Book IV

OF THE RESPECTIVE DUTIES OF HUS-
BAND AND WIFE.

I SHALL begin with the respective duties of a husband and wife, which are summed up in these two general comprehensive ones; love on the one part, and reverence on the other, Eph. v. 33. these arise from a conjugal union between the said parties ; marriage is an union of male and female, of one man and of one woman in lawful wedlock, agreeably to the original creation of man, Gen. i. 25r. Mai. ii. 15. and agreeably to the course of providence, which has been kept ever since in all ages and nations; there being continually nearly the same number of males and females born into the world, at most as thirteen to twelve, or fourteen to thirteen; the surplusage on the side of the males, being a provision by the wise Orderer of all things for a supply for war, for the seas, Ike. and by this conjugal union, male and female, become one, even one flesh, Gen. ii. 24. Matt, xix, 6. which union is therefore very near and strict, and, indeed, indissoluble but by death, excepting in one case, unfaithfulness in the one to the other, by adultery or fornication, Rom. vii. 2. Matt. v. 32. Marriigc is honourable in all, Heb. ziii. 4. U being an institution of God, and that of God in paradise., Christ honoured it by his presence, and at such a solemnity wrought he his first miracle : and what makes this state yet more honourable is, that the marriage of A am and Eve was a type and emblem of the conjugal union of Christ and the church, Eph. v. 32. particularly this state should be honourable, when the duties of it are observed by both parties ; as,

I. Love on the part of the husband. Husbands love your wives, Eph. v. 25. instances of which are in Isaac, Jacob, Elianah, and other. The nature and manner of shewing it, and the reasons of it, might be observed, l. The nature of it. It is superior to any shewn to any other; it should be a lave of complacency and delight; should be chaste and single, as the love of Christ is ; it should be mutual; the wife is to love the husband, as the husband the wife, Tit. ii. 4. and generally her love is more strong and affectionate, 2 Sam. i. 26. and the reason why the husband is more frequently exhorted to it, it may be is, because most wanting in the performance of it. ii. The manner, or how, and in what way it is to be express. ed. In making all proper provision for the temporal good, Eph. v. 29. in protecting her from all abuse and injuries; as she is the weaker vessel, she is to be taken under his shelter, Gen. xx. 16. Ruth iii. 9.' in doing every thing that may contribute to her pleasure and peace, 1 Cor. vii. 33. and in seeking her spiritual welfare, her conversion, if unconverted, and her spiritual peace, comfort, and edification, she being an heir with him of the grace of life, 1 Cor. xiv. 35. To all which are opposed, hatred and bitterness ; Husbands love your wives, and be not bitter against them ; not giving bitter Ian. guage, threatening words, sour looks, and especially bitter blows ; which is cruel, churlish, barbarous, and brutish, unbecoming the man and the christian. ni. The reasons or arguments enforcing this duty of the love of a man to his wife, are such as follow: 1. The nearness between them, she is his own flesh, Eph. v. 28. 2. The help, advantage, and profit he receives by her, Gen. ii. 18. 3. The glory and honour she is unto him ; the woman is the glory of the man, in whom arc seen his power and authority, 1 Cor. xi. 7. 4. The strongest and most forcible argument of all to a good man, is the love of Christ to his church ; which is the pattern and examplar of a man's love to his wife, and most strongly enforces it, Eph. v. 25—28.

II. The duties on the part of the wife, are reverence, subjection, obedience, &c. 1. Reverence ; and let the wife see that she reverence her husband, Kph. v. 23, which reverence is both internal and external, 1 Pet. iii. 6. Gen. xviii. 12. 2. Subjection and sub nission to him ; Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord, as the church is subject to Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing, if ph. v. 22. 24. 3. Obedience. The apostle directs, that wives be obedient to their own husbands, Tit. ii. 5. 4. Assistance and help in family aff.urs, agreeable to the original en of her creation ; guiding the house with discretion, keeping her children and servants in good order and decorum; abiding at home, and managing all domestic business with wisdom and prudence, i Tim. ii. 14. Tit. ii. 5. 5. Assuming no authority over her husband, as not in ecclesiastic, so not in domestic matters; seeking to please him in all things, doing nothing without his will and consent, and never contrary to it; not intermeddling with his worldly business and concerns, but leaving them to him, 1 Tim. v. 11, 12. 1 Cor. vii. 34. 6. Continuance with him in every state and circumstance of life.

