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Chapter III--Method of Theology

CHAPTER III.

METHOD OF THEOLOGY.

I. Requisites To The Study.—The requisites to the successful study of theology have already in part been indicated in speaking of its limitations. In spite of some repetition, however, we mention the following:

(a) A disciplined mind. Only such a mind can patiently collect the

facts, hold in its grasp many facts at once, educe their connecting principles

by continuous reflection, suspend final judgment until its conclusions are

verified by Scripture and experience. .

On opportunities for culture in the Christian ministry, see N. Englander, Oct., 1875: 644. Chitty, to a father inquiring as to his son's qualifications for the law: "Can your son eat sawdust without any butter?"

(6) An intuitional as distinguished from a merely logical habit of mind—or, trust in the mind's primitive cognitions, as well as in its processes of reasoning. The theologian must have insight as well as understanding. He must accustom himself to ponder spiritual facts as well as those which are sensible and material; to see things in their inner relations as well as in their outward forms; to cherish confidence in the reality and the unity of truth.

Vinet, Outlines of Philosophy, 39, 40—" If I do not feel that good is good, who will ever prove it to me?" Pascal: "Logic, which is an abstraction, may shake everything. A being purely intellectual will be incurably sceptical." Calvin: "Satan is an acute theologian." Dove, Logic of Christian Faith, 1-29, and esp. 25: Demonstration of the impossibility of motion. Hazard, Man a Creative First Cause, 109: Bottom of awheel does not move. Cf. 1 Tim. 3:2—the bishop must bo <ni+p<i>v=sober-mlnded, well-balanced.

(c) An acquaintance with physical, mental, and moral science. The method of conceiving and expressing Scripture truth is so affected by our elementary notions of these sciences, and the weapons with which theology is attacked and defended are so commonly drawn from them as arsenals, that the student cannot afford to be ignorant of them.

Advantage to the preacher of taking up, as did F. W. Robertson, one science after another. Chemistry entered Into his mental structure "like iron into the blood." See article by A. H. Strong, on Philosophy and Religion, In Baptist Quarterly, 2: 393 «}. Sir Wm. Hamilton: "No difficulty arises in theology which has not first emerged In philosophy." N. W. Taylor: "Give me a young man in metaphysics and I care not ■who has him in theology." Meaning cf the maxim: "Ubi tres medicl, ibi duo athei." Talbot: "I love metaphysics, because they have to do with realities."

(d) A knowledge of the original languages of the Bible. This is necessary to enable us not only to determine the meaning of the fundamental terms of Scripture, such as sin, righteousness, atonement, but also to interpret statements of doctrine by their connections with the context.

Instance the 8ii Touts and v. In Horn. 5:12. Dr. Philip Lindsay to his pupils: "One of the best preparations for death Is a thorough knowledge of the Greek Grammar." The dead languages are the only really living ones—free from danger of misunderstanding on account of changing usage. Divine Providence has put revelation into fixed forms in the Hebrew and the Greek. Sir Wm. Hamilton, Discussions, 330—"To be a competent divine is in fact to be a scholar."

(e) A holy affection toward God. Only the renewed heart can properly feel its need of divine revelation, or understand that revelation when given.

Neander's motto: "Pectus est quod theologura facit." Goethe: "As are the inclinations, so are the opinions." Fichte: "Our system of thought is very often only the history of our heart;" "truth is descended from conscience;" "men do not will according to their reason, but reason according to their will." Hobbes: "Even the axioms of geometry would be disputed, if men's passions were concerned in them." Pascal: "We know truth, not only by the reason, but by the heart." "Human things need only to be known in order to be loved, but divine things must first be loved before they can be known." Aristotle: "The power of attaining moral truth is dependent upon our acting rightly." W. C. Wilkinson: "The head is a magnetic needle with truth for Its pole. But the heart is a hidden mass of mujrnetic iron. The head is drawn somewhat toward Its natural pole, the truth; but more it is drawn by that nearer magnetism." See Theodore Parker's Experiences as a Minister. Cf. Pi 25:14— "secret of the Lord ": John 7:17—" v.Keth to do hii will"; Bom. 12: 2—" prove what is toe will of God." Also Ps. 36:1—" the transgression of tie wicked speaks in his heart like an oracle," The preacher cannot, like Dr. Kane, kindle fire with a lens of ice.

