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Hugh Broughton

Hugh Broughton.—This celebrated person was born at Oldbury in Shropshire, bordering on Wales, in 1549, and descended from an ancient and a wealthy family. He received his grammar learning under the famous Mr. Bernard Gilpin, at Houghton in the Spring, near Durham; who sent him to Christ's college, Cambridge, where he was afterwards chosen fellow.} He was also elected one of the taxcrs of the university, preferred to a prebend in the church of Durham, and chosen reader of divinity at Durham. In the year 1579, after enjoying his fellowship several years, he was deprived of it by the vice-chancellor and others. Though he was censured in this manner, it was not for want of learning, or for any blemish in his character, but on account of some trivial irregularity in his admission to, or continuance in, that preferment. Mr. Broughton was a man of great celebrity; and he had many able friends, who, at this juncture, pleaded his cause, and

fave high commendations of his character. The Bishop of lurham became his zealous advocate, and wrote a letter, dated December 14, 1579, to Lord Burleigh, chancellor of

* Kilby's Funeral Sermon for Dr. Holland. + Wood's Athene Oxon. vol. i. p. 820.

t The following anecdote li related of Mr. Broughton:—As the celebrated Bernard Gilpin was once travelling to Oxford, he obierTed ■ boy before him, sometime! walking, and tometimei running. When he came up to him, observing him to be a youth of an agreeable and promising aspect, be asked him whence he came, and whither he was going. The boy told kirn, that he came nut of Wales, and Was going to Oxford, In order to be a scholar. Mr. Gilpin having examined him, found him expert in the Latin, and possessed of a smattering of Greeki and was so pleased with his appearance, and the quickness of his replies, that he inquired if be would go 'with him, and he would provide for his education. The youth agreed to the generous proposal, and went with him to Houghton; where he made wonderful proficiency both in Greek and Hebrew ; and Mr. Gilpin afterwards sent him to finish his education at Cambridge.—Full»r't Jlbtl sW, p. 358.—Clark't Eccl. But. p. 764.

the university, earnestly soliciting that Mr. Broughton, notwithstanding his preferment at Durham, might still continue to hold his fellowship. The Earls of Huntingdon and Essex, at the same time, warmly espoused his. cause, and jointly addressed a letter, dated February 24, 1580, to the worthy chancellor, in his favour. The two noble persons speak in this letter in high commendation of Mr. Broughton's learning, obedience and circumspection; and. observe, that only want of maintenance in the university had induced him to accept of the above prebend, which, however, he was more willing to resign than lose his place in the university. " This," it is added," shewed the good mind that was in him."* Lord Burleigh addressed a letter, dated October 20, 1580, to Dr. Hatcher, the vice-chancellor, and Dr. Hawford, master of the college, in which he expresses with great warmth his disapprobation of their conduct, and the conduct of the fellows, in their unjust treatment of Mr. Broughton.t Therefore, after much opposition, he was, in 1581, by an order from this generous and worthy statesman, again admitted to his fellowship; though it docs not appear whether he returned any more to the college.f In the mean time he very generously resigned the office of taxcr of the university.%

. Mr. Broughton having left the university, removed to
London, where he had many worthy friends, among whom
were the two earls already mentioned; also Sir. Walter
Mildmay, and others. About the same time, he entered
upon the ministerial function; but still pursued his studies
with uncommon assiduity, usually spending fourteen or
sixteen hours a day in the most intense application. In his
preaching,' he commonly took a text out of the Old Testa-
ment, ana a parallel text out of the New Testament, and
discoursed pretty largely upon them in their connexion,
then concluded with a short and close application of the
doctrine. His preaching soon rendered him exceedingly
popular, and he was very much followed, particularly by
persons celebrated for learning. But that which rendered
him most known to the world was the publication of his
book, entitled," A Consent of Scriptures." It was the fruit
of immense labour and stud}', and is a kind of system of
scripture chronology and genealogy, designed to shew
from the scriptures, the chronological order of events from

• Baker's MS. Collee. Voi. iv.p. 91. t Ibid. vol. x. p. 306,
1 Slrype'j Annals, vol. ii. p. 612—614.
f) Baker's MS Collec. Vo1. Hi. p. 423.

