1 Corinthians 15:5

And that he appeared to Cephas (kai oti wpqh Khpai). First aorist passive indicative of the defective verb oraw, to see. Paul means not a mere "vision," but actual appearance. John uses epanerwqh ( John 21:14 ) from panerow, to make manifest, of Christ's appearance to the seven by the Sea of Galilee. Peter was listed first (prwto) among the Apostles ( Matthew 10:2 ). Jesus had sent a special message to him ( Mark 16:7 ) after his resurrection. This special appearance to Peter is made the determining factor in the joyful faith of the disciples ( Luke 24:34 ), though mentioned incidentally here. Paul had told all these four facts to the Corinthians in his preaching. He gives further proof of the fact of Christ's resurrection. There are ten appearances given besides the one to Paul. Nine are in the Gospels (Mary Magdalene in John and Mark, the other women in Matthew, the two going to Emmaus in Luke, Simon Peter in Luke and I Corinthians, the ten apostles and others in Luke and John and Mark, the eleven and others in John, the seven by the sea in John, to over five hundred in Galilee in Matthew and Paul and Mark, to the apostles in Jerusalem in Luke and Mark and Acts and I Corinthians) and one in I Corinthians above (to James). It will be seen that Paul mentions only five of the ten, one, that to James, not given elsewhere. What he gives is conclusive evidence of the fact, particularly when re-enforced by his own experience (the sixth appearance mentioned by Paul). The way to prove this great fact is to start with Paul's own witness given in this undoubted Epistle. The natural way to understand Paul's adverbs of time here is chronological: then (eita), then (epeita), then (epeita), then (eita), last of all (escaton pantwn). To the twelve (toi dwdeka). The technical name. Only ten were present, for Judas was dead and Thomas was absent ( John 20:24 ).

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