Romans 1:1

To the Romans (pro Rwmaiou). This is the title in Aleph A B C, our oldest Greek MSS. for the Epistle. We do not know whether Paul gave any title at all. Later MSS. add other words up to the Textus Receptus: The Epistle of Paul to the Romans. The Epistle is put first in the MSS. because it is the most important of Paul's Epistles.

Paul (Paulo). Roman name (Paulu). See on "Ac 13:9" for the origin of this name by the side of Saul. Servant (doulo). Bond-slave of Jesus Christ (or Christ Jesus as some MSS. give it and as is the rule in the later Epistles) for the first time in the Epistles in the opening sentence, though the phrase already in Galatians 1:10 . Recurs in Philippians 1:1 and desmio (bondsman) in Philemon 1:1 . Called to be an apostle (klhto apostolo). An apostle by vocation (Denney) as in 1 Corinthians 1:1 . In Galatians 1:1 klhto is not used, but the rest of the verse has the same idea. Separated (apwrismeno). Perfect passive participle of aporizw for which verb see on "Ga 1:15". Paul is a spiritual Pharisee (etymologically), separated not to the oral tradition, but to God's gospel, a chosen vessel ( Acts 9:15 ). By man also ( Acts 13:2 ). Many of Paul's characteristic words like euaggelion have been already discussed in the previous Epistles that will call for little comment from now on.

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