(/) The enlightening influence of the Holy Spirit. As only the Spirit fathoms the things of God, so only he can illuminate our minds to apprehend them.

Cicero, Nat. Deorum, 66—" Nemo igitur vir magnus sine aliquo adflatu divlno unuuam fuit." Sec Adolphe Monod's Sermons on Christ's Temptation, addressed to the theological students of Montauban, in Select Sermons from the French and German, 117-179.

LT. Divisions Of Theology.—Theology is commonly divided into Biblical, Historical, Systematic, and Practical.

1. Biblical Theology aims to arrange and classify the facts of revelation, confining itself to the Scriptures for its material, and treating of doctrine only so far as it was developed at the close of the apostolic age.

Instance DeWette, Biblische Theologie; Hofmann, Schriftbewels; Nltzsch, System of Christian Doctrine. The last, however, has more of the philosophical element than properly belongs to Biblical Theology. Notice a questionable use of the term Biblical Theology to designate the theology of a part of Scripture severed from the rest, as Steudel's Bib. Theol. of O. T.; Schmid's Bib. Theol. of N. T.; and in the common phrases: Bib. Theol. of Christ, or of Paul. See Beuss, Hist. Christian Theology in the Apostolic Age.

2. Historical Theology traces the development of the Biblical doctrines from the time of the apostles to the present day, and gives account of the results of this development in the life of the church. By doctrinal development we mean the progressive unfolding and apprehension, by the church, of the truth explicitly or implicitly contained in Scripture. As giving account of the shaping of the Christian faith into doctrinal statements, Historical Theology is called the History of Doctrine. As describing the resulting and accompanying changes in the life of the church, outward and inward, Historical Theology is called Church History.

Instance Cunningham's Historical Theology; Hagenbach's and Shedd's Histories of Doctrine; Neander's Church History. See Neander's Introduction, and Shedd's Philosophy of History.

8. Systematic Theology takes the material furnished by Biblical and Historical Theology, and with this material seeks to build up into an organic and consistent whole all our knowledge of Ood and of the relations between God and the universe, whether this knowledge be originally derived from nature or from the Scriptures. It is to be clearly distinguished from Dogmatic Theology. Dogmatic Theology is the systematizing of the doctrines as expressed in the symbols of the church, together with the grounding of these in the Scriptures, and the exhibition, so far as may be, of their rational necessity. Systematic Theology, on the contrary, begins, not with the symbols, but with the Scriptures. It asks first, not what the church has believed, but what is the truth of God's revealed word. It examines that word with all the aids which nature and the Spirit have given it, using Biblical and Historical Theology as its servants and helpers, but not as its masters. Systematic Theology, in fine, is theology proper, of which Biblical and Historical Theology are the incomplete and preparatory stages.

Symbol, from mrfiXK*, = a brief throwing-togethcr, or condensed statement, of the essentials of Christian doctrine. Synonyms are: Confession, creed, articles of faith. Dogmatism argues to foregone conclusions. The word is not, however, derived from 'dog,' as Douglas Jen-old suggested: "Dogmatism Is puppyism full-grown."

4. Practical Theology is the system of truth considered as a means of renewing and sanctifying men, or, in other words, theology in its publication and enforcement. To this department of theology belong Homiletics and Pastoral Theology, since these are but scientific presentations of the true methods of unfolding Christian truth, and of bringing it to bear upon men individually and in the church.

