Yea, verily, and (alla men oun ge kai). Five particles before Paul proceeds (yea, indeed, therefore, at least, even), showing the force and passion of his conviction. He repeats his affirmation with the present middle indicative (hgoumai), "I still count all things loss for the excellency of the knowledge (to uperecon, the surpassingness, neuter articular participle of uperecw, Philippians 2:3 ) of Christ Jesus my Lord." Dung (skubala). Late word of uncertain etymology, either connected with skwr (dung) or from e kuna ballw, to fling to the dogs and so refuse of any kind. It occurs in the papyri. Here only in the N.T. That I may gain Christ (ina Criston kerdhsw). First aorist active subjunctive of kerdaw, Ionic form for kerdainw with ina in purpose clause. Paul was never satisfied with his knowledge of Christ and always craved more fellowship with him.