery! Both systems have one author, and are pervaded by the same spirit of deceit . After we had separated for the night, the Jew overhearing us singing the psalm together at our evening worship, asked Mr. Caiman what we had been doing. On being told that we were worshipping God together before retiring to rest, he was greatly surprised.
(Sept. 22.) We spent the Sabbath forenoon in a calm, retired spot by the river Soutchava, which flows in front of the house, among alders and willows, which grow on either bank. Herds of cattle were feeding not far off, and two or three whitewashed cottages looked down on us from the opposite side. An Austrian soldier on guard, pacing to and fro upon the northern bank, was the only human being in view.
Towards evening, finding that there was no rest for us in the inn, we resolved to pass the river and enter into the quarantine. Accordingly, we crossed at the ford, entered the Austrian frontier, and, under the guard of a soldier, were in half an hour lodged in the quarantine station called Bossanze. We passed a neat wooden church, with its ornamented crosses, but could see no marks of the day of rest: we spent the evening, however, in quietness and peace, and tried to sing the Lord's song in a strange land. We had now entered another of the kingdoms of this world where Satan has his seat, till the time when it shall become the kingdom of our God and of his Christ.
And now looking back over these two provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia, it is impossible not to feel their vast importance and inviting aspect as the scene of a Jewish Mission.
I. The number of resident Jews is very great . In the two capitals there are probably from 25,000 to 30,000, and perhaps as many more in the other towns. So that there is a very extensive field for the labours of a missionary.
II. But further, the fields are also "white unto the harvest." The Jews are in a most interesting state of mind. The greater part of them are very "ignorant . We learned that among the many thousands of Jassy, there were only a few who could understand Hebrew grammatically, and in their schools we have seen that even the teachers could not translate the prayers in the
MISSIONARY FIELDS. 425
flebrew prayer-book. In this state of things the Secret Society of Galicia above noticed, whose object is to undermine the authority of the Talmud and the whole fabric of superstitious Judaism, are casting their firebrands among the young Jews of these provinces. Many have had their confidence in the Talmud completely shaken, and are standing in this critical situation, that they are ripe either for the teacher of infidelity or for the messenger of the gospel. Surely, then, it is the duty of the Christian Church to step in and offer them the truth as it is in Jesus, in the room of their old superstition, of which so many are weary.
HI. There is reason to hope that the Jewish Missionary may carry on his work without hinderance. There is a British Consul-General in each of the capitals, and ViceConsuls in the most important towns, who would protect and countenance a missionary from our Church. If a conscientious missionary felt it to be consistent with duty to refrain from any direct attempt at the conversion of the Greek population, and to spend all his energies in seeking the lost sheep of the house of Israel, it seems probable that his labours would not be interrupted by the government. In the happy event of the light beginning to spread indirectly from the Jews to the natives, the eager jealousy of the priesthood would doubtless be awakened, and persecution might be expected. But these are dangers attending the success of the gospel in every country, and in every age; the cause of a triumphant gospel has ever been through much tribulation; and it is our part to move forward in the path of duty, leaving future events in the hand of God. Vast and ripe unto harvest as these fields are, at the date of our visit no reaper had ever put in his sickle. The Prince of Moldavia needed to ask what our object was in traversing his dominions, for no missionary had ever carried there the words of eternal life.* And many of the Jews would not believe that we were really Christians, because they had never before seen a Christian who loved the Jetcs.
IV. Another point of great importance is, that it is believed that inquirers and converts could support themselves. Every Jew who arrives in these provinces is obliged to bring with him a certificate that he is able to
• A labourer from the London Society has lately been stationed at Bucharest; and the Rev. Daniel Edward, accompanied by Mr. Her* maim Philip, a converted Jew, has been sent out by our Church, and brationed at Jaasy.
426 MOLDAVIA AND WALLACHIA, OCC.
earn a livelihood by some trade. We have seen that all the necessaries of life are remarkably cheap, and that the resources of commerce are far from being fully occupied, so that an anxious Jew might easily support himself even when cast off by his brethren in the flesh. Workmen are employed irrespectively of their creed, and many Jews, who have been baptized into the Greek Church, found no difference in their means of living. In this way, one of the greatest difficulties experienced by the Jewish missionary in other countries is removed.
V. Moreover, these provinces border upon Austrian Poland, that land of bigotry and the shadow of death, across whose boundary no traveller dares to carry, except by stealth, even an English Bible. If the Moldavian Jews received the light of the glorious gospel, they might, by means of their constant intercourse with the people, scatter some beams into that dark region where the feet of the gospel messenger cannot go.
Here, then, are probably 60,000 Jews,—many of them sunk in ignorance, many of them relaxing their grasp of old superstitions, and not yet fallen into infidelity, not a few shewing friendly dispositions to such Christians as have gone to them in the spirit of the gospel of peace, and some eagerly asking to be shewn what the faith ol Jesus is. Who can deny that a peculiarly inviting region is here set before the Christian Church—" an open valley full of bones, very many and very dry,"—into which she may send men of the same spirit as Ezekiel, who may cry, " Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live!
on high ground, having gardens and whitewashed cottages in view, and looks down upon a fine country called Bukovine. The town of Soutchava is about an hour distant. A Hungarian in the quarantine spoke Latin with us. His pronunciation differed little from ours, but he seemed to attach a peculiar meaning to several Latin words. Thus, using "dignatur" in the sense of "t» named," he said, "Haec regio dignalur Bukovina." The doctor, too, spoke Latin with us, and was very attentive to our comfort, after we had undergone the process of fumigation. Indeed, all the attendants were remarkably civil and polite. Our books were all examined, but none taken from us.
This was the third time we had undergone quarantine since leaving Jerusalem, and it was by far the most agreeable. We spent the five days in making up our journals, and writing home; and were glad also to get a little leisure for reading and study. The doctor often came in, and expressed his surprise at our diligence. In the evenings we always enjoyed a walk within the enclosures of our wooden prison. We now also chalked out our future route as far as we could see before us. We proposed to proceed by Czernowitz,* Tarnapol, Brody, Lemberg, and so out of Austria to Cracow.
On the morning of Sept. 27, we left our quarantine in one of the brisras or covered cars of the country, and soon reached the pleasant town of Soutchava, with eight glittering steeples and a castle in ruins, and a considerable population of Greeks, Roman Catholics, and Arme
• Pronounced Tchernovitz.
among men in the flesh for us. When we were entering the carriage, one of them came up and eagerly asked, "How far we were to travel that day?" The object of the question was to ascertain by our answer whether or not we were really Christians, for, as we so often found, they were not accustomed to be kindly spoken to by any who were not of their own nation. We told them how far we were going, and on ascertaining that we must travel after six that evening, when the Jewish Sabbath commences, one of them shook his head, and said to the rest, that " we were not Jews." We left a Hebrew tract with them—one of the few which we were to have it in our power to leave in the Austrian dominions.
On leaving the town, our road passed between fences of basket-work, curiously defended from the rain by a coping of the same. The road was macadamized, and in excellent condition; the cottages were more comfortable than those of Moldavia, and the aspect of the country was more civilized. Plum and apple trees were plentiful in the gardens. We saw several country churches, somewhat resembling the quiet parish churches of Scotland, and came to a bridge of wood, covered over like a penthouse from end to end, the toll of which, as is the case with most of the tolls of that country, was kept by a Jew. Jews are always to be found like Matthew, "sitting at the receipt of custom."
