He was numbered (sunkatepshpisqh). To the Jews the lot did not suggest gambling, but "the O.T. method of learning the will of Jehovah" (Furneaux). The two nominations made a decision necessary and they appealed to God in this way. This double compound sunkatapshpizw occurs here alone in the N.T. and elsewhere only in Plutarch (Them. 21) in the middle voice for condemning with others. Sunpshpizw occurs in the middle voice in Acts 19:19 for counting up money and also in Aristophanes. Pshpizw with dapanhn occurs in Luke 14:28 for counting the cost and in Revelation 13:18 for "counting" the number of the beast. The ancients used pebbles (pshpoi) in voting, black for condemning, white ( Revelation 2:17 ) in acquitting. Here it is used in much the same sense as katariqmew in verse Acts 1:17 .