I

Adam to Christ. The work was published in the year 1588; and, while it was printing, the famous Mr. John Speed superintended the press.* It was dedicated to Queen Elizabeth, to whom it was presented by himself the 17th of November, 1589. In this dedication he says," The whole Book of God, most gracious sovereign, hath so great an harmony, that every part of it may be known to breathe from one Spirit. All soundeth the same point, that by Christ the Son eternal, we arc made heirs of life: whom they that know not abide always in wrath. Prophecies in every age, (the first ages larger, the later narrower,) all briefly told, all events fully recorded: these shew the constancy of this truth. The like revolutions are of Abraham, Jacob, and his children, together of Shem's house: and again to Japheth's sons, and all families: wherein the former be stamps of the latter: so that in one speech another thing also is spoken. These shew the eye of Jehovah, and his Spirit. The kindreds, places, and times (the lights of narrations) arc registered so profitably, that it should be a blasphemy to affirm any one to be idle. Our Lord'i fathers are recorded from Adam, by David and Nathan, to his grandfather Ely: likewise they, after whom he is heir to the kingdom of David: Solomon's line so long as it continued, and afterwards they who from Nathan were heirs to Solomon's house. So other families, who came all of one, as from them all come: they by Moses and the prophets be plentifully expressed. In like sort the places of their dwellings are clearly taught. The course of time is most certainly to be observed; even to the fulness, the year of salvation, wherein our Lord died. Of which time the very hour was foretold by an angel, not seven years before, but seventy times seven years, Dan. ix. 24. To this all other Hebrews, and profane Greeks, bear witness strongly against themselves. These helps be stars in the story. The frame

* Mr. Speed, who was brought op a tailor, wa!, by his acquaintance with Mr. Broughton, become particularly studious, and, by his directions, was deeply versed in a knowledge of the scriptures. Also, by the generosity of Sir Fulke Gravile, his patron, he was set free from a manual employment, and enabled to pursue his studies, to which be was strongly inclined by the bent of his genius. The fruits of them were his '* Theatre of Great Britain; Genealogies of Scripture; and History of Great Britain,** works of immense labour; the last of which, in its kind, was incomparably more complete than all the histories of bis predecessors put together. Mr. Broughton had a considerable share in the " Genealogies ;" but when the work came to be published," because the bishops would not endure to have Mr. Broughton's name prefixed, Mr. Speed went away with all the credit and profit."—Clark's Lites, last vol. part i. p. 2.—Granger's Biog. Hist. 1o\. ii. p. 320.—Biog. Brit an. vol. ii. p. 67. Edit. 1778.

of all this, with coupling of joints and proportion of body, will much allure to study, when it is seen how about one work, (religion and God's way of salvation,) all families, countries, and ages, build or pull down: and find the kindness or severity of God."*

The learned author took great pains to shew, that the heathen chronology contained numerous inconsistencies and contradictions, while the sacred history was perfectly clear from these imperfections. However, no sooner was his book published, than it met with great opposition. Archbishop Whitgift, at first, so exceedingly disliked the performance, that he would have called the author to an account for some things contained in it; but, to avoid the high commission, Mr. Broughton fled into Germany. This, indeed, greatly excited the general clamour against the book, and very much increased the number of its adversaries; nevertheless, Bishop Aylmer, in commendation of the work, said, " That one scholar of right judgment, would prove all ils adversaries foolish."+ Notwithstanding this, Dr. Rainolds of Oxford, and Mr. Lively of Cambridge, both learned professors in those universities, read publicly against the book.