There are reasons why the wife should be found in the performance of these duties. 1. Taken from her creation, time, manner, and end of it; Adam was formed first, and then Eve; and therefore in point of time had the superiority; the man was not made for the woman ; but the woman was made for the man, 1 Tim. ii. 13. 2. From the consideration of the fall, and her concern in it; Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived, was in the transgression; therefore it is part of the sentence denounced upon her for

her transgression; Thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee, Gen. iii. 16. 3. From the man being the head of the woman; and therefore she should be in subjection to him as such, 1 Cor. xi. 3. Eph. v. 23. 4. From her being the weaker vessel, and therefore standing in need of his shelter and protection. 5. From her own credit and honour concerned herein; it would be to her discredit and dishonour to behave irreverently, and to be disobedient; to submit to him, ts fit in the Lord, is decent and becoming, Col. iii. 18. 1 Pet. iii. 3—5. 6. The chief argument of all is taken from the subjection of the church to Christ, Eph. v. 22—24. In short, both parties should consult each others peace and happiness, and especially the glory of God.

OF THE RESPECTIVE DUTIES OF PARENTS, AND CHILDREN.

Children are under great obligation to various duties. I. The duties of children to their parents are included and comprehended in that general exhortation, Children obey your parents in the Lord, for that is right, Eph. vi. 1. More particularly, the duty enjoined, is, 1. Love; such who are disobedient to parents, are without natural affection. 2. Honour; obedience is explained by honour, Eph. vi. 1, 2. which honour lies, In thought and estimation: to which is opposed, a setting light by their parents, Deut xxvii. ii. 16. It is expressed by words; by speaking honourably of them and to them r Igoi Sir, Matt. xxi. 30. In gesture and behaviour; as by rising up to them, and bowing before them; instances of which are in Joseph and Solomon, Gen. xlvi. 29. 1 Kings ii. 19.

3. Obedience to parents, includes fear and reverence of them, Lev. xix. 3. which is shewn by a patient bearing their reproofs, and by a submission to their corrections, Heb. xii. 2.

4. Gratitude; a requital of them for all their kindness; by taking care of them when in want and distress, and in old rgc; so Joseph nourished his father and his family in a time of famine. 5. Subjection and submission to their commands, advice, reproofs, and corrections. The rule is, Children, obey your parents in all things, Col. iii. 20. not in things sinful, but in things that are lawful and right; and even in things indifferent, which are neither forbidden nor commanded, yet if enjoined by parents, are to be observed ; an instance of this we have in the Rechabites, and whose filial observance was approved of by the Lord, Jer. xxxv. 6—19.

The manner in which this obedience is to be yielded is, in the Lord, Eph. vi. 1. which may be considered as a limitation of the above rule; that it must be in things pertaining to the Lord, which are well pleasing in his sight, which make for hia glory, and are done for his sake. The reason enforcing such obedience is, for it is right; it is agreeable to the law and light of nature, agreeable to reason, and is the first commandment with promise.

II. There are duties incumbent on parents with respect to their children, which are, i. Negatively expressed; Te fathers, provoke not your children to wrath, Eph. vi. 4. which may be done. 1. By words ; by laying upon them unjust and unreasonable commands, by frequent, public, and severe chidings. 2. By deeds; as by shewing more love to one than to another; as Jacob did to Joseph, n. The duty of parents to their children is expressed positively ; But bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord, Eph. vi. 4. which may relate, i. To things civil, respecting them, that they should bring them up; that is, provide for their sustentation and support, food and raiment suitable and convenient for them, and what is honest in the sight of all men, Rom. xii. 17. 1. Tim v. 1.8. take care of their education,the Jews have a saying, that he that does not teach his son, or cause him to be taught, some trade or business, it is all one as if he taught him to be a thief, to steal privately or rob publicly; 2. This exhortation may have respect to the training of them up in a religious way ; in the external ways of God, and paths of godliness, in which they should walk; from whence they will not easily and ordinarily depart, Prov. xxii. 6. It is proper to instruct them in the necessity of faith in God and in Christ, and of the use of prayer; and to lay before them the sinfulness of siny and shew them what an evil thing it is, and what are the sad effects of it; to teach them their miserable estate by nature, and the way of recovery and salvation by Christ { and to u ach them from childhood to read and know the holy scripturesf according to their capacity ; see Dtut. vi. 20.

OF THE RESPECTIVE DUTIES OF MASTERS AND SERVANTS.