It has sometimes been asserted that there are other departments of theology not included in those above mentioned. But most of these, if not all, belong to other spheres of research and cannot properly be classed under theology at alL Moral theology so-called, or the science of Christian morals (ethics, or theological ethics), is indeed the proper result of theology, but is not to be confounded with it Speculative theology so-called, respecting, as it does, such truth as is matter of opinion, is either extra-scriptural, and so belongs to the province of the philosophy of religion, or is an attempt to explain truth already revealed, and so falls under the province of Systematic Theology.

"Speculative theology starts from certain a priori principles, and from them undertakes to determine what is and must be. It deduces Its scheme of doctrine from the laws of mind or from axioms supposed to be Inwrought into its constitution." Bib. Sac, 1832: 375—" Speculative theology tries to show that the dogmas agree with the laws of thought, while the philosophy of religion tries to show that tho laws of thought agree with the dogmas." H. B. Smith, Faith and Philosophy, 18—Philosophy is "a mode of human knowledge—not the whole of that knowledge, but a mode of It—the knowing of things rationally." Science asks: "What do I know?" Philosophy asks: '' What can I know?" See Luthardt, Compend. der Dogmatlk, 4; Hagenbach, Encyclopaedic, 109. Theological Encyclopaedia (instruction in a circle) = a general introduction to all the divisions of Theology, together with an account of the relations between them. Hegel's Encyclopaedia was an attempted exhibition of the principles and connections of all the sciences. See Crooks and Hurst, Theological Encyclopaedia and Methodology.

TTT. History Op Systematic Theology.

1. In the Eastern Church, Systematic Theology may be said to have had its beginning and end in John of Damascus (700-760).

Ignatius (+115—Ad Trail., c. 9) gives us "the first distinct statement of the faith drawn up in a series of propositions. His systematizing formed the basis of all later efforts" (Prof. A. H. Newman). Origen of Alexandria (186-254) wrote his n#pi 'Apxur; Athanaslus of Alexandria (300-373) his treatises on the Trinity and the Deity of Christ; tnd Gregory of Nyssa In Cappadocla (832-398) his Abyot «erniCTTi«ix 6 n4yat. While the Fathers just mentioned seem to have conceived the plan of expounding the doctrines In order and of showing their relations to one another, John of Damascus (700-760) was the first who actually carried out such a plan. His'Ex&xric a*pi/9i|f r^t opdoidfov Wt«u>s, or Summary of the Orthodox Faith, may be considered the earliest work of Systematic Theology. Neander: "The most important doctrinal text-book of the Greek Church." John, like the Greek Church in general, was speculative, theological, semi-Pelagian, sacramentartan.

2. In the Western Church, we may (with Hagenbaoh) distinguish three periods:

(a) The period of Scholasticism,—introduced by Peter Lombard (died 1164), and reaching its culmination in Thomas Aquinas (1221-1274) and Duns Scotus (1265-1308).

Though Systematic Theology had its beginning in the Eastern Church, its development has been confined almost wholly to the Western. Augustine (353-430) wrote his Enchciridion ad Laurenttum and his De Civttate Del, and John Scotus Erlgena (1850), Boscelln (1092-1123), and Abelard (1079-1142), in their attempts at the rational explanation of Christian doctrine, foreshadowed the works of the great scholastic teachers. Anselm of Canterbury (1034-1109), with bis Prosloffion de Dei Exietentia and bis Cur Dew Homo, has sometimes, though wrongly, been called the founder of scholasticism.

