James 5:1

Come now, ye rich (age nun oi plousioi). Exclamatory interjection as in Matthew 4:13 . Direct address to the rich as a class as in 1 Timothy 6:17 . Apparently here James has in mind the rich as a class, whether believer, as in James 1:10 , or unbeliever, as in James 2:1 James 2:6 . The plea here is not directly for reform, but a warning of certain judgment ( James 5:1-6 ) and for Christians "a certain grim comfort in the hardships of poverty" (Ropes) in James 5:7-11 . Weep and howl (klausate ololuzonte). "Burst into weeping (ingressive aorist active imperative of klaiw as in James 4:9 ), howling with grief" (present active participle of the old onomatopoetic verb ololuzw, here only in N.T., like Latin ululare, with which compare alalazw in Matthew 5:38 . For your miseries (epi tai talaipwriai umwn). Old word from talaipwro ( Romans 7:24 ) and like talaipwrew in James 4:9 (from tlaw to endure and pwro a callus). That are coming upon you (tai epercomenai). Present middle participle of the old compound epercomai to come upon, used here in futuristic prophetic sense.