frost (kephor, "hoar-frost," Exodus 16:14; Job 38:29; chanamal, perhaps "the aphis," Psalms 78:47; qerach, "cold," Genesis 31:40; Job 37:10 the King James Version; Jeremiah 36:30):

1. Formation:

A temperature of freezing or lower is called frost. Dew forms when the temperature is decreased; and if below freezing, the dew takes the form of a white film or covering over rocks and leaves. This white covering is called hoar-frost. Like dew it is the result of condensation of the moisture of the air on objects which radiate their heat quickly. In order that condensation may take place the atmosphere must be saturated. Frost may be expected on clear, still nights when the radiation is sufficient to reduce the temperature below the freezing-point.

In Syria and Palestine frost is a very rare occurrence at sea-level; but on the hills and elevated plains it is usual in winter, beginning with November, and on the highest elevations throughout the year. Late spring frosts in March or early April do great damage to fruit.

2. In Syria and Palestine:

In clear weather there is often a great variation in the temperature of the day and the night, especially on the inland plains, so that literally, as Jacob said to Laban, "In the day the drought consumed me, and the frost by night" (Genesis 31:40); "In the day to the heat, and in the night to the frost" (Jeremiah 36:30; compare Jeremiah 22:19), a passage which suggests that Jehoiakim's corpse was left unburied.

3. In Egypt:

The meaning of chanamal, translated "frost" in Psalms 78:47 (see above), "He destroyed .... their sycomore-trees with frost" (m "great hail stones"), is uncertain. "Frost is unknown in Egypt, and Gesenius suggests `ants,' comparing it with Arabic namal" (Temple, BD, S.V.).

4. Figurative Uses:

The manna in the wilderness is compared to hoarfrost. "A small round thing, small as the hoarfrost" (Exodus 16:14). Manna is occasionally found in Syria now as a flaky, gelatinous substance formed on bushes and rocks. The elements of Nature are indications of God's power, and are referred to as signs of His might:

"By the breath of God frost is given" (Job 37:10 the King James Version). "The hoary frost of heaven, who hath gendered it?" (Job 38:29); "He destroyed their vines with hail, and their sycamore-trees with frost" (Psalms 78:47); "He scattereth the hoar-frost like ashes" (Psalms 147:16).

Alfred H. Joy

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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Entry for 'FROST'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". 1915.