The love of money (h pilarguria). Vulgate, avaritia. Common word (from pilarguro, 2 Timothy 3:12 , and that from pilo, arguro), only here in N.T. Refers to verse 1 Timothy 6:9 (boulomenoi ploutein). A root of all kinds of evil (riza pantwn twn kakwn). A root (riza). Old word, common in literal ( Matthew 3:10 ) and metaphorical sense ( Romans 11:11-18 ). Field (Ot. Norv.) argues for "the root" as the idea of this predicate without saying that it is the only root. Undoubtedly a proverb that Paul here quotes, attributed to Bion and to Democritus (thn pilargurian einai mhtropolin pantwn twn kakwn), where "metropolis" takes the place of "root." Surely men today need no proof of the fact that men and women will commit any sin or crime for money. Reaching after (oregomenoi). Present middle participle of oregw (see Romans 3:1 ) with genitive h (which). Have been led astray (apeplanhqhsan). First aorist passive indicative of apoplanaw, old compound verb, in N.T. only here and Mark 13:22 . Have pierced themselves through (eautou periepeiran). First aorist active (with reflexive pronoun) of late compound peripeirw, only here in N.T. Perfective use of peri (around, completely to pierce). With many sorrows (odunai pollai). Instrumental case of odunh (consuming, eating grief). In N.T. only here and Romans 9:2 .