20. And so much on the proper formal cause of justification, which, with the Roman Divines, I would consider as an inward gift, yet with the Protestant, as not a mere quality of the mind. Numerous passages might be cited from the Fathers in point, but it would be scarcely to the purpose to do so, for Scripture itself is as clear, as far as words go, on the doctrine of a Divine Indwelling, as the Fathers can be; and the question is, as to its interpretation, whether it should be literal or not. And if its forcible statements can be explained away, so may those of the Fathers, who, the subject not being one of controversy in their day, do not speak with more scientific exactness than Scripture itself. And we have already seen Petavius's strong testimony to the fact, that the Fathers generally held that the Holy Spirit Himself, as substantially indwelling, is the formal cause of our being just. However, I will refer the reader to some passages from their writings; and that with this purpose, to show that they considered Christians to have a gift under the Gospel, not moral, yet inward.—Iren. Hser. v. 6, et seq. Cyprian, ad Donat. init. Cyril. Hieros. Cat. xvii. 8 (15). Greg. Naz. Orat. xl. passim. Basil. Hom, de Bapt. 3; in Eunom. v. fin. Ambros. de Isaac, et An. c. v. Chrysost. Hom. 40, in 1 Cor. xv. 29; in 2 Cor. iii. 18; in Gal. iii. fin.; in Col. ii. Hom. 6. Greg. Nyss. de Beatitud. iii. p. 798-9, in Cant. v. 2, 5, 13, vi. 4, pp. 633, 644, 676, 697. August, in Psalm xviii. En. i. 8, in 1 Joann. iii. Tract. 5, § 10; iv. Tract. 8. Cyril. Alex, in Isa. lib. iv. orat. 2, p. 591; v. t. 2, pp. 759, 760; v. t. 5, pp. 867-9, de Trin. vi. p. 595.
But as to the other part of the subject, the question of the improper formal cause of justification, something may be advantageously said as to the mode in which the Fathers view it, because it has been recently made a question. I consider they held our inherent righteousness as really righteousness, and really availing as far as it goes; that it has a value as being wrought by the Spirit; or, in other words, that it is like a reflection of the sun's light, a real illumination, yet as little superseding the sun as the moon does. Or to take a sacred illustration, which must be used as an analogy, not as an exact similitude; as the Word Incarnate is infinitely holy, and yet His manhood has its own essential holiness too, though finite, so we are made absolutely acceptable to God through the propitiatory indwelling of His Son, yet are not without the beginnings of inherent acceptableness wrought in us by that indwelling. I feel myself obliged to refer to the Fathers' doctrine on this point, because a question, as I have observed, has been lately raised about it by a writer whom every member of the English Church must mention with respect and gratitude, Mr. Faber. He considers, if I understand him rightly, in his " Primitive Doctrine of Justification," that our holiness and works can in no sense be said to justify us in God's sight. It would be disrespectful, in writing on this subject, to pass over a protest such as Mr. Faber's without notice; but whatever I shall say, which will be very little, must be considered as merely defensive, not spoken controversially. I observe then, that the point is not, whether we can have any real righteousness before God justifies us, nor whether we are not justified by Christ's righteousness imputed, nor whether our own righteousness is pure enough to be acceptable without a continual imputation of His (on all which the Fathers are clear), but whether they do not also teach that our righteousness after justification, as far as it goes, is real, tending to fulfil the perfect Law, and such as to be a beginning, outset, or ground on which, when purified and completed by Christ's righteousness, God may
justify us. That they do teach this, the passages which, in the notes appended to my second Lecture, I brought from St. Augustine, the special Doctor of Grace, are sufficient to show; but I will here add the testimonies of three other Fathers, separated from each other in place and time, as specimens of the unanimous teaching of the early Church.
