Acts 4:13

The boldness (thn parrhsian). Telling it all (pan, rhsia). See also verses John 29 31 . Actually Peter had turned the table on the Sanhedrin and had arraigned them before the bar of God. Had perceived (katalabomenoi). Second aorist middle participle of katalambanw, common verb to grasp strongly (kata), literally or with the mind (especially middle voice), to comprehend. The rulers recalled Peter and John from having seen them often with Jesus, probably during the temple teaching, etc. They were unlearned (agrammatoi eisin). Present indicative retained in indirect discourse. Unlettered men without technical training in the professional rabbinical schools of Hillel or Shammai. Jesus himself was so regarded ( John 7:15 , "not having learned letters"). And ignorant (kai idiwtai). Old word, only here in the N.T. and 1 Corinthians 14:24 ; 2 Corinthians 11:6 . It does not mean "ignorant," but a layman, a man not in office (a private person), a common soldier and not an officer, a man not skilled in the schools, very much like agrammato. It is from idio (one's own) and our "idiosyncracy" is one with an excess of such a trait, while "idiot" (this very word) is one who has nothing but his idiosyncracy. Peter and John were men of ability and of courage, but they did not belong to the set of the rabbis. They marvelled (eqaumazon). Imperfect (inchoative) active, began to wonder and kept it up. Took knowledge of them (epeginwskon autou). Imperfect (inchoative) active again, they began to recognize them as men that they had seen with Jesus.