The road after this for three hours ran in a straight line, through a fine meadow, sometimes rising gently, someuniform of the Austrian soldiers, and the dark green of their officers, with the ornament of the eagle spreading its wings upwards. In the inn where we rested, many were coming and going, and we had a painful view of the immoral state of the people. When they heard that we were English, they said, "Ah, they have the same noses and eyes that we have!" Many were intoxicated; and one old man came up to us, and made a long apology, stating that the funeral of a wealthy resident had taken place that day, whicli had occasioned the revelry, and hoping that we would not carry away an unfavourable report, as if Austrians were generally given to this vice. On entering the town, we had met many Jews in their best dress and holiday fur-cap, and observed a company of them dancing at a public-house. We now engaged in conversation with two of them, and one young man became very communicative, kindly consenting to be our guide through the town. There are 300 families of Jews residing here, and they have two synagogues, and three places of study or Beth-midraah. The largest synagogue, a building of considerable size, was shut; but we entered the other, and there two young men began an interesting conversation. They asked if we were Jews; we said, No, we were Christians. They replied, " Perhaps you are Jews also," and shook hands smiling. The Jews here expected Messiah that year, or else some great event . They told us of a remarkable rabbi, Haiim, at Chosow, eight miles distant, to whom many thousands of Jews go in pilgrimage at the time of the Feast of Tabernacles. They enjoy more liberty in the rabbis before God; pointed out to them their ignorance of the Hebrew language in regard to T\h; and pressed them to study their language grammatically;— for it is true to an incalculable extent, that Talmudism would fall to the ground if the grammatical Hebrew was understood. It would have the same effect on the votaries of the Talmud, that instruction in the sciences has upon the blinded followers of Hindooism. On pressing the young men with the want of sacrifices among the Jews, they urged, that repeating the passages where sacrifices are commanded, is as good as sacrifice, and quoted Hosea xiv. 2, " Take with you words, so shall we render the calves of our lips." They did not perceive that the prophet describes Israel as both pouring out the words of confession, and also returning to the blood of the great sacrifice. They listened, however, when we opened Isaiah liii. and spoke of Him by "whose stripes we are healed," but turned aside its force by saying, "There is a Messiah who suffers for his people in every generation," referring to such cases as that of the Russian rabbi, of whom we had heard as suffering imprisonment. When Mr. Caiman told them that he believed in Jesus (piB»), they did not understand who or what this meant . But when he explained, and showed them that he was "a Christian," they started back, and with an
* Deut . vi. 5.
air of doubt and fear said, "And do you still love the Jews?" He replied, "Yes, indeed, I love the Jews still with all my heart." And thus we parted.
Crossing the Seret, we continued our journey along a road straight as an arrow. The gentle hills on either hand were well wooded, the plain well cultivated, and the roads excellent, as they are in all the Austrian dominions. A full moon enlightened our way to Czernowitz, which we reached at ten o'clock, and found shelter for the night in a very tolerable inn.
(Sept. 28.) Czernowitz is a pleasant town, with streets wide, well aired, and clean. The houses are generally two or three stories high, and there are barracks and other public buildings. Most of the names over the shops were Polish. The market-place is a wide square, having one side lined with stalls or movable shops, like sentryboxes; and, in the middle, a large cross, with a statue of the Virgin sitting at the foot of it, holding in her arms the dead body of the Saviour, her head adorned with twelve stars, and two angels at her side. A broad street leads from the market-place, down a steep descent, from the top of which is seen the river Pruth winding through the plain below, with a village on the opposite side of the bank, called Satagora, in which many Jews reside. In this street again there is a figure of the Saviour on the Cross, and the Virgin standing beneath it, with a sword piercing her heart, in reference to Luke ii. 35. The situation of the town is fine and salubrious, on the top of a considerable elevation, looking down on the neighbouring river, and surrounded with fertile plains on all sides.
There are 3000 Jews here, with eight synagogues, only three of which are large. These three we visited, being all under the roof of one large edifice. The congregation were engaged in worship when we entered, but seemed to have little feeling of devotion, for a group soon gathered round each of us at different parts of the synagogue. On saying to those around us, " We have been at Jerusalem," they were immediately interested, and asked, "Are the Jews there like the Jews here?" We said, "They were, but all could speak Hebrew.' They said, " None here can speak Hebrew except the rabbi." "Do you expect ever to return to your own land V "We hope for that every day." We said, " We Christians are looking for the second coming of the Mes siah every day." They replied, "What Messiah? Is given up their belief in the Talmud; and many are so careless that they come to the synagogue only on the Day of Atonement. The Jew who acted as our guide through the town (for we purposely employed a Jew on all such occasions), said, that he believed the Old Testament Scriptures, but did not believe in a Messiah at all. The truth is, that many of them are so entirely ignorant of Scripture, that they fancy the doctrine of a Messiah to be one of the traditions of their rabbis, and not a promise of Moses and the prophets. The sight of Israel in this region cannot fail to sadden the heart of those that love them. "Behold, they say, Our bones are dried, our hope is lost."
We left the town in the forenoon, in an excellent vehicle, resembling an English hackney-coach with springs, belonging to the innkeeper, who also furnished a man and horses to carry us to Tarnapol. Passing some prisoners at work in chains, we soon crossed the Pruth by a long wooden bridge, and, looking back, got a pleasant view of the town on the height, surrounded with willows and poplars. The banks of the river also were plentifully clothed with willows. The fields were flat, but appeared fertile, many of them clothed with the plant called retsky, which has a stalk of a fine reddish-brown, tinging the face of the country in a beautiful manner. The toll-bars on the road are all after one pattern, consisting of a long beam stretching from side to side, one end of which is made to rise upwards at the approach of a carriage by means of a heavy weight at the other whom we conversed had no tsitsitn, and scarcely knew what the name of Messiah meant.
After leaving this village the country was tame and uninteresting, with few trees to refresh the eye. Crosses and images, however, appeared every now and then. We saw also at every village or cluster of houses, indications of the sojourn of some of the scattered sheep of the house of Israel, in the succoth or booths erected for the Feast of Tabernacles beside the cottage-door.
About half-past five, we began to descend into a glen between two hills of considerable elevation, the sides of which were covered with brushwood. As we drew near the mouth of this pass, the spires of Zalesky, shining in the evening sun, appeared through the tall poplars and elms in which the town is embosomed. Before reaching it, a bridge of boats carries you across the river Dniester, deep and rapid, separating the province of Bukovine from that ofGalicia, which forms part of Austrian Poland. We rested in the town for a few hours, and found it as pleasant as it appeared to be from a distance. The hills through which we had passed form a high barrier on the south, overhanging the town. Their sides covered with shaggy wood, and the impetuous river that sweeps their base, add much to the beauty of the scene. At the entrance of Zalesky, a handsome mansion, surrounded with pleasant gardens, attracts observation. The Jews told us that this is the residence of a rich Galician, Baron Brownowitch, a Jew baptized into the Roman Catholic Church. His father and brethren also have been baptized,
• Jer. I. 3a
of the synagogue had been glazed by the society that buries the dead, called ne>np man (habrah kedoshah); and their name was on the stained glass. Many of the Jews to whom we spoke were careless and worldly, and one of them told us of seven German families who never attend the synagogue.
We left this place before it was quite dark, and pressed on through a flat and dreary country, over which the autumn wind swept cold and sharp. By half-past ten we reached a pleasant village, called Jaglinsky, having a good Polish inn, or, in the language of the country, "Hartsmi." The inmates were all fast asleep, but after much knocking, we found admission, and were hospitably entertained by the gospadina, or hostess.
(Sept. 29.) The Sabbath dawned sweetly upon this retired Polish village. It was one of some extent, stretching up the sides of a deep hollow. On one of the heights stood the principal church, and on the opposite bank a fort and barracks. Crosses of all kinds and sizes were planted at every approach to the village, and in the church-yard every grave had one. Early in the morning all the servants of our khan, clothed in their best attire, set off for church; and we followed after them, in order to witness the service. On our way we heard the sound of music proceeding from a cottage, and Mr Caiman, thinking that it was a Jewish marriage, entered, when two young women immediately fell at his feet and kissed his boots, thanking him for the honour he had done them in entering their house. It was a Christhe door, and the men, who .
tion, stood nearer the altar. All present TM— ,
tic people, of uncouth appearance and ungainly figures; the men wearing a surtout of sheep-skin, with the wool turned inside, the women a cap with a white kerchief tied over it. Lighted candles glared from the altar, and many of the women held tapers in their hands. At one part of the prayer all knelt except ourselves, and then rose. A plate went round for collecting money, and each gave something. Several pictures, miserably executed, hung upon the walls: among which was one of the Saviour, quite hid by the multitude of flowers that had been thrown upon it by the devout worshippers, and another of the Virgin Mary, decorated with strings of beads suspended round it by her grateful votaries. But the most offensive object of all, was an old diminutive figure of the Saviour on the Cross, standing near the door. This was kissed by most of those who came in, after they had dipped their hands in a vessel of holy water that stood by. Some kissed it on the feet, some under the feet, some more devout lay down and kissed the floor beneath it. The sight of this simple superstition, over which was spread an air of apparent solem nity on the part of the rough peasants, was really affecting. We contrasted the realms of Popery with our own happy Scotland; and if any thing could stir up a Scottish Presbyterian to a sense of the greatness of his privileges, it is a sight like this, where ignorance and super
oppression; for the Polish Barons used to keep the peasantry in real slavery, and the want of a middle class in Poland who might link rich and poor together, has perpetuated the system. Passing the cottage where the marriage had been in the morning, we saw a large company on the green before the door, dancing to the sound of the violin and tabret. They have no joys but those of earth, and the Sabbath is their chief day of gaiety and mirth.
