1 Chronicles 3:1-9 . SONS OF DAVID.
1-3. Now these were the sons of David, which were born unto him in Hebron--It is of consequence for the proper understanding of events in the domestic history of David, to bear in mind the place and time of his sons' birth. The oldest son, born after his father's accession to the sovereign authority, is according to Eastern notions, the proper heir to the throne. And hence the natural aspirations of ambition in Ammon, who was long unaware of the alienation of the crown, and could not be easily reconciled to the claims of a younger brother being placed above his own
3. Eglah his wife--supposed to be another name of Michal, who, though she had no son after her mockery of David for dancing before the ark [ 2 Samuel 6:16 2 Samuel 6:20 ], might have had one previous to that time. She has the title of wife appended to her name because she was his proper wife; and the mention of her name last probably arose from the circumstance that, having been withdrawn from David and married to another husband but afterwards restored, she had in reality become the last of his wives.
5. four, of Bath-shua the daughter of Ammiel--or, "Bath-sheba" ( 2 Samuel 11:3 ), and there her father is called "Eliam." Of course Solomon was not her "only son," but he is called so ( Proverbs 4:3 ) from the distinguished affection of which he was the object; and though the oldest, he is named the last of Bath-sheba's children.
6. Elishama and Eliphelet--Two sons of the same name are twice mentioned ( 1 Chronicles 3:8 ). They were the children of different mothers, and had probably some title or epithet appended by which the one was distinguished from the other. Or, it might be, that the former two were dead, and their names had been given to sons afterwards born to preserve their memories.
8. nine--The number of David's sons born after his removal to Jerusalem, was eleven ( 2 Samuel 5:14 ), but only nine are mentioned here: two of them being omitted, either in consequence of their early deaths or because they left no issue.
1 Chronicles 3:10-16 . HIS LINE TO ZEDEKIAH.
10. Solomon's son was Rehoboam, &c.--David's line is here drawn down to the captivity, through a succession of good and bad, but still influential and celebrated, monarchs. It has rarely happened that a crown has been transmitted from father to son, in lineal descent, for seventeen reigns. But this was the promised reward of David's piety. There is, indeed, observable some vacillation towards the close of this period--the crown passing from one brother to another, an even from uncle to nephew--a sure sign of disorderly times and a disjointed government.
15. Zedekiah--called the son of Josiah (compare Jeremiah 1:3 , 37:1 ), but in 2 Chronicles 36:19 he is described as the brother of Jehoiachin, who was the son of Jehoiakim, and consequently the grandson of Josiah. Words expressive of affinity or relationship are used with great latitude in the Hebrew.
Shallum--No king of this name is mentioned in the history of Josiah's sons ( 2 Kings 14:1-29 , 23:1-37 ), but there is a notice of Shallum the son of Josiah ( Jeremiah 22:11 ), who reigned in the stead of his father, and who is generally supposed to be Jehoahaz, a younger son, here called the fourth, of Josiah.
1 Chronicles 3:17-24 . SUCCESSORS OF JECONIAH.
17. the sons of Jeconiah; Assir--rather, "Jeconiah the prisoner," or "captive." This record of his condition was added to show that Salathiel was born during the captivity in Babylon (compare Matthew 1:12 ). Jeconiah was written childless ( Jeremiah 22:30 ), a prediction which (as the words that follow explain) meant that this unfortunate monarch should have no son succeeding him on the throne.
18. Malchiram also--As far as Jeconiah, everything is plain; but there is reason to suspect that the text in the subsequent verses has been dislocated and disarranged. The object of the sacred historian is to trace the royal line through Zerubbabel; yet, according to the present reading, the genealogical stem cannot be drawn from Jeconiah downwards. The following arrangement of the text is given as removing all difficulties [DAVIDSON, Hermeneutics]:-- 1 Chronicles 3:17 . And the sons of Jeconiah the the captive, Salathiel (Shealtiel, Ezra 3:2 , Nehemiah 12:1 , Haggai 1:12 Haggai 1:14 , 2:2 ) his son. 1 Chronicles 3:18 . And the sons of Salathiel; Zerubbabel and Shimei; and the sons of Zerubbabel; Meshullam, Hananiah, and Shelomith their sister. 1 Chronicles 3:19 . And Hashubah, and Ohel, and Berechiah, and Hasadiah, Jushab-hezed. 1 Chronicles 3:20 . And Malchiram, and Rephaiah, and Shenazar, Jecamiah, Hoshama, and Nedabiah. 1 Chronicles 3:21 . The sons of Hananiah; Pelatiah and Jesaiah; the sons of Rephaiah; his son Arnan, his son Obadiah, his son Shecaniah.