These duties arise from a relation founded in contract, and agreement. Men are by nature, or as to their original make, alike and equal ; there is no difference, of bond and free. I shall now treat,

I. Of the duties of servants to their masters. These are more largely and frequently spoken of in the epistles of the apostles; because that christian servants were impatient of the yoke of heathen masters, and had it insinuated into them, by some licentious persons and false teachers, that civil servitude was inconsistent with christian liberty, 1 Cor. vii. 21. 1 lirfli vi. 1. Tit. ii. 10. And it may be proper to consider, 1. Of whom duty is required, and to whom it is to be performed ; Servants be obedient to them that are your masters, Ephj vi. 5. By servants are meant such of this character, male and female, men servants and maid servants, and masters also include mistresses, as well as masters, who are to be submitted to, one as another, Gen xvi. 8, 9. of whatsoever temper and disposition, whether good or ill.natured, 1 Pet. ii. 18. ti. The duties to be performed by servants to their mastersi which are comprehended in these general terms of subjection to them, and obedience to their lawful commands, Eph. vii 5. Col. iii. 22. Tit. ii. 9. 1 Pet. ii. 18. They are to be had in honour and esteem, and to be spoken honourably of, and respectfully to, 1 Tim. vi. 1. I say to my servant, Do this; and he doth it immediately, at once, Matt. viii. 9. ni. The manner in which this duty of obedience, in its several branches is, to be performed; it must be universal; in all things v,ol, iii. 22. Tit. ii. 9. not in things sinful: but in all things lawful not grudgingly, nor murmuring, nor by f rce and constraint, but willingly, and of a ready mind. 1 v. The arguments enforcing such obedience are, the authority and command of God. the honour and glory of God, and of Christ, and of his gospel as concerned herein. The example of Christ, and the benefit arising to servants from their obedience, in general, what good thing they do, the same they shall receive of the Lord.

II. There are duties incumbent on masters, with respect to their servants ; And ye masters do the same things unto them, Eph. vi. 9. not the same duties; but what belong to them.

1. There are some things they are to do, with respect to the moral, spiritual, and eternal good of their servants. 1. They are to set good examples to them, of temperance, sobriety, prudence, virtue, and religion. 2. They are to teach and instruct them in the knowledge of divine things, Gen. xiv. 14.

3. They are to pray with them, and for them, Josh. xxiv. 15.

4. Should allow time and leisure for religious services, to read and hear the word of God. N. There are other duties, which relate to their temporal good. As, 1. They are to teach them the business they are put apprentices to them for.

2. To give them that which is just and equal. 3. They should pay them their just wages. 4. Obedient servants are to be encouraged, and used Kindly, the apostle advises, to

forbear threatening, Eph. vi. 9.

Now the argument to enforce these duties on masters, is taken from their having a Master in heaven. Happy it is when love and harmony, freedom and familiarity, subsists between masters and servants, Ruth ii. 4.

OF THE RESPECTIVE DUTIES OF MAGIS

TRATES AND SUBJECTS.

The duties of subjection and obedience to magistrates,

supreme and subordinate, are frequently inculcated in the

sacred writing. We who are called Baptists, and by way of reproach Anabaptists, should be careful to observe these duties ; nothing is mote common with every puny writer against us, than to upbraid us with the riots and tnmults at Munster in Germany; which though begun by Paedobaptists, yet because some called Anabaptists joined them, men of bad principles and scandalous characters, the whole blame was laid upon them. It becomes us to wipe off the foul aspersion, both by our declared abhorrence of it, and by our conduct.

I. It will be proper to consider, of whom the duties of subjection and obedience are required, and to whom they are to be yielded. 1. Of whom they are required: of tvery one that belongs to the commonwealth ; Let every soul be subject to the higher powers, Rom. xiii. 1. Christ and hia apostles paid tribute to Caesar, and even Peter, whose successor the pope pretends to be, Matt. xvii. 24—2r. The apostle Paul appealed to Caesar, owned his authority, and claimed his protection, Acts xxv. 10, 11. Pliny the heathen bears witness to the christians of the second century, that they did all things in conformity to the civil laws. n. To whom these duties are to be performed. These are the higher powers; called powers because they arc invested with the power of government, and have a right to exercise it; higher powers because they are set in high places, and have a supereminence over others, Rom. xiii. 1. I go on,