The Jews have three synagogues here, the best of which is a high and spacious building. On asking a Jewish boy if the building before us was the synagogue of the Chasidim, he replied, "No, it is the synagogue of the proslakis," that is, "the common people." He used the word as a term of reproach; for the spirit of the old Pharisees remains in the heart of Israel, and they say still, "Stand by thyself, come not near to me, for I am holier than thou."f Entering the large synagogue, we got into conversation with several Jews, while the congregation was assembling. We spoke to them of the way of a sinner's pardon; and on our saying that their Cipporah\ was the only remnant they had of sacrifice, one of them replied, "That they did not offer the cock and hen as a sacrifice, for prayer now stood in the place of all sacrifices." How truly are Israel abiding
• John rii. 37. t Isa. Uv. 5. t See p. 404.
"Hear, O Israel, the Lord thy God is one Lord," telling them of our belief in the One God, His wondrous nature, and His becoming incarnate, they stood listening with great attention, and one asked, "Were you born Christians?" On leaving them, we went to the synagogue of the Chasidim. There we were kindly brought forward to a convenient place for seeing the procession in honour of the law, which was about to take place. Several Jews were very friendly, and anxious to hear about Jerusalem. One began to speak of the oppression of their nation, which is felt here in the taxes laid on meat and lights, for they pay nearly half a zwanzig for a candle,—a heavy burden on them who use so many every week.f We told them how different was the feeling toward Israel in our country: for true Christians in Scotland and England loved the Jews, and Messiah enjoined us to bear a special love to them. We then read together some of their prayers, which they asked us to translate into German. After this, we had an opportunity of telling how Jesus, at the very feast which they were celebrating, stood in the Temple and invited sinners to come to him. At length, the service began. The room by this time
• Hos. iii. 4.
t These taxes imposed peculiarly on Israel reminded us of Lam. T 4, 3. "We have drunken our water for money; our wood is sold unto us. Our necks are under persecution; we labour, and have no rest."
was crowded to excess; and the glare and heat of the large candles became very unpleasant. After a shon. prayer, the persons were called up who were to engage in the procession, to each of whom was entrusted a roll of the Law, which he carried in his arms. They are called up according to the alphabetical order of their names, he who presides using these words as he names each, rtiirh T»a in (ten kavod letorah), "Give honour to the Law." The first company being thus called up and arranged, and all the copies of the Tor ah in the ark being placed in their hands, the old rabbi began the dance.
The signal for commencing was given (somewhat profanely) in the words of Exodus, " Speak unto the children of Israel that they go forward."* Immediately they began to move slowly round the synagogue, all present chanting a prayer. Soon the singing became louder, and the movements of the worshippers more rapid. They clapped their hands, shouted, and finally danced with all their might, dandling the roll of the Law in their arms. The old grey-haired rabbi danced with the most vehement gestures, while all sung, leaped, and clapped their hands, till the whole synagogue was one scene of indescribable confusion. When one company had danced till they were weary, others were called up to form a
• Exod. xiv. 15.
INTERVIEW WITH THE RABBI. 139
second, until all the members of the synagogue had shared in it. Such is a specimen of "the procession of the Law " rvnn noipn, (tekuphath Torah), intended to give honour to the Word of the Living God. But the chief joy is reserved for the morrow. What a caricature is this on David's "dancing before the Lord with all his might!" and what a contrast to David's calm delight in the word of God, " O how love I thy law, it is my meditation all the day." A religious service more silly or childish could scarcely be imagined. We were again reminded of the sure word of prophecy, "I will give children to be their princes, and babes shall rule over them."*
When all was over, the rabbi sent to say that he wished to speak with us. We accordingly went to his house, "which joined hard to the synagogue,"f and which was immediately filled to overflow with Jews, all intensely anxious to see the Christians who had been at Jerusalem, and were interested in their welfare. When we had answered several questions as to the condition of their brethren in Palestine, Mr. Caiman seized the valuable opportunity, and beginning with a reference to the principles of the Chasidim, who profess to do every thing out of pure, disinterested love to God, shewed them with much affection, what Jehovah had done to awaken our love toward himself in the great gift of his beloved Son. We then parted from them in a most friendly manner, and returned to our inn. How affecting is such a visit to Israel!" The priests said not, Where is the Lord? and they that handle the law knew me not."\ Soon may a better day dawn on Zion, when the promise shall be realized, "I will give you pastors according to mine heart, which shall Teed you with knowledge and understanding .'"}
(Sept. 30.) Leaving our pleasant hartsmi, we swept through the vale and village of Jaglinsky. The morning was clear and fine, but much colder than we had yet experienced. We travelled due north through a vast plain country, where all the crops had been gathered in except the retsky. The highway was straight as a railroad, so that we could see before us for several miles—a dreary prospect to a traveller on foot.
We came down upon the large but dull village of Zadcow, where our attention was attracted by a church
* tsa. iii. 4. * Acta xviii. 7.
t Jer. it. 8. I Jcr. iii. 15.
440 JAGLINSKY TO TARNAPOL—SCENERY.
yard planted with black crosses as thickly as a grove, and by a large cross at the entrance ornamented with human skulls and bones. Indeed, it is not uncommon in Poland to see the crosses decorated with human skulls and bones, in order that they may more deeply affect the poor blinded worshippers. Here it was discovered that one of our horses needed a shoe, and as the Polish smith proved to be slow at the use of the hammer, we had opportunity to wander about the place. The Eruv and the booths at many cottagedoors, informed us that some of the seed of Abraham had found a refuge here; and we spoke to two or three on the road, who told us that there are 300 Jewish families in this place. All the peasants, and even the women, wore sheepskin, to keep out the keen north wind.
We travelled on through some fine woods of elm, oak, ash, and most of all birch. The villages on the wayside are at wide intervals from each other, yet all of the same character, tame and uninteresting. The churches are often picturesque, especially the old wooden ones: the belfry, too, is. peculiar, being generally a building distinct from the church, or sometimes an archway over the entrance to the church-yard. Yet these bring no sweet associations of a preached gospel and holy communion seasons.
The next large village was Copochinsky, clean and thriving, with its church, crosses, and images. One image especially attracted our attention, standing in a shed in the market-place,—the uncouth figure of a friar carrying the child Jesus in his arms. After this we passed two very poor villages, the first of which appeared to be altogether Jewish.
The country now became bare indeed, though all under cultivation, till we came down upon Trembowla, a pleasant town on the banks of the Seret, having the ruins of an old castle overhanging it, and a square fortress at some distance. It has two very handsome churches and one of the large high Polish synagogues, built of wood, but going rapidly to decay. We met several Jews, who told us that there are 1500 of their brethren here, and that their synagogue is 120 years old. They listened to us when we testified of Messiah's atonement for sin.
North of Trembowla the country began to improve. We entered a fine valley, watered by the same stream which runs through the town. The fields on either side were fruitful, and almost entirely covered with hemp.
ARRIVAL AT TARNAPOL. 441
At the upper end of the vale was a placid lake, out of which the stream issued. The hills were well wooded, and some pleasant cottages overhung the lake.