21. First, St. Cyprian, to whose doctrine assent is given in the Homily on Almsdeeds, says—" Cum Dominus adveniens sanasset ilia quae Adam portaverat vulnera, et venena serpentis antiqua curasset, legem dedit sano et prsecepit ne ultra jam peccaret, ne quid peccanti gravius eveniret. Coarctati eramus et in angustum innocentiae praescriptione conclusi. Nee haberet quid fragilitatis humanae infirmitas atque imbecillitas faceret, nisi iterum pietas divina subveniens, justitice et misericordice operibus ostensis, viam quandam tuendce salutis aperiret, ut sordes postmodum quascunque contrahimus eleemosynis' abluamus. Loquitur in Scripturis divinis Spiritus Sanctus et dicit,'Eleemosynis et fide delicta purgantur.' Non utique ilia delicta quae fuerant ante contracta; nam ilia Christi sanguine et sanctificatione purgantur. Item denuo dicit:—' Sicut aqua extinguit ignem, sic eleemosyna extinguit peccatum.' Hie quoque ostenditur et probatur quia sicut lavacro aquae salutaris gehennae ignis extinguitur, ita et eleemosynis atque operationibus justis delictorum flamma sopitur. Et quia semel in Baptismo remissa peccatorum datur, assidua el jugis qperatio Baptismi instar imitata Dei rursus indulgentiam largitur."—De Op. et Eleemos. init.
St. Hilary, in like manner, declares in the following passage, both the value of good works yet their insufficiency. "Spes in misericordia Dei, in sseculum et in saeculum saeculi est." Non enim ipsa ilia justitiae opera sufficient ad perfectce beatitudinis meritum, nisi misericordia Dei etiam in hac justitiae voluntate humanarum demutationum et motuum vitia non reputet. Hinc illud Prophetae dictum est, Melior est misericordia tua super vitam; quia quamvis probabilis per justitiae operationem vita justorum sit, tamen per misericordiam Dei plus meriti consequetur. Ex hac enim vita in vitam proficit aeternam; et operationem justitiae in tantum misericordia Dei muneratur, ut miserans justitiae voluntatem, aeternitatis quoque suae justum quemque tribuat esse participem.—Tract, in Ps. 51, § 23.
The third, St. Chrysostom, is admonishing his hearers neither outwardly nor inwardly to pride themselves on their good deeds; but, in doing so, he takes for granted, and every now and then affirms the worth, or what the Roman divines call the merit, of such deeds, according to the covenant of grace. I have abridged the passage:—
"If thou wouldst show thy good deed to be great, be not great about it, and then thou hast made it greater. Deem thyself to have done nothing, and thou hast achieved everything. For if, when we are sinners, on deeming ourselves what we are, we become righteous, how much more will this happen, if, when we are righteous, we still deem ourselves sinners I
"Do not then spoil thy labours, nor stultify thy toils, nor, after a thousand courses on the race-ground, run in vain, and make thy efforts nought; for, better than thou doth thy Master know those good deeds of thine. Though thou givest but a cup of cold water, not even this doth He overlook; if thy alms be but an obolus, if thou dost but heave a sigh, in His great lovingkindness doth He accept everything, and remember everything, and assign it a great wage. He has no wish that thy labours shall be made less. Made less? nay, He does everything, He is ever busy, that thou mayest have the crown even of little services, and He goes about seeking excuses why thou shouldest be rescued from hell. And though thou workest but the eleventh hour, the wage which He giveth is a whole wage.
"So let us not be lifted up; let us call ourselves
worthless that we may come to have worth. It is a necessity for us to forget our good deeds. You will say, 'How is this possible to be ignorant of what we know 1' What! thou art ever offending thy Master, and art in comfort and merriment, and hast no sense of thy having sinned, for then thou hast utterly forgotten it all; and canst thou not rid thyself of the memory of thy good deeds 1 This is extreme madness, and the greatest of losses to any one who is heaping such deeds up. The only safe storehouse of good deeds is to forget them. Ask then no wage from God, that thou mayest gain a wage; confess thou art saved by grace, that He Himself may confess that He is thy debtor, a debtor not only for thy good deeds, but also for that good disposition."—Hom. iii. in Matt. t. vii. p. 39.
This passage well illustrates the compatibility of the two positions quoted from Bellarmine (mp-a, p. 356), that the good works of the regenerate really deserve the name, and have a claim on God's justice, but that we personally, nevertheless, must rely on our Lord's merits only for salvation.