Mr. Broughton used to call this work, " his little book of great pains:" for it cost him many years study; and when it was published, he had to write and publish in defence of it, against the exceptions of the above divines. By the allowance of the queen and council, he entered upon its defence, in public lectures in St. Paul's church, when the lord mayor, some of the most learned of the bishops, and other persons of distinction, were of his audience. Others of the bishops, however, could not endure these exercises, calling them dangerous conventicles; and therefore brought complaints against him, and put down his lecture. He and his friends afterwards assembled privately, at various places in the city, as they found opportunity.f During Mr. Broughton's continuance in London, he mostly resided in the house of Mr. William Cotton whose son, afterwards Sir Rowland Cotton, he instructed in the Hebrew language. His young pupil obtained so exact a knowledge of the language, that at the age of seven or eight years he could translate almost any chapter of the Bible into English,

• Bio;. Britan. vol. ii. p. 606. t Strype's Aylmer, p. 249. t Clark's Lives, p. 3.

I Mr. Roger Cotton, brother In this person, was one of Mr. Broughton't true scholars. He read the whole Bible through ttcelrc timet in one year.— Ibid. p. 4.

and converse with the greatest ease in Hebrew.* Mr. William Cowper, afterwards Bishop of Galloway, was 'another of his pupils.t

Mr. Broughton was a zealous advocate for the purity of the sacred text both of the Old and New Testament. " In the prophet Daniel's time, and afterwards," says he, " the sacred tongues were changed: it will not therefore be amiss to speak something of God's counsel in this matter. Adam and Eve's tongue continued, commonly spoken by the Jews, until the captivity of Babylon, and the understanding thereof, when Haggai and Zachary prophesied, in the next age. In this tongue every book of the Old Testament is written in a style inimitable. The characters and points are the same as those written by God on the two tables. The Masorites, of whom Ezra was chief, with an Arguseyed diligence so keep the letters and words, that none of them can perish. The sense of the tongue is preserved for us by the LXX, the N. T. And the Talmudic phrase by them, who in their schools still kept their tongue. By the help of the LXX. and N. T. we may excel all the rabbins. For their study is more easy to us than to them, in regard that they imitate the Greeks in their fables and expressions, nnd we have above them God, an heavenly interpreter for us in all the N. T. which, both for the infinite elegance and variety of its words, is most divinely eloquent. In it are the choice words of all kind of all Greek writers, nor can they all, without some fragments of the ancients, and the LXX. shew all the words in it. It hath also some new-framed words, as all chief authors have, and all brave expressions ; so that if any one would study in another tongue to express the like elegancy, he may as well fly with Da;dalus's waxwing, and miscarry in the attempt. In the N. T. is a fourfold Greek, 1. common; 2. the LXX. Greek; 3. the Apostolic; 4. the Talmudic. The uncorruptness of the N. T. text is undoubted to all who know the Hebrew tongue, history, and the exact Athenian eloquence. And such as pretend to correct it, do debase the majesty of both

* This account may appear to some almost incredible. Mr. Broughton's method of instruction was singular. He had his young pupil constantly with him, and invariably required him to speak, both to himself aud others, in Hebrew. He also drew up a vocabulary, which young Cotton constantly used. In this vocabulary he fixed on some place, or thing, then named all the particulars belonging to it: as. heaven, angels, sun, moon, stars, clouds, &c.; or, a house, door, window, parlour, 4c; a field, grass, flowers, trees, &c.Ibid.

t Clark's Eccl. Hist. p. 899.