Ascending higher ground, we drove through woods of beech and elm, and then through an avenue of poplars, and came to Gulonitsky, a village having a splendid church with three pointed spires, and an elegant mansion, which we understood to be that of the Popish Bishop. Every thing around wore an aspect of neatness and culture, and even the crosses and images were of better workmanship. A peculiar looking burying-ground on a slight eminence caught our eye as we entered. It had no black crosses, but white upright stones over the graves. We soon discovered that this was the place where the Jews bury their dead. How many souls of Israel have passed away even from this one country village to the judgment-seat of Christ, hardened in the rejection of his gospel, by the surrounding idolatries of the Church of Rome! Shall they not take up the words of their fathers ?" The violence done to me and to my flesh be upon Babylon, shall the inhabitant of Zion say; and, My blood upon the inhabitants of Chaldea, shall Jerusalem say." *
About sunset we arrived at Tarnapol, one of the finest towns of Austrian Poland, a hundred milesf north from Czernowitz. It is of some extent, and finely situated, overlooking an extensive lake on the north-west, out of which flows the Seret, encircling part of the town. The churches and public buildings are large and handsome, and there are thriving academies. The Jewish buryingground is on the right hand of the road at the entrance to the town. Many Jews were upon the streets in their best clothes, and many Jewesses, sometimes six or eight in a company, enjoying themselves upon this night of special festivity.
Putting up our carriage, we set out to visit the synagogue of the New School. The service was not begun, but vast numbers of well dressed Jews were already assembled, walking up and down in the porch. The females, too, in their richest attire, were occupying their quarter of the synagogue. As for devotion, there was not even the shadow of it to be seen; the synagogue seemed to be regarded as a place of public amusement
• Jer. li. 35.
t Travelling was so cheap here, that the whole expense of this journey was only 21.
442 TARNAPOL—JEWISH SYNAGOGUES.
and display; and the words of the prophet might that night have been rung in the ears of the daughters of Zion, "Tremble, ye women that are at ease; be troubled, ye careless ones." * Three Jewish soldiers, in Austrian uniform, were among the crowd that waited for the opening of the doors; and several Jewish boys showed their courtesy to strangers by offering to take us to a seat. They could talk Latin, having attended the Academy, and seemed not a little proud of being able to make use of a learned tongue. The synagogue was at length opened. It was a commodious and elegant apartment with galleries for the women, handsomely painted and illuminated with wax-candles, resembling the fine synagogue at Leghorn, though not equal to it in size. The Jews were very polite, but the service was uninteresting; the company and their dresses seemed to be the principal entertainment.
We left them, and proceeded to a synagogue of the Chasidim. Here were assembled a much poorer class of Jews, who read prayers with all the fervour of devotion. In a little after we had entered, they began the procession in honour of the law. A standard-bearer went first, then the rabbi, then six others, each carrying a roll of the law. Upon the standard was embroidered the Austrian eagle with the words, "I bare you on eagles' wings."f From this synagogue we sought our way to the great synagogue of the Rabbinical Jews. We wished to see the joyful procession from the rabbi's house to the synagogue,—a scene of uproar and folly. Several Jews were discharging pistols and fire-works in the open street. The doors of the synagogue were not yet opened, and the crowd in the porch were running to and fro in boisterous mirth. Alas! there were none of Jacob's feelings, "How dreadful is this place! this is none other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven." At length, the old rabbi and his friends arrived, with lighted candles and torches carried before them, and a banner, amidst the shouts of the multitude. The doors were thrown open, and the crowd rushed in. The brazen lustres poured forth a flood of dazzling light, revealing a very large old synagogue, with a hieh vaulted roof It is about 600 years old, and in style bears a resemblance to some of our least ornamented Gothic churches. The gallery of the females occupied one side of the building, entirely closed from view by a lattice work. After
* Isa. zxxii. 11. t Exod. xix. 4
draw water with joy out of the wells of salvation, because the Lord Jehovah is their strength and song."J Nor shall it be with our feelings that the believing nations shall in that day look on Israel's holy service, when "they go up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of Hosts, and to keep the Feast of Tabernacles."}
(Oct. 1.) Tarnapol has 15,000 inhabitants, and of these there are 1800 families of Jews, probably more than half the population. The Academy is said to be a very good one; we met some of the students walking in the meadows near the lake, carrying their books upon their heads. The Jews spent this day in prayer, on account of the anniversary of the death of Moses.
We visited a synagogue of the Chasidim, in a part of the town where we had not been before. Our entrance caused considerable commotion among the worshippers; their faces assumed an aspect of terror, their chanting was all but silenced, and they whispered anxiously to one another. The reason for their alarm was, that they thought we were officers of the Austrian Government,
• Neh. viii. 17, 18. t Lam. ii 6.
t Isa. xii. 3. $ Zecli. xiv. 16.
when we lett, and shook, hands, heartily wishing us Godspeed in our journey.
We paid a second visit to the Jews of the New School . They were finishing "the procession of the Law" as we entered; for they go through all the ceremonies of the other Jews, although in their heart they despise them. There is great mutual contempt between the Jews of the Old and those of the New School. They told us that the rabbi who founded the New School in Tarnapol had died there that very day, and all the Chasidim were rejoicing at the news. This man had been the means of introducing the new system of education for the Jewish youth of this place, by instituting an Academy where the German, Polish, Latin, and Hebrew languages, as well as many branches of science, are regularly taught . He and his party had such influence with the government that at first they were empowered to compel all Jewish children to attend the Academy; but this order was afterwards withdrawn, only they were allowed to put a tax of three krutzera on the oke of meat, for every boy who is not sent. In spite of this, the Rabbinical Jews cling as firmly as ever to their old system, and only 200 children have been sent to the Academy, though there are 3000 Jewish children in Tarnapol. It is not, however, altogether from real attachment to their old system that the majority thus oppose any change; it proceeds in many
• Lev. xxvii. 36.
opinions 01 me mew synagogue nere. To some extent they might be called infidels, for they do not make the Bible the foundation of their faith. But they differ widely from the infidel Jews of Germany and France in this, that they have great respect for the Bible, and seem to have cast it off rather from a belief that they can arrive at truth without it, than from any positive dislike. They are still interested in whatever regards the Holy Land, though they do not expect to return to it . Many of them, however, believe, like other infidel Jews, that political emancipation is the only Messiah they are to look for. It was the rejection of the Talmud that led them to reject the Bible also; and yet they retain the rabbinical ceremonies, though they do this chiefly because the Chasidim have accused them of forming a new sect, which the Austrian Government rigorously forbids. It is plain from this fact, that there is little of conscientious belief among them. Self-interest and the favour of the world appear to form their principal rule of life. Several Jews of this class called on us at our lodging, and were exceedingly polite. One said, " The Bible had served its day; there was need of something else now." Another, on being asked why they retained the ceremonies and forms of Judaism since they rejected the Talmud, gave this Jesuitical reason, "that by maintaining their profession, they obtained access to the families of other Jews, and thus had opportunity of quietly diffusing their doctrines, and undermining the prejudices of their brethren." At Odessa, some of their sect have gained the approbation of the Russian Emperor for their schools. Only two have been baptized in Tarnapol, and these were females, who were induced by the prospect of being
446 TARNAPOL—RABBI RAPAPORT YOUNG JEW.
married into good Roman Catholic families. We spent many hours in discussion with these men. At one time we had five in the room. Mr. Caiman spoke plainly to them of true Christianity; and Mr. M'Cheyne explained and applied Zech. xii. 10, to one interesting Jew who spoke Latin. He said that he was one of about twenty who were able to converse in that language.
In the evening we paid a visit to the chief man of the rabbinical Jews, Rabbi Rapaport, the same of whom we had heard in Jassy as being at the head of the secret Society for undermining Judaism,—considered one of the most learned Jews in the world, both in regard to languages and general knowledge. He received"us politely, but at the same time with somewhat of the stiffness of assumed dignity. He put many questions regarding Palestine, and seemed to be familiar with the events of the day in that country. He inquired as to the progress and success of Ibraim Pasha, and also concerning the visit of Sir Moses Montefiore. We asked his opinions regarding Messiah; to which he replied very cautiously, "that there was no fixed time for his coming, and that the doctrine of a Messiah was not one of the original articles of the Jewish creed. These (he said) related only to God, the resurrection, and the final judgment of men." One of his attendants spoke out his opinion more fully, saying, " It would have been better if Messiah had never been foretold!"