22. But on this subject the confessions of Protestants, perhaps, are worth more than the collection of any number of isolated passages: so let us turn to their testimony: and first of Luther:—" Philip Melanchthon said to me, the opinion of St. Austin of Justification (as it seemeth) was more consistent when he disputed not, than it was when he used to dispute; for thus he saith, We ought to hold that we are justified by faith, that is, by our Regeneration, or by being made new creatures. Now, if it be so, then we are not justified only by faith, but by all the gifts and virtues of God given unto us. That is St. Austin's opinion. From hence cometh also that gift of grace of the school-divines, grace which maketh accepted. They allege also that love is the same grace that maketh us acceptable before God. Now what is your opinion, sir? do you hold that a man is justified by this Eegeneration, as is St. Austin's opinion? I answered and said, I hold this, and am certain, that the true meaning of the Gospel and of the Apostles is, that we are justified before God gratis, for nothing, only by God's mere mercy, wherewith, and by reason whereof, He imputeth righteousness unto us in Christ."—Table Talk, c. xiii. Next Calvin:—" Scholaa in deterius semper aberrarunt, donee tandem praecipiti ruina devolutae sunt ad quendam Pelagianismum. Ac ne Augustini quidem sententia, vel saltern loquendi ratio per omnia recipienda est. Tametsi enim egregie hominem omni justitiae laude spoliat, ac totam Dei gratiae transcribit, gratiam tamen ad sajictificationem refert, qua in vitae novitatem per Spiritum regeneramur."—Instit. iii. 11, § 15. Bucer says," Patres pleriguejustificare pro justum facere accipiunt."—In Eph. ii. p. 63. Chemnitz: "Patribus . . . licet plerumque verbum justificare accipiant pro renovatione qua efficiuntur in nobis per Spiritum opera justitiae, non movemus litem, ubi juxta Scripturam recte et commode tradunt doctrinam," etc. p. 129. It must be observed that Chemnitz holds with Bucer the doctrine of inchoate righteousness, so that in saying that the Fathers differ from him in the use of the words, he does not mean to say they deny that Christians are really righteous. Gerhard: "Scriptura verbum justificandi accipit in significatione forensi pro absolutione a reatu peccatorum, sed Patres quandoque secuti grammaticam vocis compositionem pro donatione inhaerentis justitiae usurpant." — De Justif. § 245. Chamier, after speaking of St. Bernard's doctrine, says, "Concedam justificationem intelligi pro infusione; quod, etsi crebrum est apud Patres, non est ex stilo Pauli."—xxi. 19, § 16. Davenant more cautiously, but to the same effect: "Si aliquis Patrum, propter arctam illam cognatam et individuam concatenationem gratiae infusae sive inhaerentis cum gratia remissionis ac imputatione justitiae Christi, haec inter se commiscere videatur, non debemus nos idcirco ilia confundere, quse Spiritus Dei in Sacris Scripturis accurate solet
distinguere Neque huic sententiae nostrae reclamare
patres illico judicandi sunt, si justificandi vocabulum ad justitiae infusionem aliquando referant; nam idem vocabulum diverso sensu, non modo a Patribus, sed etiam ab ipsis Scripturis quandoque usurpatur. Non itaque jam quaerimus de diversis hujus vocabuli justificationis apud Patres significationibus; sed (quod theologicae disquisitionis proprium est) de ipso dogmate justificationis quid illi senserint indagamus."—De Just. Hab. c. 25. Barrow speaks as follows: "It may be objected that St. Austin and some others of the Fathers do use the word commonly according to the sense of the Tridentine Council. I answer that, the point having never been discussed, and they never having thoroughly considered the sense of St. Paul, might unawares take the word as it sounded in Latin, especially the sense they affixed to it, signifying a matter very true and certain in Christianity. The like hath happened to other Fathers in other cases; and might happen to them in this, not to speak accurately in points that never had been sifted by disputation. More, I think, we need not say in answer to their authority."—Barrow, of Justif. by Faith.
Barrow, it will be observed, accounts for the difference between the Primitive and the Protestant modes of speech, by saying that the subject of justification was never accurately discussed. Now it is remarkable that Roman Catholics on their part also both express dissatisfaction with the statements of the Fathers, and account for them in the same way. Vasquez speaks of " ea quae pertinent ad formalem causam nostrae justificationis," as being "difficillima eorum quae de justificatione nostra tractari solent, neque prceteritis sceculis tarn exacte a patribus discussa, quam ea quae de necessitate auxilii gratiae ad operandum et recte vivendum hactenus a nobis sunt disputata."—Quaest. 112, Disp. 202, c. 1, init. Father Paul goes further, observing that "the opinion of Luther concerning justifying faith, that it is a confidence and certain persuasion of the promises of God, with the consequences that follow, of the distinction between the Law and the Gospel, and of the quality of works depending on the one and the other, was never thought of by any school writer, and never confuted or discussed."—Hist. ii. 75, transl. Now supposing, as Bucer and his Eoman opponents of Cologne, and again as Valentinus and Seripando, strenuous opponents of the Lutherans, maintain, as the Calvinists Chamier and Davenant, and the Lutherans Melanchthon and Chemnitz, almost grant, and as the body of English divines imply, the Fathers held two formal causes of justification, a proper and an improper, this dissatisfaction of both Eoman and Protestant controversialists with their writings is accounted for.