But Peter Lombard (+1164), the mogtster sententiarum, was the first great systematizer of the Western Church, and his LUiri Sententiarum Quatuor was the theological textbook of the Middle Ages. Teachers lectured on the "Sentences," as they did on the books of Aristotle, who furnished to scholasticism its impulse and guide. Every doctrine was treated in the order of Aristotle's four causes, the material, the formal, the efficient, the final. (" Cause " here = requisite: (1) matter of which a thing consists; (2) form it assumes; (3) producing agent; (4) end for which made). Thomas Aquinas 0221-1274), the Dominican, doctor cmgeUtm, Augustinian and Realist,—and Duns Scotus (1265-1308), the Franciscan, doctor subtUU,—wrought out the scholastic theology more fully, and left behind them, in their Summce, gigantic monuments of intellectual Industry and acumen. Scholasticism aimed at the proof and systematizing of the doctrincsof the Church by means of Aristotle's philosophy. It became at last an illimitable morass of useless subtleties and unintelligible abstractions, and it finally ended in the norainallstlc scepticism of William of Occam (+1347). See Townsend, The Great Schoolmen of the Middle Ages.

(6) The period of Symbolism,—represented by the Lutheran theology of Philip Melancthon (1497-1560), and the Reformed theology of John Calvin (1509-1564); the former connecting itself with the Analytic theology of <Dalixtn8 (1585-1656), and the latter with the Federal theology of Cocceius (1603-1669).

The new religious life of the Reformation led to intellectual revival. The churches were compelled to formulate their belief in symbols, and to define and expound Scripture doctrine in systematic treatises. The theology of this period, like the Beformation which produced it, had two branches, the Lutheran and the Reformed— Lutheranism being based on the material principle of the Reformation, Justification by faith instead of by works; the Reformed theology being based on the formal principle of the Beformation, the supreme authority of the Scriptures instead of that of the Church.

The Lutheran theology.— Luther himself (1485-1546) was preacher rather than theologian. But Melancthon (1497-1560), "the preceptor of Germany," as he was called, embodied the theology of the Lutheran Church In his Loci Communes (first edition Augustinlan, afterwards substantially Armlnian; grew out of Lectures on the Epistle to the Romans). He was followed by Chemnitz (1523-1596), "clear and accurate," the most learned of the disciples of Melancthon. Leonhard Hutter (1563-1616), called "Luthcrux redivivu*," and John Gerhard (1582-1637), followed Luther rather than Melancthon. George Calixtus (1586-1658) separated ethics from systematic theology and applied the analytic method of Investigation to the latter, beginning with the end, or final cause, of all things, viz.: blessedness. He was followed In his method by Dannhauer (1603-1666), Calovlus (1612-1688), Qucnstedt (1617-1688), whom Hovey calls "learned, comprehensive, and logical," and Hollaz (+1730).

Tlie Reformed theology.—Zwingle, the Swiss reformer (1484-1531), differing from Luther as to the Lord's Supper and as to Scripture, was more than Luther entitled to the name of systematic theologian. Certain writings of his may be considered the beginning of the Reformed theology. But it was left to John Calvin (1509-1564), after the death of Zwingle, to arrange the principles of that theology in systematic form. Calvin dug channels for Zwingle's flood to flow in, as Melancthon did for Luther's. His Institutes (Institutio Rcligtonia Cfiristiawr), Is one of the great works in theology (superior as a systematic work to Melancthon's Loci). Calvin was followed by Petrus Ramus (" Peter Martyr"—in Saint Bartholomew, 1572), Chamier (tl621), and Theodore Beza (1519-1605). Beza carried Calvin's doctrine of predestination to an extreme supralapsarianism, which is hyper-Calvlnistio rather than Calvinistic. Cocceius (1603-1669), and after him Witsius (1626-1708), made theology centre about the idea of the covenants, and founded the Federal theology. Leydecker (1642-1721) treated theology in the order of the persons of the Trinity. Amyraldus 0596-1664) and Place us of Saumur (1596-1632) modified the Calvinistic doctrine, the latter by his theory of mediate Imputation, and the former by advocating the hypothetic unlversalism of divine grace. Turretln (1671-1737), a clear and strong theologian whose work is still a text-book at Princeton, and Plctet (16651724), both of them Federalists, showed the Influence of the Cartesian philosophy.