Later in the evening, a well-educated young Jew called on us. Hearing that we had been inquiring about the practicability of instituting schools among the Jews, he came to offer himself as a teacher. He thought himself qualified, having taught in the Academy of the Jesuits in the town. He conversed with us in Latin, always addressing us by the title of " Dormnatio vestra." When telling us that he had given up all expectation of the restoration of his people to their own land, and of the coming of Messiah, he used this remarkable expression, "Despero, despero," that is, "I have no hope of it," the very term used by the prophet Ezekiel, when he foretold what would be the state of Israel before the breath should enter into them, " Behold, they say, Our bones are dried and our hope is lost."* This young man professed still to believe the Bible; and we urged upon him the duty of believing things because God had revealed them, and
* Ezek. xxxvii. 11.
them 200 years old, having inscriptions generally in good preservation, and some elegant monuments over the Rabbis. The device upon the stone where a cohen or priest lies buried, is two hands in the position of one pronouncing the blessing, and below are the words, "On this wise shall ye bless Israel."* A cluster of grapes, lighted candles, an eagle, and a gazelle, were some of the other devices. Several of the other inscriptions were poetical, but none were interesting. A little boy was buried while we were there. They brought him to the grave bound up in a white shroud, and lying on a bier. A Gentile dug the grave,—it being unlawful for an Israelite to do servile labour on a solemn feast day. A small pillow was filled with earth, and laid in the grave to be a resting-place for his head. The face was left uncovered, and a loose board laid over the body, to prevent the earth from injuring it when thrown in. The covered board is loose, that the dead may have no trouble in getting out at the resurrection, and sometimes, we were told, they put a staff beside the body to help the person to rise at that day! Before the body was laid in the grave, the attendants went through a miserable superstition; the friends present bending over him and asking the dead to forgive them if they fiad injured him in any way during his life, and to forgive his father and grandfather, or any other friend who had done so. We were shown the grave of a Jewess, who died 200 years ago, named Galla, the daughter of a rabbi, who is said to have lately wrought miracles on diseased persons who prayed at her grave. Some time ago, she appeared in a dream to several people in town, and told them that she had
* Numb. vi. 2a
in tears, "they shall return and come to Zion with song* and everlasting joy upon their heads."f
(Oct. 2.) Early this morning we observed the young men who attend the gymnasium, on their way to the principal church to be present at morning prayers for half an hour. There were perhaps 300, all marching in regular order, with their ushers wearing the dress of the Popish priests. Thus the chains of Popery are riveted on the rising generation. Before the door of the church stood an immense cross, with a small picture of Christ near the foot. As the young men retired, many of them approached the cross and kissed the picture, making obeisance before it. What must Israel think when they see the best educated of the Polish youth worshipping an image in the open street, as well as the blinded peasantry bowing down to huge crosses and uncouth images of saints, that disfigure the wayside and are crowded round every village,—what can they think in such a land as this, but that Jesus taught his followers to bow down to wood and stone, like the worst of the heathen? Surely, in the skirts of Babylon shall be found, not only the blood of prophets and of saints, but the blood of many a Jew. "As Babylon has caused the slain of Israel to fall, so at Babylon shall fall the slain of all the earth." (
Several Jews called and took leave of us in a very kind manner. Before setting out about nine o'clock, a great crowd began to assemble round a house opposite to our lodging. It was the house of rabbi Perl, the great reformer and founder of the New School, who was that • Isa. viii. 19.20. t Isa. nn. 10. J Jer. li. 49.
day to be buried, and about 500 Jews had met at that early hour to do honour to his remains. We left the town in a Jewish brisca, a light wagon without springs, not very comfortable, driven by a bearded Jew, who was not very steady, for he stopped at the first house of entertainment on the road, and when we asked the reason, said very honestly that he wanted snaps,—the common name in that country for strong drink. The day was warm and fine, but the country bare and uninteresting. The crops were all off the ground, except the potatoes, which the peasants were gathering. Sometimes the road was sandy and heavy, sometimes a pleasant wood of oak or birch relieved the weary eye. At one part, a beggar boy seeing us approach, bowed to the ground, kissed the dust before us, and then, with clasped hands and imploring look, asked an alms.
About one o'clock we came to Zalosc, situated, like very many of the small towns of Poland, on the margin of a lake. Here we stopped at a Jewish khan, and partook of" Mit-tag," or " midday meal," as it is there called. Pike taken out of the lake was set upon the table, along with some of the remnants of the previous day's repast, at the close of the Feast of Tabernacles. A picture of the famous rabbi, Landau, hung upon the wall, a favourite ornament in all the Jewish houses. We were told that there are 100 families of Jews residing here.
Not far from this is another village called Saretsky, on the margin of a considerable lake. A few Jews were in the streets as we passed through. Images abounded on the roadside, and especially "round the village. How long shall it be ere the Lord a second time bring to pass the words written, "Therefore, behold, the days come that I will do judgment upon the graven images of Babylon."*
At sunset, we came in sight of a prominent eminence, crowned with a beautiful church, and near it a large building in a grove, which we conjectured to be a convent. The name of the place is Potkamin, one of the most sightly villages of this part of the country. Many Jews were walking in the large square or market-place, and the shomesh or "beadle" was in the act of going round the village, knocking loudly at the door of every Jewish house, to give warning that the hour for worship in the synagogue had arrived. We spoke a few minutes with some of them, who said that there are 300 families
* Jer. li. 47. God, as taught in his word, was infinitely important for us all. With another intelligent Jew, under a shed before his shop-door, we had time to converse a little. We told him we came from Scotland, had been in Palestine, and loved the Jews. He spoke freely, and on our saying that he had no atonement for sin to offer, replied, "All that is required is prayer, not sacrifice." We spoke of Messiah coming for the very end of making atonement, and that we looked also for his coming again the second time. He said that all the Jews of that village were Chasidim, and that they were all hoping for Messiah's coming. At this place, instead of the common Eruv or string at the entrance of the town, there was a gateway of wood across the street.
Soon after leaving Potkamin, the road became rough and irregular, and in many places was made of soft sand. Darkness came on, and we saw little more till we found ourselves approaching Brody, through an avenue of tall pines. It was late when we arrived at the gate of Brody, but it was opened to us on the ground of our being English travellers, and we were soon comfortably lodged in a respectable inn, kept by a German Jew. The distance from Tarnapol is eight German, or forty English, miles.
(Oct. 3.) At an early hour we were disturbed in a most unceremonious way, by a series of officious Jewish hawkers coming to our chamber, eager to dispose of their goods. First of all the door was pushed open, then a fur-cap and long beard thrust in, while a voice demanded, in German, if we needed knives or combs. No soonei • See again Isa. viii. 19.
was this visitor gone, than another similar head was thrust in, and a voice asked, if we wished to buy soap. This singular kind of annoyance was repeated by eight similar visitors before we were fully dressed, and we were obliged at last in self-defence to lock the chamber-door.