23. Mr. Faber has drawn up a list of passages from them in favour of the view he maintains against Mr. Knox. How far they avail against that original and instructive writer, it falls to others to decide; they do not seem to militate against what has been maintained in these Lectures, as an instance will best show. This shall be the Epistle of St. Clement of Rome, which I select, because it is the earliest of the Fathers' writings, and the shortest, and insisted on by Mr. Faber, and as favourable a witness for the Lutheran side as any that can be taken.
Clement speaks as follows: —ov hi iavrSw dixaiovptda, avdi diet, Tjjj ^airsgas eotplag 5] evvieiai$, 5) ivezfiiiag, r) 'igyuv uv xariigyaad/iiQa h oeiorriri xag&'aj, aXXd did rjjs iriericag.—c. 32. Now here the point in controversy is whether, when St. Clement says, 'igym Siv xariipyaed//.sda h iaiorriri xagdiag, he means works done since faith and regeneration, or before. Mr. Faber considers that works after faith and regeneration are spoken of; and he thence concludes, what in that case irresistibly follows, that, according to St. Clement, works after justification do not justify, but merely faith. And his reason for considering that St. Clement means works after justification, is, that no holy works at all are possible before justification. "What are the works done in holiness of heart," he asks, "which Clement thus carefully shuts out from the office of justifying, quite as much as wisdom, and understanding, and piety? Indisputably, by the very force and tenor of their definition, they are works performed after the infusion of holiness into the heart by the gracious Spirit of God."—p. 83. Mr. Faber, then, does not deduce his proof from the text of St. Clement, but from the force of a definition of his own, that is, from these two doctrines together,—first, that no works are holy but those which are done through the Holy Spirit; and next, that no works are done through the Holy Spirit before justification.
Granting, however, for argument, both of these without entering into explanations, still the words in question need not refer to the holiness of the justified, and, as I think the text itself shows, do not.
First, let it be observed, St. Clement changes his tense, "We are not justified by works which we did (not, 'have done,' as Mr. Faber translates) in holiness of heart."
Next, he omits the article; he says di 'igyw, and thus naturally, I do not say necessarily, implies he is speaking of an hypothetical, not a real case. He says in fact, "We are not justified by holy works which wo did, for we did none ;" or, in St. Jerome's words, afterwards quoted by Mr. Faber, p. 122, "Convertentem impium per solam fidem justificat Deus, non per opera bona guaz non habuit." Again, h oeior^n xugd/ag is scarcely more than an adverb meaning "piously," "holily." Thus St. Paul speaks, Tit. iii. 5, oux i% igyw ruv h SixaioauvTj m iiroiriaa/isv ii/iiTg 'ieueiv ii/iag; not, dia ruv hyuv. What makes this stronger is that St. Clement has just before been speaking of the legal righteousness of the Jews, which was not hypothetical, and has said it did not justify; and then he speaks thus:—vuwig ouv edo^dadrinav xai i/iiyuXuvSrieav, ou di' aurav, j) ruv igyuv auruiv rjjj dixcucmeuyiut ijj xuriigydfavro.