Testaments, by unskilful altering what God spake most divinely. The reading, therefore, of the apostles in these matters will call together Homer, Hesiod, jEschylus, Pindarns, and others of the coasts of Illyricum: as also Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, A rat us, Menander, Callimachns, Epimenides, Plato, Aristotle, and all the orators and historians of Grecian writing in the time when this tongue flourished."*

He maintained that the gospel of St. Matthew was originally written in Greek. " The New Testament," says he, " was all originally in Greek. St. Matthew's gospel was written at the first in that heavenly oratorious Greek which we now have: and if the Holy Ghost had written it in the Jews' Jerusalem Hebrew, the holy learned of old time would have kept it with more care than jewellers all precious stones. We accuse antiquity of great ungodliness, when we say St. Matthew wrote in Hebrew, but antiquity lost that gospel. So St. Paul wrote in Greek to the Hebrews, in those syllables which we have to this day; and the style hath allusions, which the Jews' tongue hath not: which shewcth the original to be in Greek. The apostles wrote the New Testament in Greek, with such skill, that they go through all kind of Greek writers. They have words in their little book, good Greek, which Greeks have only in fragments', reserved by God's providence to honour the New Testament."t

This is the high character which our divine gives of the elegance and purity of the npostolic writings. His sentiments were equally exalted concerning the sacred records of the Old Testament. He made the following observations upon the Book of Job: " There never was a book written," says he, " since the pen became the tongue of a writer, of a more curious style than Job; in verse of many sorts, and use of words more nice than any Greek or Latin writcth ; and for grammar, hath more tricks and dillicully than all the Bible beside, Arabizing much ; but fuller of llcbrew depth of language. God saw it needful to honour with a style of all ornaments the particular case of Job, lest it should bo despised or thought a feigned mailer; and, therefore, gave that book u more curious style than any other part of the Bible; and such depth of skill in the tongue, as no rabbin could be thought ever to have in the holy tongue."{

Mr. Broughton, as we have already intimated, fled to

• Biog. Britnn. vol. li. p. 00t1. t Ibid. |>. 607.

t Ibid. p. 609.

Germany, where he had many disputations with Jews and Papists. Previous, however, to his departure, he wrote a letter, dated March 27, 1590, to his worthy friend Lord Burleigh, desiring permission to go abroad, particularly with a view to make use of King Casimir's library; and he no doubt obtained the favour.* He was always firm and courageous in the defence of truth; on which account he sometimes brought himself into danger, by openly exposing the errors and superstitious of popery. Ho had a public disputation with Rabbi Elias, a learned Jew in the synagogue at Frankfort. They disputed under an oath, that God might immediately strike him dead who should, on that occasion, speak contrary to the dictates of his conscience. In the conclusion, the Jew departed not without some proofs of advantage, desiring to be taught by his writings. An account of this conference was carried to Constantinople, where it excited very considerable attention among the Jews.+ Not only did Mr. Broughton's arguments in favour of Christianity make a deep impression upon Rabbi Elias: but he also adds, " After my return from Zurich, two Italian Jews came thither, and seeing what I had printed, especially upon Daniel, believed and were baptized, and came to Basil to sec me." " Another," says he, " is now in England, as I hear; who, by my occasion, embraced the gospel."*

In the year 1591, Mr. Broughton returned from Germany,

{>articularly with a view to settle the controversy betwixt limsclf and Dr. Rainolds. He had an earnest but absurd desire to have the dispute settled by public authority. In one of his addresses to the queen, he says," Your majesty's signification of your princely determination would break young braving students, whom reason in such unexpected soils cannot bend." Speaking of himself and his opponent, he says, " His fame of learning, and my more confident resistance, maketh many think that the scripture is hard, where our long labours differ. The fault is intolerable, either in him or in me; and the faulty should be forced to. yield, that none may think amiss of God's word. While divines jar in their narrations, faith is weakened, and all study of scripture; and old confirmed errors have disgraced all the holy story, that without the enforcement of authority, students will hardly yield to the truth." He solicited the queen to command the archbishops, and both universities,

• Baker's MS. Collec. vol. iv. p. 93. t Clark's Lives, p. t.

X Biog. Britan. vol. ii. p. 608.

to determine the points in contest between him and bil learned opponent.* Most persons at this period, and, among others, the learned Hugh Broughton, had very erroneous conceptions of the grand principles of protestantism; and their views of religious freedom were extremely inconsistent and absurd.