Brody is situated in the midst of a sandy plain, and is five miles distant from the Russian frontier. So completely level is the country all round, that the distant village of Potkamin is the only object beyond the town which arrests the eye. When a traveller approaches Brody there is no city visible, there being only three spires, and all the houses being hid by the trees of the environs. Its nearness to Russia gives it importance, and increases its trade. There are no more than three Christian churches in the town, two of which are Greek, and one Roman Catholic, while there are 150 synagogues. The streets in general are tolerably clean, and there is a side-pavement entirely of wood. The appearance of the population was certainly the most singular we had witnessed. It seemed wholly a Jewish city; and the few Gentiles who appeared here and there were quite lost in the crowd of Jews. Jewish boys and girls were playing in the streets; and Jewish maid-servants carrying messages; Jewish women were the only females to be seen at the doors and windows; and Jewish merchants filled the market-place. The high fur-caps of the men, the rich head-dress of the women, and the small round velvet caps of the boys, met the eye on every side as we
452 BRODY—HEAD-DRESS OP THB JEWISH WOMEN.
wandered from street to street. Jewish ladies were leaning over balconies, and poor old Jewesses were sitting at stalls selling fruit . In passing through the streets, if we happened to turn the head for a moment toward a shop, some Jew would rush out immediately and assail us with importunate invitations to come and buy.* In the bazaar, Jews were selling skins, making shoes, and offering earthenware for sale; and the sign-boards of plumbers, masons, painters, and butchers, all bore Jewish names. In the fish-market, the same kind of wrangling and squabbling heard in our own markets was carried on by Jewesses, buying and selling. Jewesses also presided at the flesh and poultry market, and in a plentifully stored green-market . Near these were shambles for torn meat, to be sold only to Gentiles, Jews being forbidden in the law to eat "any flesh that is torn of beasts."t The fondness of the daughters of Zion for a fine head-dress, which called forth the indignant warnings of Isaiah, still lingers in the hearts of the Jewesses at Brody. They wear a black velvet coronet , adorned with strings of precious stones or imitation pearls; and though this piece of finery costs several pounds, yet so devotedly attached are they to their " round tires like the moon,"J that scarcely can an old woman be found seated at her stall who does not wear one, as if they were queens even in their captivity.
There is indeed a complete air of Judaism over the whole town; and at the Post-office, the notices as to the delivery of letters are printed not only in the German and Polish, but also in the Hebrew language.
The number of Jewish families enrolled at the last census was 5000. An intelligent Austrian, whom we afterwards met at Zloozow,—the superintendent of the district,—reckoned that there were 25,000 Jews and 10,000 Christians in Brody. His estimate of the Jewish population is probably very near the truth, though the proportion he assigned to the Christian or Gentile population was perhaps too high. There are a few professed Protestants resident here, whom the German minister of Lemberg visits only once a-year, when he preaches in the hall of the inn where we stayed. How precious would the truth appear to some of our congregations in Scotland, were they subjected to such a famine of hearing the word of the Lord!
* See Isa. Iv. i t Exod. xxii. 31. t Isa Uj- 13.
The Jews of Brody carry on a considerable trade with Leipsic and Odessa. They have great influence in the town, and often act as spies to the Austrian police. About six years ago, Mr. Reichardt, now Jewish missionary in London, with another Christian friend, passed this way and distributed tracts; information was immediately given to the police, by whom they were detained two weeks till the authorities at Lemberg had been consulted, and then were ordered to be removed forthwith beyond the border.
There are perhaps forty rich Jews in the city, who may be worth about 10,000/. or 20,000/., but the greater part are poor. There are many adherents of the New School, although they have only one synagogue. Most of the rising generation are giving up the study of the Talmud; and several have been baptized. There is some learning among them; for in one synagogue we met with several lads who understood and spoke Hebrew. Many of the young men are beginning to attend the Government schools, in which they are taught Latin, and acquire general knowledge. The rabbi of the New School speaks Latin and French.
We visited one of their finest synagogues. It is like an ancient Gothic church: the roof very elevated, and supported by four immense pillars in the massy Gothic style. Brass lustres in great profusion were suspended from the roof, especially in front of the ark, all handsome and brightly polished. The place might easily contain two or three thousand worshippers. The voice of prayer, and the loud Amen of the congregation, must sound very solemnly through the vaulted aisles. In the porch stand vessels of water for washing the hands ;* and the whole prayer-book is pasted up on boards upon the walls, for the sake of the poor. In a Beth-midraah adjoining the synagogue, we found a company of Jews engaged in study, and each of us gathered a group around him. Several were able to speak Hebrew fluently; but there was a reserve about them all, that distinguished them from the Jews of Moldavia and Wallachia. They had secret suspicions that our object in visiting them was connected with the Austrian Government; and our inquiries after some of their books, excited their suspicion still more, for some of their books, which speak against the idolatry of the Church of Rome, are prohibited.
* See John ii 6. blown for those that are ready to perith.'" * The ex-penst. of this establishment was stated to us at 25L weekly, which is defrayed by the interest of legacies, and by contributions from the town.
We then went to the new burying-ground, opened in 1831, when the cholera made its ravages in this country, at which time, for a space of three months, there were in Brody 150 deaths every day. The extensive burying-ground is already half-filled up, although the tomb* are thickly planted together. The monuments are of a soft chalky stone, and most of them adorned with curious emblems. The stone is generally painted, and the epitaph is of a bright colour, or sometimes in letters of gold. One had a crown painted on it,
with the words aw av ine (kether shem tov), "the crown of a good name." Another had a cup and platter
of a lady of wealth, who in her lifetime had gone on a
pilgrimage to Palestine, was marked by the figure of a ship on the sea, and Noah's dove flying towards it . A gate broken off its hinges and in the act of falling, represented the door of the ark in the synagogue rent in mourning for some eminent worshipper, who had been mother of a numerous family. A hand holding an open over me graves 01 me Tbddis, asuing 01 mem iorgivcness, and promising to be with them soon. He returned to town, sickened, and died; and next day was buried.
In the evening, we went to the shop of a Jew, and bought Tephillin or phylacteries, the broadest which he had. These consist of little scrolls of parchment, in which are written certain passages of the law, enclosed in two black leather boxes, which are bound by leather thongs on the forehead and left hand, during the time of prayer. It was to these that our Lord alluded when re
E roving the Pharisees, "All their works they do for to e seen of men; they make broad their phylacteries." We got also the mezuzah, a small scroll of parchment, on which a portion of the law is written, with the name of God on the back in transposed letters, which is folded up and nailed obliquely on the door-post of every Jewish house. Both of these superstitions are derived from a misinterpretation of the command in Deuteronomy, "And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes; and thou shalt write them upon the posts of thy house, and on thy gates."f The natural heart in all ages and in all nations, is well pleased to substitute mere external observances in the place of spiritual heart-religion. We afterwards purchased a Taltith, a white woollen shawl, striped with blue at the edge, and having white fringes called Tsitsith
• Man. xxiii. 2ft t Deut . vi. a 9.
COMMISSARY OF POLICE YOUNG JEW. 457
at the four corners. The Jews wear this over their head during: prayer, while they hold the fringes in their hands, and frequently kiss them in obedience to the commandment, "Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them fringes in the borders of their garments." * The Saviour also alludes to them, " they enlarge the borders of their garments." f Upon the part which comes over the forehead, the Jews often wear a band of silver embroidery. A Jewess who had been employed to prepare the Tallith for us, refused to sew the embroidered band upon the robe, unless we procured for her a silk ribband to put between them, alleging, that otherwise she would be breaking the law, which forbids them to mingle " woollen and linen " together.J
(Oct. 4.) Early this forenoon, we were sent for by the Commissary of Police, a sharp bustling Austrian, with a pipe in his mouth, who examined us very roughly. We believe that they had suspicions of our being missionaries, and in order to entrap us, alleged that we were Jews travelling under a false passport. The Commissary held a letter in his hand, which he had received from Jaglinsky, stating that we went into the synagogue there, and joined in the Jewish prayers, even using " Hear, O Israel, the Lord thy God is one God." "And further," added he, " why did you buy Tephillin last night V We were somewhat perplexed as well as amused by this attempt to shew that we were Jews and not Christians, and were now made aware of the system of jealous espionage maintained in this kingdom of Popish darkness. We answered that we were Protestant pastors from Scotland, and that all ministers in our country are instructed in Hebrew; that we had read in the synagogue only to shew the Jews that we knew their language; and that we had bought the Tephillin as curiosities. This seemed to satisfy him, and we received our passports for Lemberg; "only," he said, "you must go by Zloozow."
In paying a second visit to the two principal synagogues, we met with a young man belonging to one of the best Jewish families, who requested an interview at the inn. His name was Moses Weitheit, of a very pleasing appearance, gentle and serious in his manners, and able to speak Latin freely, and a little Italian. He said
• Num. xv. 38,39. Deut . xxii. 12.
t Matt . xziii. :",. This is nid to be the Am of Hit garment which the woman touched, Matt. ix. 20. t Lev. xa. 19.
bosom of his Polish gown, he said " Nemo sciet, nemo tciet.'"—" no one shall know." We complied with his request, and could not but breathe a prayer that he might be enabled to draw living water out of this fountain, in a wilderness where blind guides tremble lest one drop from heaven should fall on the thirsty souL He kept his promise, but we soon found that our caution was needful, and the suspicions of the Austrians concerning us were not removed.