In general, while the line between Catholic and Protestant in Europe runs from west to east, the line between Lutheran and Reformed runs from south to north, the Reformed theology flowing with the current of the Rhine northward from Switzerland to Holland and to England, in which latter country the Thirty-nine Articles represent the Reformed faith, while the prayer-book of the English Church is Armlnian; see Dorner, Gcsch. prot. Theologie, Elnleit., 9. On the differences between Lutheran and Reformed doctrine, see Schaff, Germany, Its Universities, Theology and Religion, 167177. On the Reformed Churches of Europe and America, see H. B. Smith, Faith and Philosophy, 87-124.

(e) The period of Criticism and Speculation,—in its three divisions: the Rationalistic, represented by Sender (1721-1791); the Transitional, by Schleiennacher (1768-1834); the Evangelical, by Nitzsch, Muller, Tholuck and Dorner.

First Division—Rationalistic theologies: Though the Reformation had freed theology in great part from the bonds of scholasticism, other philosophies after a time took Its place. The Leibnitz- (1646-1716) Wolffian (1679-1754) exaggeration of the powers of natural religion prepared the way for rationalistic systems of theology. Buddeus (16671729) combatted the new principles, but Semler's (1725-1791) theology was built upon them, and represented the Scriptures as having a merely local and temporary character. Mlchaclis (1716-1784) and Docderleln (1714-1789) followed Semler, and the tendency toward rationalism was greatly assisted by the critical philosophy of Kant (1724-1804), towhom " revelation was problematical, and positive religion merely the medium through which the practical truths of reason are communicated" (Hagenbach, Hist. Doct., 2: 397). Ammon (1766-1850) and Wegschelder (1771-1848) were representatives of this philosophy. Storr 0746-1805), Rclnhard (1753-1812), and Knapp 0753-1825), in the main evangelical, endeavored to reconcile revelation with reason, but were more or lessInfluenced by this rationalizing spirit. Bretschneider (1776-1828) and DeWette (17801849) may be sold to have held middle ground.

Second Division—Transition to a more Scriptural theology. Herder (1744-1803) and Jacobl (1743-1819), by their more spiritual philosophy, prepared the way for Schleiermacher's (1768-1834) grounding of doctrine in the facts of Christian experience. The writings of Schleiennacher constituted an epoch, and had great influence In delivering theology from the rationalistic tolls Into which It had fallen. Although rationalism Is of late represented by Hase and Strauss, by Biedermann and Lopsius, we may now speak of a

Third Division—and In this division we may put the names of Neander and Tholuck, Twestcn and Nltzsch, MUller and Luthardt, Domer and Phlllppl, Ebrard and Thomas!us, Lange and Kahnls, all of them exponents of a far more pure and evangelical theology than was common In Germany a oentury ago.

3. Among theologians of views diverse from the prevailing Protestant faith, may be mentioned:

(a) Bellarmine (1542-1621), the Roman Catholic

Besides Bellarmine, "the best controversial writer of his age" (Bayle), the Roman Catholic Church numbers among its noted modern theologians: — Petavius (15831652), whose dogmatlo theology Gibbon calls " a work of Incredible labor and compass ;" Mclchior Can us (1523-1560), an opponent of the Jesuits and of their scholastic method; Bossuet (1627-1701), who Idealized Catholicism in his Exposition of Doctrine, and attacked Protestantism in his History of Variations of Protestant Churches; Jansen (1585-1638), who attempted, in opposition to the Jesuits, to reproduce the theology of Augustine, and who had in this the powerful assistance of Pascal (1623-1662). Jansenism, so far as the doctrines of grace are concerned, but not as respects the sacraments, is virtual Protestantism within the Roman Catholic Church. Hoehler's Symbolism, Perrone's Prelectloncs Theological, and Hurler's Compendium Theologies Dogmatical are the latest and most approved expositions of Roman Catholic doctrine.

(6) Arminius (1560-1609), the opponent of predestination.