II. To consider the duties both of magistrates and subjects. X. Of magistrates: They are to make and pass such laws as are for the good of their subjects. They are to govern according to such righteous and salutary laws. They are to discountenance and suppress impiety and irreligion: the maxim of the Roman orator is a very good one ; Salus Popuu SuPremalex Esto. n. There are duties to be performed by subjects to magistrates. 1. To honour them, and shew reverence to them, Rom. xiii. 7. to speak respectfully of rulers. Civil magistrates are to be prayed for, 1 Timii. 1,2. They are to be supported in their government, Rom. xiii. 7'

III. There are various reasons to be given, why subjection and obedience should be yielded by subj ects to magistrates.

i. Because that magistracy is by the ordination and appointment of God; The powers that be, are ordained of God, Rom. xiii. 1. there are divers forms; as monarchy, which is the government of one man; aristocracy, which is the government of the chief and principal persons in a nation; and democracy, which lies in the people: which is the best sort of government I will not take upon me to say ; but this I will venture to assert, that the worst government is better than none at all; it is not this or that particular man nor this or that form of government, but government itself that is of God.

2. To resist them, is to resist the ordinance of God, Rom. xiii. 2. Not that magistrates are above the laws; but are to be subject to them, and are liable to the penalty of them, when broken by them. There are other reasons to be gathered from Rom. xiii.

OF GOOD WORKS IN GENERAL.

The circumstances requisite to a good work, are, 1. That it be according to the command and will of God. 2. That it spring from love to God, 1 Tim. i. 5. 3. It must be done in faith ; for what is not of faith is sin, Rum. xiv. 23. 4. It must be done to the glory of God, 1 £or. x. 31. Now concerning these may be observed,

I. The springs and causes of them. 1. The efficient cause is God, who works in his people, both tq will and to do. 2. The

influential cause is the grace of Gud.t 3. Good works, that are truly such, are owing to union to Christ, Eph. ii. 10. 4. Faith in Christ is productive of them; the heart is purifi. ed by faith in the blood of Jesus. 5. The word is a means of making the man of God, thoroughly furnished unto all good works, 2 Tim. iii. 16. Luke viii. 15.

II. The nature and properties of good works. i. The best of works, which are done by the best of men, and in the best manner, are but imperfect, Eccles. vii. 20. u. They are not meritorious of any thing at the hand of God. To merit, they

must be profitable to God ; but such they ate not; they must be due to God, but this is not the case, Luke xvii. 10. They must be done by men in their own strength ; whereas without the grace and strength of Christ, man can do nothing; and there must be a proportion between the works of men, and the mercy and favour of God ; between which, and the best works of men, there is no manner of proportion.

III. The su/jecti of them: Such only are capable of doing good works who are made good men; Make the tret good, and its fruit will be good. They must be purified and sanctified ; That he might purify unto himself a peculiar people, zeal* cus of good works, Tit. ii. 14. they m,ust have the Spirit of Christ, and be strengthened by him.

IV. The necessary uses for which good works are to be performed, i. Not to procure salvation, in whole or in part; for by the deeds of the law, no flesh living can be justified, Rom. iii. 20. 28. Yet, n. There are uses for which they are necessary, As, 1. With respect to God, John xv. 8.

2. With respect to ourselves, 1 Tim. ii. 9, 10. Til. ii. 10.

3. With respect toothers, Tit. iii. 8"

A COMPENDIUM OR SUMMARY OF THE
DECALOGUE.

The Commandments of the law are reduced by Christ to two capital ones; Love to God, and lo.ve to our neighbour, Matt. xxii. 36—40.

The preface to the decalogue, contains arguments or motives unto obedience to the commandments in it, As, 1. That it is the Lord Jehovah who enjoins it. 2. He that enjoins these precepts is the Lord thy God. 3. He brought thee out of the Land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. The decalogue itself follows.

I. The First command is, Thou shalt have no other gods before me. The things required in this precept are, that we p'uould cwn God, and none ehe, Mark xii. 29. that we should worship him, and exercise faith in him, hope in him, and love him. The things forbidden in it are, Atheism, Polytheism, whatever is trusted in, and loved as God, as wealth and riches, or fleshly lusts, or self righteousness. The phrase before me, may point at the omniscience of God, in whose sight such idolatry must be very displeasing.

II. The Second command is, Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven image, is'c. which respects the mode of worship, and requires, that it should be spiritual; It forbids all superstition, images, pictures, paintings, and sculptures. The motives inducing to obey this command, are taken from God's

being a jealous God, and from his severe punishment of the breakers of it, and of their posterity.

III. The Third command is, Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. Which requires an holy and reverend use of the name of God ; and it forbids a vain use of it. The argument is taken from the guilt incurred by it, and the punishment inflicted for it; The Lord will not hold such guiltless, Zech. v. 4. Mai. iii. 5.