The controversy, however, was not determined by public authority, but referred to the arbitration of Archbishop Whitgit't and Bishop Aylmer. Though an entire pacification could not be effected, the result appears to have been greatly in favour of Mr. Broughton. For, although the archbishop exceedingly disliked Broughton's book, when it was first published; yet, upon cool and mature deliberation, he openly declared on this occasion, " That never any human pains were of greater travail and dexterity, to clear up the holy story, and against errors of fifteen hundred years standing, than appeared in the book of Consent."+

The following year Mr. Broughton again retired to Germany. He had a powerful adversary at court, who hindered him from obtaining those preferments which, it is said, the queen designed to confer upon him. Notwithstanding Whitgift's high opinion of his book, this potent adversary was the archbishop himself; who, it is positively affirmed, laid wait for him, and even offered a sum of money to any who would apprehend him.} Mr. Broughton, in one of his addresses to the queen, complains that her majesty was prejudiced against him by means of the archbishop, whom he represents as a person of no great learning, and speaks of his bare Latin sludies.S

Mr. Broughton, during his abode on the continent, formed au acquaintance with the learned Scaligcr, Rcphelengius, Junius, Bcza, and other celebrated scholars. He received great favour from the Archbishop of Mentz, to whom he dedicated his translation of the prophets into Greek. He was highly esteemed by many of the learned Jesuits; and though he was a bold and inflexible enemy to popery, he was offered a cardinal's cap.fl

The article of our Saviour's local descent into hell began about this time to be questioned. It had hitherto been the received doctrine of the church of England, that the soul of Christ, being separated from his body, descended locally into hell; that, as he had already conquered death

and sin, he might triumph over Satan. But Mr. Broughton, accounted the very rabbi of the age, convinced the world that the word hades, as used by the Greek fathers for the place into which Christ went after his crucifixion, did not mean hell, or the place of the damned, but only the state of the dead, or the invisible world.* He was the first of our countrymen who gave this explanation; which he did in a piece that he published, entitled, " An Explication of the article of Christ's Descent to Hell." This proved the occasion of much controversy, and his opinion, now generally and justly received, was vehemently opposed. His two principal opponents in this controversy were Archbishop Whitgift and Bishop Bilson; the latter of whom, in the warmth of disputation, he treated with some degree of contempt, and said of him, " Verily I was amazed, when I read his words, to see what a very inlant in his mother's lap he is in the Greek tongue."t

On this subject he addressed " An Oration to the Geneveans," which was printed in Greek. In this piece he treats the celebrated Beza with much severity; but he supports bis opinion, concerning the meaning of the word hades, in the most satisfactory and conclusive manner, by many quotations from Homer, Plato, Pindar, Diogenes, Laertius, and other Greek writers. Bayle says, that our author " was prodigiously attached to the discipline of the church of England, and he censured, in very bitter language, that of the presbytcrians. The oration which he addressed to the Geneveans, is a very strong proof of this assertion." It is observed, however, in reply, that this oration does not, by any means, prove all that Bayle supposes. Allowance being made tor Mr. Broughton's rough method of expressing himself, says the learned biographer, we think it does not appear from his Oration to the Geneveans, that he had any great aversion to them or their discipline. Excepting a few sarcastic sentences, we can discern little animosity against them but with respect to the particular subject of which he treated, the interpretation of the word hades, in which the church at Geneva differed from what he justly supposed to be the truth. He intimated also to the Geneveans, that they spoke unguardedly and improperly on the subject of predestination; and that their desire to overthrow Pelagius made them deal their words with more heat than discretion.% Mr. Broughton was so celebrated

• Strype'4 Wliitgift, p. 4H1, 483.—Strypcs Aylmer, p. 246.447. t Bivg. Brltao. tol. il. p. 609. J Ibid.

in all kinds of Hebrew learning, that he was invited to Constantinople, for the purpose of instructing the Jews in the christian religion; and King James of Scotland invited him to become professor of Hebrew in one of the Scotch universities.*