Having hired a comfortable vehicle to carry us to Lemberg, we intended to set out before the gates were shut for the night and accordingly drove up to the custom-house. But here we were detained for three hours, which the custom-house officers and soldiers spent in making complete search into every article Jve had with us. Not a corner of the carriage escapecr their strict, suspicious search; every thing except what was on our person was examined. Every book, in whatever language, was taken from us, even our Hebrew and English Bibles; and we were left the alternative of allowing them to be sent to Lemberg, to be examined by the Censor there, and waiting for his opinion on their orthodoxy, or of at once allowing ourselves to be deprived of their use until we should be beyond the dominions of Austria. On our preferring the latter alternative, they agreed to seal up our books in a parcel and send them on to Cracow, to await our arrival. When we pleaded to be allowed to retain our English Bible, the only answer we received was, "It is not allowed in Austria." We were still further annoyed by their finding several sealed •etters of introduction to Consuls and others lying in our DEPARTURE FROM BRODY. 459
desk: and on account of which they imposed a fine upon us. The greater our annoyance, the greater the satisfaction of the officers appeared to be. They seemed to feel that it was not every day two Protestant ministers were in their grasp. We were not allowed to leave that night, and therefore lodged in a Jewish khan near the gate. Here we experienced several painful proofs of the rapacity of the Jewish people. The keepers of the khan, seeing our anxiety to depart next morning, threw every obstacle in our way, charging two or three prices for every article we had used, and striving in every way to extort money from us. We could only pray that the prophecy of Zephaniah might be soon fulfilled, "The remnant of Israel shall not do iniquity, nor speak lies; neither shall a deceitful tongue be found in their mouth." *
(Oct . 5.) We at last got away, about midday, and enjoyed a pleasant drive through a well-cultivated plain, with gently swelling hills on the left, the young wheat springing fresh and green. About five miles from Brody the country became more varied. The road lay through the estate of a Polish Count; the woods were finely kept, and at that time tinged with the red and brown of autumn. The castle and neighbouring village are called Potchoritz, and there are two churches, the one a rude structure, the other beautiful, situated on the top of a wooded eminence. In front of the latter there is a whole range of pillars, each supporting the figure of a saint; and the large square of the village has in the midst of it a high pillar, with a figure of the Virgin on the top.
At three wclock, we rested a little in a clean inn belonging to the village of Sassow, where we found a small synagogue of wood, and 200 Jewish families, all of the old school, and hoping for the Messiah. Their buryingground, filled with plain, white tombstones, was at the entrance of the village. Here, too, was a curious specimen of the old Polish church and belfry, both entirely of wood. At the inn we met a Tyrolese, wearing the tall conical cap of his country, who had lately travelled to Palestine in the service of an Englishman, and was very communicative. The Polish hartsmi, or inn, is a curious long building, having a wide entrance at both ends, so that you drive in at one end, and in leaving drive out at the other. Within, there are stalls for twenty or thirty horses on each side of the building, and a few rooms at
• Zcph. iii. 13.
sheet, while your own mats ana cioaKs are your covering.
Leaving this village, the fields were beautifully tinged with a reddish-brown, from the colour of the stalk of the retsky, which had been here cut down. About six in the evening we came to Zloozow, a large village, with three handsome churches. Here we found out that it was not without some design that the Commissary at Brody had caused us to get our passports signed here, instead of sending us on direct to Lemberg; for we were met at the entrance of the village by a Government officer, who was waiting to conduct us to the Kreisamter, or superintendent of police. This person was an exceedingly pleasant, intelligent man, and could speak English fluently, having been much in the company of English residents in Vienna. He engaged each of us successively in conversation, and then at once rose and said, that we should have our passports without delay. While our horses were getting ready, we wandered through the town. In front of one of the churches stood a pillar, supporting the image of a saint with the child Jesus in his arms, with this inscription—" D. O. M. Ex voto statuam hanc Sancto Joanni crtxit Trantisca Ijoewel, anno 1824" (»'. e. "Francisca Loewel, in the year 1824, erected this statue to St. John, in fulfilment of a vow.") A poor Polish woman was crossing herself and repeating a prayer as she passed it.
There are said to be 500 Jewish families here. We met a very serious and interesting Jew returning from evening worship, who told us that all the Jews of this place are Rabbinists, and so superstitious, that they had been ill pleased with him for shaving off a small part of
Mr. M'Cheyne having gone about a mile and a half toward the hills, sat down to read in a sequestered spot, when two Polish shepherds came and sat down beside him. After trying in vain to exchange ideas with them by signs, Mr. M. rose to leave them, but they showed a determination to detain him by putting themselves in his way, and endeavouring to force him up into the woods that crowned the hills. A desperate struggle ensued for about a quarter of an hour, till, exhausted by these violent efforts, Mr. M. lay down on the ground. They stood by, and spoke together for a few minutes—then suddenly plunged into the woods. It seems every way probable that they intended to plunder him; and some of the people at the inn wondered that they had not drawn their large knives. What moved them so suddenly to depart we could not conjecture. We felt that the hand of God, that had delivered us out of so many dangers during our previous wanderings, had been eminently stretched out again. The rest of the day we spent together. Our host provided us with his Hebrew Bible, and we had retained an English New Testament in one of our pockets, so that we enjoyed a profitable Sabbath, realizing the promise, "Yet will I be to them as a little sanctuary in the countries where they shall
Ovjuu persons lliivt.r uix'u Iuiuwu Iu Visil Nhn, tiun uinig
ing a present. He has in consequence become very rich, and frequently entertains 500 Jews at his table, spending even 30/. a-week in supporting his dignity. He assumes the character of a prophet, pretending to have knowledge of future events, and to divine the particular sins of any one by looking stedfastly in his face. How applicable to such a man are the words of Jeremiah—"I have not sent these prophets, yet they ran; I have not spoken to them, yet they prophesied."J Our host told us also of a visit which the now imprisoned Rabbi of Rugen paid to this part of the country about four years ago. He travelled with three carriages of his own, and the Jews flocked to him in such crowds, that more than 700 vehicles were upon the road, either accompanying or going to meet him. He slept at this inn on his way from Brody to Lemberg. The crowd of Jews that visited him was such that he could hardly get rest, and many came to look upon his face while he was sleeping. So great was the excitement, that the Austrian Government became alarmed and ordered him to leave the country in three days. The mother of the innkeeper had often visited this rabbi, seeking peace to her conscience. We showed them the Psalm, "None of them can oy any means redeem his brother, nor give to God a ransom
* Ezek. xi. 16. t 1 Sam. ix. 9- J Jer. xxiii. 21
POLISH WOMAN CARRYING WATER.
indicated ignorance and neglect. Before entering Lemberg we were examined at the custom-house, where many wagons were undergoing a strict scrutiny. One man had a cart of sticks; a soldier passing by chose one of the best, and carried it off as a prize; the man resisted, and entreated him not to take it, but in vain; the soldier only threatened him and beat him off. This little incident showed us something of the military oppression common in this country. Descending upon the town, we came once more upon paved streets, handsome houses, and other marks of European civilization. The upper classes were attired very much after the English fashion, except that the ladies wore no bonnet, but carried a diminutive parasol instead. We found a quiet and comfortable lodging in the Hotel de Russie.
Lemberg is a large city, having 130,000 inhabitants; it lies in a fine valley, running nearly north and south, the
•P«. xlix.7. |hl. 15.