Among- the followers of Arminlus (1560-1609) must bo reckoned Eplsoopius (1583-1643), who carried Armlnlanlsm to almost Pelagian extremes; HugoGrotlus (1553-1645), the jurist and statesman, author of the governmental theory of the atonement, and Limborch (1633-1712), the most thorough expositor of the Armlnian doctrine.

(c) Laelitis Socinus (1525-1562), and Faustus Socinus (1539-1604), the leaders of the modern Unitarian movement.

The works of Laelius Socinus (1525-1562) and his nephew, Faustus Socinus (1539-1604), constituted the beginnings of modern Unitarianism. Laelius Socinus was the reformer and Faustus Socinus was the theologian; or, as Baumgarten-Cruslus expresses it, "the former was the spiritual founder of Soclmanism, and the latter tho founder of the sect." Their writings are collected in the Bihliotheca Fratrum Polonomm. The Racovlan Catechism, taking Its name from the Polish town Racow, contains the most succinct exposition of their views.

4. British theology, represented by:

(a) The Baptists, John Bunyan (1628-1688), John Gill (1697-1771), and Andrew Fuller (1754-1815).

Some of the best British theology Is Baptist. Among John Bunyan's works, we may notice his "Gospel Truths Opened." Hacaulay calls Milton and Bunyan the two great creative minds of England during the latter part of the 17th century. John Gill's " Body of Practical Divinity " shows much ability, although the Rabbinical learning of the author occasionally displays itself In a curious exegesis. Andrew Fuller's "Letters on Systematic Divinity" is a brief compend of theology. His treatises upon special doctrines are marked by sound judgment and clear insight. They justify the epithets which Robert Hall, one of the greatest of Baptist preachers, gives him: "sagacious," "luminous," "powerful."

(6) The Puritans, John Owen (1616-1683), Richard Baxter (1615-1691),

John Howe (1630-1705), and Thomas Ridgeley (1666-1734).

Of the Puritan theologians the Encyc. Brit, remarks: "As a theological thinker and Writer, John Owen holds his own distinctly denned place among those Titanic Intellects with which the age abounded. Surpassed by Baxter In point and pathos, by Howe In Imagination and the higher philosophy, he is unrivalled in his power of unfolding the rich meanings of Scripture. In his writings he was preeminently the great theologian." Baxter wrote a "Methodue Theolngiae" and a "Cathollo Theology"; John Howe is chiefly known by his "Living Temple "; Thomas Rldgeley by his "Body of Divinity."

(c) The Scotch Presbyterians, Thomas Boston (1676-1732), John Dick (1764-1833), and Thomas Chalmers (1780-1847).

Of "the Scotch Presbyterians, Boston Is the most voluminous, Dick the most calm and fair, Chalmers the most fervid and popular.

(d) The Methodiste, John Wesley (1703-1791), and Richard "Watson (1781-1833).

Of the Methodists, John Wesley's doctrine la presented In "Christian Theology," collected from his writings by the Rev. Thornley Smith. Tho great Methodist text-book, however, is the Institutes of Watson, who systematized and expounded the Wesleyan theology. Pope, a recent English theologian, follows Watson's modified and Improved Arminianism fwhlle Whedon and Raymond, recent American writers, hold rather to a radical and extreme Arminianism).

(e) The English Churchmen, Richard Hooker (1553-1600), Gilbert Burnet (1643-1715), and John Pearson (1613-1686).

The English church has produced no great systematic theologian (see reasons assigned In Dorncr, Gesch. prot. Theologie, 470). The "judicious" Hooker is still its greatest theological writer, although his work is only on "Ecclesiastical Polity." Bishop Burnet is the author of the "Exposition of the XXXIX Articles," and Bishop Pearson of the " Exposition of the Creed." Both these are common English text-books. A recent "Compendium of Dogmatic Theology," by Litton, shows a tendency to return from the usual Arminianism of the Anglican church to the old Augustinianism.

