These are other descendants of Mizraim, the name of whose father very probably was Pathros, from whom the country of Pathros was called, and which is not only spoken of in Scripture along with Egypt, but as a part of it, ( Isaiah 11:11 ) ( Jeremiah 44:1 ) ( Ezekiel 29:14 ) and these Pathrusim were doubtless the inhabitants of it; which, as Bochart F21 has shown, is no other than Thebais, or the upper Egypt. Hillerus F23 takes the word to be compounded of (tap) and (Myowr) , and renders it the corner of the Rosians, and makes it to be the same with the bay of Issus, where was a colony of Egypt, called Cilicians; but the former is more probable.
these also were the posterity of Mizraim, by another son of his, from whence they had their name: according to Hillerus F24, they are the Solymi, a people near the Lycians and Pisidians, that came out of Egypt, and settled in those parts; but it is much more likely that they were, as Junius F25 observes, the inhabitants of Casiotis, a country mentioned by Ptolemy F26 in lower Egypt, at the entrance of it, where stood Mount Casius: but Bochart F1 is of opinion that they are the Colchi, the inhabitants of the country now called Mingrelia, and which, though at a distance from Egypt, the ancient inhabitants came from thence, as appears from several ancient authors of good credit, as the above learned writer shows.
Out of whom came Philistim,
or the Philistines, a people often spoken of in Scripture: these sprung from the Casluhim, or were a branch of that people; according to Ben Melech they sprung both from them and from the Pathrusim; for Jarchi says they changed wives with one another, and so the Philistines sprung from them both; or these were a colony that departed from them, and settled elsewhere, as the Philistines did in the land of Canaan, from whence that part of it which they inhabited was called Palestine: and, if the Casluhim dwelt in Casiotis, at the entrance of Egypt, as before observed, they lay near the land of Canaan, and could easily pass into it. Some think this clause refers not to what goes before, but to what follows after,
and read the whole verse thus: "and Pathrusim, and Casluhim, and Caphtorim, out of whom came Philistim"; that is, they came out of the Caphtorim. What has led to such a transposition of the words in the text is ( Amos 9:7 ) "and the Philistines from Caphtor": but though they are said to he brought from a place called Caphtor, yet did not spring from the Caphtorim: to me it rather seems, that the two latter were brothers, and both sprung from the Casluhim; since the words may be rendered without a parenthesis: "and Caluhim, out of whom came Philistim and Caphtorim"; though perhaps it may be best of all to consider the two last as the same, and the words may be read, "out of whom came Philistim, even", or that is, "the Caphtorim"; for the Philistines, in the times of Jeremiah, are said to be the remnant of the country of Caphtor, ( Jeremiah 47:4 ) and as in Amos the Philistines are said to come out of Caphtor, in ( Deuteronomy 2:23 ) they are called Caphtorim, that came out of Caphtor, who destroyed the Avim, which dwelt in Hazerim, even unto Azzah, or Gaza, afterwards a principal city of the Philistines: for then, and not before their settlement in the land of Canaan, were they so called; for the word Philistim signifies strangers, people of another country; and the Septuagint version always so renders the word: their true original name seems to be Caphtorim. Bochart F2 indeed will have the Caphtorim to be the Cappadocians, that dwelt near Colchis, about Trapezunt, where he finds a place called Side, which in Greek signifies a pomegranate, as Caphtor does in Hebrew; and so Hillerus F3 takes it for a name of the Cappadocians, who inhabited (rwh tpk) "Cappath Hor", or the side of Mount Hor, or (rwth Pk) , the side of Mount Taurus; and in this they both follow the Jewish Targumists, who everywhere render Caphtorim by Cappadocians, as the three Targums do here, and Caphtor by Cappadocia, and as Jonathan on ( Deuteronomy 2:23 ) ( Jeremiah 47:4 ) ( Amos 9:7 ) but then thereby they understood a people and place in Egypt, even Damietta, the same they suppose with Pelusium; for other Jewish writers say F4, Caphutkia, or Cappadocia, is Caphtor, and in the Arabic language Damietta: so Benjamin of Tudela says F5, in two days I came to Damietta, this is Caphtor; and it seems pretty plain that Caphtor must be some place in Egypt, as Coptus, or some other, and that the Caphtorim, or Philistines, were originally Egyptians, since they descended from Mizraim.
F21 Phaleg. l. 4. c. 31.
F23 Onomastic. Sacr. p. 161, 585.
F24 Ibid. p. 161, 583, 777.
F25 In loc.
F26 Geograph. l. 4. c. 5.
F1 Phaleg. l. 4. c. 31.
F2 Phaleg. l. 4. c. 32.
F3 Onamastic. Sacr. p. 160, 282.
F4 Maimon. & Bartenora in Misn. Cetubot, c. 13, p. 11.
F5 ltinerarium, p. 125.