What then? (ti oun?). Since God did not push Israel away (verse Romans 1 ), what is true? The election (h eklogh). Abstract for concrete (the elect). Obtained (epetucen). Second aorist active indicative of epitugcanw, old verb, to hit upon, only here in Paul. See Romans 9:30-33 for the failure of the Jews. Were hardened (epwrwqhsan). First aorist passive indicative of pwrow, late verb, to cover with thick skin (pwro). See on 2 Corinthians 3:14 ; Mark 3:5 .