5. American theology, running in two lines:

(a) The Reformed system of Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758), modified successively by Joseph Bellamy (1719 -1790), Samuel Hopkins (1721-1803), Timothy Dwight (1752-1817), Nathaniel Emmons (1745-1840), Leonard Woods (1774-1854), C. G. Finney (1792-1875), and N. W. Taylor (17861858). Calvinism, as thus modified, is often called the New England, or New School, theology.

Jonathan Edwards, one of the greatest of metaphysicians and theologians, thought too little of nature, and tended to Berkeleyanism as applied to mind. He regarded the chief good as happiness—a form of sensibility. Virtue was voluntary choice of this good. Hence union with Adam in acts and exercises was sufficient. This God's will made Identity of being with Adam. This led to the exercise-system of Hopkins and Emmons, on the ono hand, and to Bellamy's and Dwlght's denial of any imputation of Adam's sin or of inborn depravity, on the other—in which last denial agree many other New England theologians who reject the exercise-scheme, as for example, Strong, Tyler, Smallcy, Burton, Woods, and Park. Dr. N. W. Taylor added a more distinctly Armlnian element, the power of contrary choice—and with this tenet of the New Haven theology, Charles G. Finney, of Oberlln, substantially agreed. Thus from certain principles admitted by Edwards, who held in the main to an Old School theology, the New School theology has been gradually developed.

(b) The older Calvinism, represented by R. J. Breckinridge (born 1800), Charles Hodge (1797-1878), E. J. Baird, and William G. T. Shedd (bom 1820); the two former favoring, and the two latter opposing, antecedent imputation. All these, however, as holding to views of human depravity and divine grace more nearly conformed to the doctrine of Augustine and Calvin, are distinguished from the New England theologians and their followers by the popular title of Old School.

Old School theology has for Its characteristic tenet the guilt of Inborn depravity. But among those who hold this view, some arc federalists and creationists, and regard Imputation as the cause of this depravity. Such are the Princeton theologians generally, including Dr. Charles Hodge, the father, and Dr. A. A. Hodge, the son, together with R. J. Breckinridge, the brothers Alexander, and Thornwell of South Carolina. Among those who hold to the Old School doctrine of the guilt of Inborn depravity, however, there are others who are traducians, and who regard imputation as consequent upon corruption and not as antecedent to it. Balrd's " Elohlm Revealed " and Shedd's Essay on "Original Sin" (Sin a Nature, and that Nature Guilt) represent this realistic conception of the relation of the race to Its first father.

On the history of Systematic Theology In general, see Hagenbach, History of Doctrine (from which many of the facts above given are taken), and Shedd, History of Doctrine: also, Ebrard, Dogmatlk, 1: 44-100; Kahnls, Dogmatlk, 1: 15-128; Hase, Hutterus Redivlvus, 24-52. On the history of New England Theology, see Fisher, Discussions and Essays, 285-354. On Edwards's tendency to idealism, see Sanborn, in Journ. Spec. Phllos., Oct., 1883: 401-420.

IV. Order or Treatment In Systematic Theology.

1. Various methods of arranging the topics of a theological system.

(a) The Analytic method of Calixtus begins with the assumed end of all things, blessedness, and thence passes to the means by which it is secured. (6) The Trinitarian method of Leydecker and Martensen regards Christian doctrine as a manifestation successively of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, (c) The Federal method of Cocceius, Witsius, and Boston treats theology under the two covenants, (d) The Anthropological method of Chalmers and Rothe. The former begins with the Disease of Man and passes to the Remedy; the latter divides his Dogmatik into the Consciousness of Sin and the Consciousness of Redemption, (e) The Christological method of Hase, Thomasius and Andrew Fuller treats of God, man, and sin, as presuppositions of the person and work of Christ. Mention may also be made of (/) The Historical method, followed by Ursinus, and adopted in Jonathan Edwards's History of Redemption; and (g) The Allegorical method of Dannhauer, in which man is described as a wanderer, life as a road, the Holy Spirit as a light, the church as the candlestick, God as the end, and heaven as the home.