IV. The Fourth command respects the time of worship; the keeping a day holy to the Lord; and requires that it should be after six days labour, that it should be observed in religious exercises; and as a rest from bodily toil, excepting works of necessity and mercy.

V. The Fifth command requires honour, reverence, &c. which has been treated of in some former chapters.

VI. The Sixth command is, Thou shalt not kill. Which requires all due care in the preservation of our lives. It forbids the taking away of life, or murder of every sort; as parricide, fratricide, homicide, and suicide; and all in temperance, as immoderate eating and drinking.

VII.. The Seventh command is,Thou shalt not commit adultery. Which requires chastity ; it forbids all the species of uncleanness, and all unchaste thoughts and desires.

VIII. The Eighth command is, Thou shalt not steal. Which requires that we should seek to get, preserve, and increase our own wealth, and that of others in a lawful way; it requires justice, truth and faithfulness in all our dealings with, men ; and it forbids all unjust ways of increasing our own, and hurting our neighbour's substance.

IX. The Ninth command is, Thou shall not bear false witness against thy neighbour. Which requires to be careful of our own good name, and it forbids all lying.

X. The Tenth command is, Thou shalt not covet, is'c. "Which requires contentment in every state and condition of life : it forbids all uneasiness and discontent. It mentions the particular objects not to be coveted; not a neighbour's house, nor a neighbour's wife, nor his man servant, nor his maid servant, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's; of which sin the apostle declares himself free, Acts xx. 33. It strikes at the root of all sin, James i. 13,14.

From this view of the law, in all its precepts, it appears how largeand extensive it is; that David might well say, Thy commandment is exceeding broad! Psalm cxix. 96. It requires a perfect righteousness; and happy for man it is, that there is such a righteousness revealed in the gospel.

JND OF THE BODY OF DIVINITY

BAPTISM OF JEWISH PROSELYTES.

Mr. Lowe, one of the contributors to Chambers's Cyclopaedia, in a letter to Dr. Gill, respecting his discourse on singing, says, there is " no dealing with you, as with the generality of writers ; the piece is all quintessence."

This observation applies to none of the Doctors works, with more propriety than to the dissertation with which his Divinity closes. It were folly to attempt to abridge it. Should any doubt the truth of the subsequent positions, they are referred for ample proof of their correctness to the original work.

Among the Jews there were three sorts of Proselytes—a proselyte of the gate a mercenary one, and a proselyte of righteousness. To this latter class, the question of Proselyte baptism refers. Some learned men, but, without any just foundation, have asserted, that Proselyte baptism was used by the Jews before the times of John and Christ; and that they, from Jewish habits, derived the practice. Of these the most distinguished are, Broughton, Ainsworth, Seldin, Hammond, and Lightfoot. Sir Richard Ellys knows " not of any stronger argument in proof of infant baptism than this."

But Of this species of baptism there is no mention

made in the Old Testament, or the Apocrypha ; none in the New Testament; none in the writings of Philo, or of Josephus; neither the writings of the Targums or Chaldee paraphrases, nor Misnah or traditional writings, know any thing of the ceremony. None of the Christian fathers of the first three centuries once mention it. The proof of the custom depends only on Talmuds and Talmudical writers.

The following inferences fairly result from the investigation :—

That the Talmuds are of too late a date to prove the early existence of the custom, since they were written some centuries after the times of John and Christ;—that this custom among the Jews looks rather like a civil than a religious affair; .that to suppose John took baptism as he found it among the 608 OF THE BAPTISM OF JEWISH PROSELYTES.

Jews, disagrees notoriously with the New Testament statement of the mission of John:—that the Jews will not allow any proof can be produced of baptism out of the Old Testament, or even out of the Talmuds :—that to say, as Dr. Light. foot does, that Christ took baptism into his hands as he found it, is derogatory from the authority of the Son of God, and the honour of the ordinance ; and—that several inconveniences must result to the practice of those who admit it, if their creed and conduct are in harmony: such as admitting se-baptizing, or a persons' baptizing himself, for such was the custom of Proselytes ; performing the rite before three persons of eminence;—the practice of anabaptism,—and regarding of a child as baptized, provided'the rite be administered during pregnancy, to the mother. Finally, If this custom is to be used as a rule of christian baptism, then sprinkling ought not to be employed in it; for the baptism of Jewish Proselytes was performed exclusively by immersion.

THE END