In Sardis (en Sardesin). Some thirty miles south-east of Thyatira, old capital of Lydia, wealthy and the home of Croesus, conquered by Cyrus and then by Alexander the Great, in B.C. 214 by Antiochus the Great, at the crossing of Roman roads, in a plain watered by the river Pactolus, according to Pliny the place where the dyeing of wool was discovered, seat of the licentious worship of Cybele and the ruins of the temple still there, called by Ramsay (op. cit., p. 354) "the city of Death," city of softness and luxury, of apathy and immorality, "a contrast of past splendour and present unresting decline" (Charles). Along with Laodicea it was blamed most of all the seven churches. That hath the seven Spirits of God (o ecwn ta epta pneumata tou qeou). For which picture of the Holy Spirit see Psalms 1:4 . And the seven stars (kai tou epta astera). As in Psalms 1:16 Psalms 1:20 . A name that thou livest (onoma oti zh). A name in contrast with reality. The oti clause in apposition with onoma. And thou art dead (kai nekro ei). "The paradox of death under the name of life" (Swete). Not complete (a nucleus of life) death (verse Psalms 2 ), but rapidly dying. See the picture in James 2:17 ; 2 Corinthians 6:9 ; 2 Timothy 3:5 .