Without understanding (asunetou). Same word in verse 2 Timothy 21 . Covenant-breakers (asunqetou). Another paronomasia or pun. A privative and verbal sunqeto from suntiqhmi, to put together. Old word, common in LXX ( Jeremiah 3:7 ), men "false to their engagements" (Sanday and Headlam), who treat covenants as "a scrap of paper." Without natural affection (astorgou). Late word, a privative and storgh, love of kindred. In N.T. only here and 2 Timothy 3:3 . Unmerciful (anelehmona). From a privative and elehmwn, merciful. Late word, only here in N.T. Some MSS. add aspondou, implacable, from 2 Timothy 3:3 . It is a terrible picture of the effects of sin on the lives of men and women. The late Dr. R. H. Graves of Canton, China, said that a Chinaman who got hold of this chapter declared that Paul could not have written it, but only a modern missionary who had been to China. It is drawn to the life because Paul knew Pagan Graeco-Roman civilization.