Who is the faithful witness (o martu o pisto). "The witness the faithful," nominative in apposition like prwtotoko and arcwn with the preceding ablative Ihsou Cristou with apo, a habit of John in this book (apparently on purpose) as in 1 Corinthians 2:13 1 Corinthians 2:20 ; 1 Corinthians 3:12 , etc. See this same phrase in 1 Corinthians 2:13 ; 1 Corinthians 3:14 . The use of martu of Jesus here is probably to the witness ( 1 Corinthians 1:1 ) in this book ( 1 Corinthians 22:16 ), not to the witness of Jesus before Pilate ( 1 Timothy 6:13 ). The first-born of the dead (o prwtotoko twn nekrwn). A Jewish Messianic title (Ps 88:28) and as in Colossians 1:18 refers to priority in the resurrection to be followed by others. See Luke 2:7 for the word. The ruler of the kings of the earth (o arcwn twn basilewn th gh). Jesus by his resurrection won lordship over the kings of earth ( Luke 17:14 ; Luke 19:16 ), what the devil offered him by surrender ( Matthew 4:8 ). Unto him that loveth us (twi agapwnti hma). Dative of the articular present (not aorist agaphsanti) active participle of agapaw in a doxology to Christ, the first of many others to God and to Christ ( Matthew 1:6 ; Matthew 4:11 ; Matthew 5:9Matthew 5:12 ; Matthew 7:10Matthew 7:12 , etc.). For the thought see John 3:16 . Loosed (lusanti). First aorist active participle of luw (Aleph A C), though some MSS. (P Q) read lousanti (washed), a manifest correction. Note the change of tense. Christ loosed us once for all, but loves us always. By his blood (en twi aimati autou). As in John 5:9 . John here as in the Gospel and Epistles states plainly and repeatedly the place of the blood of Christ in the work of redemption.