See Calixtus, Epitome Thcologlsc; Leydecker, De CEconomla trtum Personamm In Negotio Salutis humanie; Martensen (1808-1884), Christian Dogmatics; Cocceius, Summa Theologhe, and Summa Doctrina dc Foedere ct Testamento Del, in Works, vol. vl; Witsius, The Economy of the Covenants; Boston, A Complete Body of Divinity (in Works, vol. 1 and 2), Questions in Divinity (vol. 8), Human Nature in its Fourfold State (vol. 8); Chalmers, Institutes of Theology; Rothe (1799-18S7), Dogmatik, and Theologiachc Ethik; Hase (1800-), Evangellsche Dogmatlk; Thomasius (1802-1875), Christl Person und Werk; Fuller, Gospel Worthy of all Acceptation (in Works, 2: 328-416), and Letters on Systematic Divinity (1: 684-711); Ursinus (1534-1583), Loci Theologici (in Works, 1: 428-909); Edwards, History of Redemption (In Works, 1: 296-616); Dannhauer (1803-1660). Hodosophia Christiana, sou Theologia Positlva in Methodum redacta.

2. The Synthetic method, which we adopt in this Compendium, is both the most common and the most logical method cf arranging the topics of theology. This method proceeds from causes to effects, or, in the language of Hagenbach (Hist. Doctrine, 2: 152), "starts from the highest principle, God, and proceeds to man, Christ, redemption, and finally to the end of all things." In such a treatment of theology we may best arrange our topics in the following order:

1st. The existence of God.

2d. The Scriptures a revelation from God.

3d. The nature, decrees and works of God.

4th. Man, in his original likeness to God and subsequent apostasy. 5th. Redemption, through the work of Christ and of the Holy Spirit. 6th. The nature and laws of the Christian church. 7th. The end of the present system of things.

V. Text-books In Theology, valuable for referenoe:—

1. Compendium*: Hase, Hutterus Redivivus; Luthardt, Compendium der Dogmatik; A. A. Hodge, Outlines of Theology (second edition); Pendleton, Christian Doctrine; Hovey, Manual of Theology and Ethics; H. B. Smith, System of Christian Theology.

2. Confessions: Schaff, Creeds of Christendom.

3. Extended Treatises: Calvin, Institutes; Turretin, Institutio Theologia; Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology; Dorner, System of Christian Doctrine; Philippi, Glaubenslehre; Van Oosterzee, Christian Dogmatics; Luthardt, Fundamental, Saving, and Moral Truths; Baird, Elohim Revealed; Dagg, Manual of Theology.

4. Collected Works: Jonathan Edwards; Andrew Fuller.

5. Histories of Doctrine: Hagenbach; Shedd.

6. Monographs: Julius Miiller, Doctrine of Sin; Dorner, History of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ; Liddon, Our Lord's Divinity; Shedd, Discourses and Essays.

7. Apologetics: Harris, Philosophical Basis of Theism; Fisher, Grounds of Theistic and Christian Belief; Row, Bampton Lectures for 1877, on Christian Evidences; Peabody, Evidences of Christianity.

8. Intellectual and Moral Philosophy: Porter, Human Intellect; Alden, Intellectual Philosophy; Calderwood, Moral Philosophy ; Alexander, Moral Science; Porter, Elements of Moral Science.

9. Theological Encyclopaedias: Herzog (second German edition); Schaff-Herzog (English); McClintock and Strong.

10. Bible Dictionaries: Smith (edited by Hackett).

11. Commentaries: Meyer, on the New Testament; Philippi, Shedd, Lange (ed. Schaff), on the Epistle to the Romans.

12. Bibles: Stier and Theile, Polyglotten-Bibel; Annotated Paragraph Bible (published by the London Religious Tract Society); Revised GreekEnglish New Testament (published by Harper and Brothers); Revised English Bible.