Manifest (panera). Opposed to "hidden" (krupta). Ancient writers were fond of lists of vices and virtues. Cf. Stalker's sermons on The Seven Cardinal Virtues and The Seven Deadly Sins. There are more than seven in this deadly list in verses Romans 19-21 . He makes the two lists in explanation of the conflict in verse Romans 17 to emphasize the command in verses Romans 13 . There are four groups in Paul's list of manifest vices: (I) Sensual sins like fornication (porneia, prostitution, harlotry), uncleanness (akaqarsia, moral impurity), lasciviousness (aselgeia, wantonness), sexual vice of all kinds prevailed in heathenism. (2) Idolatry (eidwlatreia, worship of idols) and witchcraft (parmakeia from parmakon, a drug, the ministering of drugs), but the sorcerers monopolized the word for a while in their magical arts and used it in connection with idolatry. In N.T. only here and Revelation 18:23 . See Acts 19:19perierga, curious arts. (3) Personal relations expressed by eight words, all old words, sins of the spirit, like enmities (exqrai, personal animosities), strife (eri, rivalry, discord), jealousies (zhlo or zhloi, MSS. vary, our very word), wraths (qumoi, stirring emotions, then explosions), factions (eriqeiai, from eriqo, day labourer for hire, worker in wool, party spirit), divisions (dicostasiai, splits in two, dica and stasi), heresies (airesei, the very word, but really choosings from aireomai, preferences), envyings (pqonoi, feelings of ill-will). Surely a lively list. (4) Drunkenness (meqai, old word and plural, drunken excesses, in N.T. only here and Luke 21:34 ; Romans 13:13 ), revellings (kwmoi, old word also for drinking parties like those in honour of Bacchus, in N.T. only here and Romans 13:13 ; 1 Peter 4:3 ). And such like (kai ta omoia toutoi). And the things like these (associative instrumental toutoi after omoia, like). It is not meant to be exhaustive, but it is representative.