464 LEMBERQ—JEWISH MARKET-PLACE.
hills on either side being of considerable elevation. On the east the hill is laid out so as to form a fine drive or promenade. From the summit we obtained a commanding view of the town and environs. The houses are high and well built; the streets and squares are open and airy. There is one very handsome church on the rising ground to the west, and ten other spires rise over the buildings of the town. There are several pleasant walks and boulevards, adorned with fine trees, in the heart of the town. There are barracks, and other large and elegant public buildings, especially one with a fountain at each of the four corners, and over each fountain the statue of a heathen goddess. An immense theatre was in the course of being built; the bricks were conveyed to the builders on the wall by a row of boys and women, standing on the steps of a very tall ladder, who handed up each brick from one to another. Looking to the east, we observed the tents of a large body of soldiers, who were then under review, all pitched in military order. But the country in that direction appeared bleak and uninteresting. While we were standing here, a train of splendid carriages swept past, containing the Archduke of Austria and several officers, fine-looking men, in handsome uniforms, the former wearing a dazzling star on the breast . Returning through the city we passed a church, having a figure of the Virgin, with this truly Popish inscription over it, " Praetereundo cave ne tacealur Ave." * Rows of wooden stalls instead of shops are as common here as at Gzernowitz. Three regiments of well-disciplined soldiers passed us on their return from exercise. We were told that there were 30,000 encamped within three miles of the city. One painful sight, which reminded us of Italy, was the vast numbers of criminals who are condemned to public infamy by labouring in chains upon the streets. They are used in building and other kinds of hard labour through the day, and we saw 120 of them returning at night to their prison, dragging heavy fetters after them.
We visited the Jewish market-place, but did not find it so clean and pleasant as that of Brody. Israel here looks poor, oppressed, and degraded, dwelling in the dust. The Russian fur-cap or broad black hat and black Polish robe are beautiful on respectable Jews with clean flow
• " In passing by, beware.
Lest ihou forget this prayer.
•• Aims deliver from death;" and the same words were embroidered upon the pall. In obedience to this summons, many Jews put in pieces of money as they went along, and the money thus collected goes to the Hcbra or burying-society. At the gate of the burying-ground, one woman uttered a loud and piercing cry, which she continued as they proceeded. Arriving at a small portico or covered walk in the grave-yard, they set down the bier, and uncovered the face of the dead. All the relations gathered round, and bending over the corpse, till their lips almost touched the lips ofthe deceased, entreated her to forgive them if they had injured her in any way. After this, they proceeded to the grave, and the body alone was lowered down into it, with the face uncovered. Several of the women now joined in a loud and bitter wail, but their tears and lamentations were only feigned, for at one time they appeared very lugubrious, then, all of a sudden, they stopped and began to scold, or appeared utterly careless. They were specimens of" the mourning wovun" mentioned in the Scriptures.* A white linen pillow was next produced, to be laid under the head ofthe deceased, on which there was a scramble among the women which would be the foremost in filling it with earth. The scene of asking forgiveness from the * See Jer. \x- 17. and Matt. xi. 17.
to and fro before the door, and others at the windows^ gazing on the sad spectacle of death that had passed.
According to the last census, the number of Jewish families in Lemberg was 3000, or nearly 15,000 souls; but there is good reason to think that there are far more actually resident in that town. That they are an important class here may be ascertained from the fact, that the advertisements at the Post-office are in the Hebrew character, as well as in the Polish and German; many of the signboards also in the streets are painted with Hebrew letters. There are some Jews belonging to the New School, but they have no synagogue. In one old synagogue we found in the porch rings fixed into the wall, to which are attached irons for the neck and feet. They were formerly used for fastening up to public view, persons who had broken the regulations of the Talmud in any material point; resembling very much the juggs which are yet to be seen in some of the old parish churches of Scotland. We were a few minutes too late to see the ceremony of a circumcision, for we met the parents carrying away their child. But we saw the chair of Elias, a comfortable chair beside the table where the circumcision is performed. It gets this name from the singular belief that Elijah comes unseen and sits there at every circumcision—probably in his zeal to see the law enforced to the letter. On the back of the chair is inscribed, "Throne of Elijah—his memory fore preferred the offer of this Jew, who undertook to carry us the whole way to Cracow, a distance of nearly 200 English miles, for 45 gulden, equal to £A. 10s.
The country through which we travelled reminded us of the vast undulating plains of France, fertile but uninteresting, with a long level road stretching before. The young crops were springing, and the peasants gathering their potatoes as we passed. In three hours we came to Grudak, a pleasant village, containing a councilhouse and two churches, adorned with shady walks and a fine stream of water. Here we saw several Jews in the street, but had no conversation with any. Three hours more brought us to Sandovawiznia, a large village, also upon a pleasant stream, with two churches, and many images of saints under its shady trees. The half of the population appeared to be Jewish. Towards evening, we passed through Moschiska, where the principal street had an old piazza, under which many Jewish children were playing, and we were told that there were 600 resident Jews.
We slept at a Jewish khan, near a small village called Laskovola, where are six Jewish families. Our hostess was a simple Jewess, asking a great many questions, and expressing great surprise. The whole family were kind, and made us promise if ever we came that way again not to forget to visit them.
(Oct . 9.) Next morning we turned to the north, leaving the main road to get a nearer way, and came on a rustic
* Mark vii. *
468 LEMBERG TO CRACOW.
village, Bejepee, close to a nobleman's seat. The whitewashed mansion, the lawn, gardens, and handsome trees, reminded us of similar scenes at home. But they are rare indeed in Poland. The wicker fences being kept in good condition, formed a neat enclosure, and also an excellent protection to the young trees. The wooden shed full of images in the square, was absolutely ridiculous. The whole land is polluted with these abominations, sometimes under shady trees, sometimes in glass-cases by the wayside, and it may well be said, "According to the number of thy cities are thy gods." *
Crossing the Saan, a tributary of the Vistula, by a floating bridge, we came to Jaroslaw, a small town containing 1200 families, with several churches, a few public buildings, and a busy market-place. We saw many respectable Jews upon the street, and many Catholic priests. In the suburb stands a handsome convent, with three spires, and above the principal entrance a painting of the Virgin Mary, spreading her hands over the monks of the order kneeling round her, having this inscription, "Sub tuum prcBsicUum," "Under thy protection." How truly may a Jew call such Christianity by the name of foul idolatry!
We now travelled due west, through rows of willows, oaks, and elms, for miles together, till we came to Zeworsk, a village with a covered walk in the marketplace, where Jews were loitering. A neat obelisk marked the entrance to some baron's country-seat, and a temporary triumphal arch, adorned with leaves, intimated the expected approach of some of the Royal family. We noticed here a broom erected at several doors, to show that a soldier was billeted there. The beggars were very loathsome and deformed, and some, to prove that they were Christian, not Jewish beggars, led a pig hehind them by a string! Even a wretched beggar in Poland is careful not to be mistaken for a Jew,
In the evening we drove through Lanshut, and, late at night, crossed a deep stream, and entered the town of Rzezow, about half-way between Lemberg and Cracow.
(Oct. 10.) We left this clean, well-built town very early, and pursued our way throHgh avenues of trees, till we reached the village of Zenzow, where a company of Austrian soldiers were exercising. We saw many idle Jews, and signboards in the Hebrew character.
*Jer. xi. 13.
post, the misrach hanging on the eastern wall, to snew in what direction Jerusalem lies, and the brazen lustre or Sabbath-lamp suspended from the roof. In one corner is a fire without a grate, and the dinner boiling in earthenware cans, standing beside burning faggots. Brass and earthen kitchen utensils, bright and clean, adorn the wall;—and the washing-tub has its corner. Being a family room, there are two tolerable beds,—serving for sofas by day, a cradle also, and a fine infant in its little carriage. The mother and daughter are preparing the food, and the married daughter, with fine Jewish features, cares for the children. The cow, unreproved, is drinking out of a tub, and hens are wandering about, finding supply at the feet of the different guests, while one more expert than the rest is catching flies at the window. Such was the khan where we rested. Being also a public room, four Jews with long beards were dining at the end of one long table, while we occupied the end of another, and two others were dining at a chest of drawers. One Jew was sitting idly on the cradle; several others, each with a German pipe in his mouth, wandered in and out; while two Gentiles from Breslau stood trying to make us understand their German.—In spite of all appearances, the dinner was excellent, and the cost only 8d. a-head.