From God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ (apo qeou patro kai Kuriou Ihsou Cristou). These words are not genuine in 1 Thessalonians 1:1 , but are here and they appear in all the other Pauline Epistles. Note absence of article both after en and apo, though both God and Lord Jesus Christ are definite. In both cases Jesus Christ is put on a par with God, though not identical. See on "1Th 1:1" for discussion of words, but note difference between en, in the sphere of, by the power of, and apo, from, as the fountain head and source of grace and peace.