But next, if, leaving the particular passage, we examine St. Clement's epistle throughout, we shall find that he nowhere speaks of Christ's righteousness, or of faith as the instrument of apprehending it; but he speaks again and again of faith as a moral virtue, and joined to other moral virtues, and in one place he speaks of love remitting sin, and in another of justification by works. If so, this early Father holds that "fides formata charitate" justifies; in other words, that "fides formata," or holy obedience, is a formal or constituting cause of justification, or that the righteousness of the regenerate is. real. E.g. rig ydo irapsmdri/i^sag irgbg i/ia; rqv iravdgirov xal ftifiaia.]/ U/js,uv irienv ojx iSoxi/iaaiv; c. i.—Tawzgsro; is but another word for formata. 'Evdusii/AiQa. rfjv b/iovoiav, rairsivopgovouvrig, iyxoariu6,'j.ivoi, airb vavrbg -piQugie/^ou xal xara.Xa.Xiai soiiu lauroig voioZvrig, 'igyoig dixaiou//.ivoi xal /iri Xiyoig.—c. 30. Maxdeio! i<Sfj.w, uyairtiToly 1) vgoardy/iara roD ©sou ivoioij/iiv iv b/iovoia dydirrig, iig rb aipiQrjuai ri/j,Tv di' ay cinqg rag a/tagriag fj/iSJv. Yzyoaxrai yag /iaxagioi uv aipiQrjeav ai dvo/xiai, xal w ittxaXipfaeav ai apagrlai.—c. 59. St. Paul applies the passage in the Psalm here referred to, to justification by faith; St. Clement then, his " fellow-labourer," when interpreting it of remission through love, explains faith to be "fides formata charitate."
Other passages in the Epistle, as soon as they mention faith, go on to mention obedience of one kind or other in connection with it, or interpret the "righteousness" wliich follows upon faith to be inherent holiness; clearly implying that faith justifies as being of a moral nature, not as apprehensive, and is "taken for righteousness," not as its substitute but as the seed, earnest, and anticipation of it—being taken for what under God's grace it will be in due time: E.g. the Apostles are called sxxXriaiag maro) xal bixaiiraroi ariiXoi.—c. 5. St. Paul, rJ yivvahv r5j; vlariug ouroD xX'sog sXa/3sv, Bixaioduvriv didd^ai oXon rbv xoa/ioy.—ibid. Xd/3u/i,n 'Eva/j£, Sj iv iivuxofi dixaiog ibgifalg /itTiridti. . . . Nwi mcrbg iiigidilg bia rSj; Xiirougylag aurou vaXiyyivieiav xos/xijj *x^ci/jin.— as being their root, and as having a special unexplained connection with the invisible world. And so much upon the doctrine of the Fathers.
24. As I have throughout these remarks implied that the modern controversy on the subject of justification is not a vital one, inasmuch as all parties are agreed that Christ is the sole justifier, and that He makes those holy whom He justifies, it may be right, in conclusion, to give the decisions of some of our divines on this subject, that it may be seen how far such an opinion is safe. With this view, I will appeal in conclusion to the three who have sometimes been considered the special lights of our later Church, Hooker, Taylor, and Barrow; of whom two will be found to sanction me, and the third, though apparently pronouncing the other way, to withdraw his judgment while he gives it.
Barrow, whose judgment on the matter has already incidentally been given, speaks thus :—" In former times among the Fathers and the schoolmen, there doth not appear to have been any difference or debate about it; because, as it seems, men commonly having the same apprehensions about the matters, to which the word is applicable, did not so much examine or regard the strict propriety of expression concerning them; consenting in things, they did not fall to cavil and contend about the exact meaning of words. They did indeed consider distinctly no such points of doctrine as that of Justification, looking upon that word as used incidentally in some places of Scripture, for expression of points more clearly expressed in other terms; wherefore they do not make much of the word, as some divines now do.
"But in the beginning of the Eeformation, when the discovery of some great errors, from the corruption and ignorance of former times crept into vogue, rendered all things the subjects of contention and multiplied controversies, then did arise hot disputes about this point; and the right stating thereof seemed a matter of great importance; nor scarce was any controversy prosecuted with greater zeal and earnestness: whereas, yet, so far as I can discern, about the real points of doctrine, whereto this word, according to the sense pretended, may relate, there hardly doth appear any material difference; and all the questions depending chiefly seem to consist about the manner of expressing things which all agree in; or about the extent of the signification of words capable of larger or stricter acceptation: whence the debates about this point, among all sober and intelligent persons, might, as I conceive, easily be resolved or appeased, if men had a mind to agree and did not love to wrangle; if at least a consent in believing the same things, although under some difference of expression, would content them so as to forbear strife."'
