And three of the thirty chiefs went down
Or three that were chief of the thirty, superior to them; which some understand of the three before mentioned, so Josephus F23; and that having related some particular exploits of theirs, here observes one, in which they were all concerned; and others think the three next are meant, of whom Abishai was the chief, Benaiah the next, and the third Asahel; but the first sense is best:
and came to David in the harvest time, unto the cave of Adullam;
not when he was there, upon his flight from Saul, ( 1 Samuel 22:1 ) ; but after he was king, when engaged in war with the Philistines; perhaps wheat harvest is here meant:
and the troop of the Philistines pitched in the valley of Rephaim;
the army of the Philistines, as the Targum; of the valley of Rephaim, (See Gill on Joshua 15:8).