In like manner Bishop Taylor, recounting the chief points on which the controversy about Justification has turned:—" No man should fool himself by disputing about the philosophy of justification, and what causality faith hath in it, and whether it be the act of faith that justifies or the habit 1 whether faith as a good work or faith as an instrument 1 whether faith as it is obedience, or faith as it is an access to Christ? whether as a hand or as a heart? whether by its own innate virtue, or by the efficacy of the object 1 whether as a sign or as a thing signified 1 whether by introduction or by perfection 1 whether in the first beginnings, or in its last and best productions 1 whether by inherent worthiness or adventitious imputations 1. . . . These things are knotty and too intricate to do any good: they may amuse us, but never instruct us; and they have already made men careless and confident, disputative and troublesome, proud and uncharitable; but neither wiser nor better. Let us therefore leave these weak ways of troubling ourselves or others, and directly look to the theology of it, the 1 Sermon V. of Justification by Faith.
direct duty, the end of faith, and the work of faith, the conditions and instruments of our salvation, the just foundation of our hopes, how our faith can destroy our sin, and how it can unite us unto God, how by it we can be made partakers of Christ's death, and imitators of His life. For since it is evident, by the premises, that this article is not to be determined or relied upon by arguing from words of many significations, we must walk by a clearer light, by such plain sayings and dogmatical propositions of Scripture, which evidently teach us our duty and place our hopes upon that which cannot deceive us, that is, which require obedience, which call upon us to glorify God, and to do good to men, and to keep all God's commandments with diligence and sincerity."'
Such is the concordant testimony of Taylor and Barrow; Hooker, however, the third great divine mentioned, decides the contrary way, declaring not only for one special view of justification (for his particular opinion is not the point in question here), but that the opposite opinion is a virtual denial of gospel truth. The Romanists, he says, profess "that they seek salvation by the blood of Christ; and that humbly they do use prayers, fastings, alms, faith, charity, sacrifice, sacraments, priests, only as the means appointed by Christ, to apply the benefit of His holy blood unto them; touching our good works, that in their own natures they are not meritorious, nor answerable to the joys of heaven; it cometh of the grace of Christ, and not of the work itself, that we have by well-doing a right to heaven and deserve it worthily. If any man think that I seek to varnish their opinions, to set the better foot of a lame cause foremost, let him know, that since I began thoroughly to understand their meaning, I have found their halting greater than perhaps it seemeth to them which know not the deepness of Satan, as the Blessed Divine speaketh."—Justif, § 33. 1 Sermon on Fides formata, vol. vi. p. 271.
This passage, it must be candidly confessed, is by implication contrary to the sentiments maintained in the foregoing pages; but it does not avail the least as authority against them, for the following plain reason:—because this great author, in the very Treatise in which he so speaks, himself confesses that he is not acquiescing in the theology of the early Church; and, since we are not allowed to call any man our master on earth, Hooker, venerable as is his name, has no weight with any Christian, except as delivering what is agreeable to Catholic doctrine, which, as being unanimous and concordant, is Christ's doctrine. Did he indeed state his belief on any theological point, and declare that it was the voice of Catholic consent, we might defer to his judgment; or did he but keep silence whether it was or no, we might take for granted that it was so: but in the instance before us, far from transmitting ancient doctrine, he even declares that, according to the views which he then held, or rather, which, by the clamour of the Puritans, he was made to believe he held, the Greek Fathers were involved by implication in the heresy of Pelagianism; and he excuses them merely upon the plea of their having anticipated that error in ignorance. To accuse a number of Greek Fathers of mistake on this point, will be found virtually to accuse all of them; and to accuse the Greek Fathers, virtually to oppose Catholic consent. His words are as follows: "The heresy of free-will was a mill-stone about the Pelagians' neck: shall we therefore give sentence of death inevitable against all those Fathers in the Greek Church, which, being mispersuaded, died in the error of free-will 1" The doctrines of grace and justification are too closely connected to make it possible for an author to judge rightly of the importance of questions concerning the latter, who is in error in his view of the former. I conceive, then, that Hooker makes for the foregoing statements as truly as Taylor and Barrow: for he shows us, as by a special instance, that a divine cannot make the Protestant doctrine of justification a fundamental of faith, without involving himself in an accusation of those, whose concordant decisions carry with them a weight greater than that of even the greatest individual teacher. But there is enough in Hooker's writings and history to show that this valuable Treatise, written before his views were fully matured, and published after his death, is not^to be taken on all points as authority.
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