Mr. Broughton, after his second return to his native country, wrote two letters to Lord Elsmer, the lord chancellor of England; in which he gives a circumstantial account of his various literary pursuits, and warmly censures the ungenerous and cruel treatment he received from the Archbishop of Canterbury. " I have," says he, " compiled two books, a beginning for many in the kind. One is Hebrew, exactly in the prophets' Hebrew, with a rabbin epistle, in rabbin style. The other is Ecclesiastes applied to that question, Wherefore was the book made? I was greatly injured. For the rabbin, Archbishop Whifgift, sent me word, that he would allow for answering, if I would entreat him. I returned, entreated I will, but not entreat to have a burden, which I wish others would bear. Soon after, he libelleth that I forged the epistle. If for that he had been rent in pieces by wild horses, his punishment had been too little, as a forgerer deserved. So since he borrowed the oath to that villany, God never ceased to plague the realm, and not a little by giving bishops over to teach that our Lord went down hence to hell. To repent of that, and promise Jswo per annum to their teacher to confirm the truth, and then to bark like a Cerberus against the truth and themselves. Then to feign an impossibility in Greek, that our Lord went from paradise to hades, which no Grecian would ever say."t

Mr. Broughton was a most profound scholar, particularly in critical and exact knowledge of Greek and Hebrew. He directed his elaborate studies chiefly to a minute examination of the scriptures in their original languages. He found the authorized English translation extremely defective, and therefore used his utmost endeavours to obtain a new translation. With a view to accomplish this great object, he addressed the following letter " To the right honourable Sir William Cecil, lord high treasurer :"t

" Right Honourable. " Sundry lords, and amongst them some bishops, besides doctors and other inferiors of all sorts, have requested me

• Strvpe'* Whitgift, p. 432,526—530. + Harleian MSS. No. 787. t Baker's MS. Collec. vol. it. p. 94.

to bestow my long studies in Hebrew and Greek writers, upon some clearing of the Bible's translation. They judged rightly that it must be amended; but in what points, I think it not good largely to tell in words till it be performed in work; that it be less disgraced which we now use. All of knowledge and conscience will grant, that much better it may be. This motion hath been made long ago; and her majesty sent word and message to Sir Francis Walsingham, that it must be considered. His highness meant to take opportunity, but other weighty affairs suffered him not. All this while my prayer and charge have been spent in preparation that way. And, furthermore, I thought good myself to make motion to such as I held worthiest and fittest to be contributors to the charge, finding by experience that public motions take further time of delay than the whole work rcquircth : and your lordship I held one of the worthiest to be a contributor, for the maintenance of some six of us, the longest students in the tongues, to join together; as well not to alter any thing which may stand still, (as in Moses and all the stories needeth not much amendment,) as to omit nothing which carricth open untruth against the story and religion, or darkness disannulling the writer. In which kind, Job and the prophets may be brought to speak far better unto us; and all may have short notes of large use, with maps of geography and tables of chronology. To this, if it please your lordship to be a ready helper, your example will stir others to a more needful concern than was the amendment of the temple in King Josiah's time.

" Your lordship's to command,

" Hugh Brooghton."

In the above generous proposal, Mr. Broughton had to encounter insurmountable difficulties; and however desirous the treasurer might be to promote so excellent and laudable an undertaking, the worthy design utterly failed. Not long after he addressed another letter to this celebrated statesman, of which the following is a copy :*

" To the Right Honourable my Lord Treasurer.

" My duty remembered to your lordship. I have two petitions at once to your honour; but such as neither, I trow, need greatly trouble you. I have been requested by others, for myself, to make motion for the archbishopric of Tuam (not worth above ^200) in Ireland. By reason

that five years ago, I took a little soil there, I could accept of it, if her majesty will, and it be no trouble to your honour to speak to her highness for it. But I leave it to your sage direction. The other petition is of somewhat less pains. The reverend and learned man, Dr. Rainolds, who, as I think, hath greatly hindered all his own and our religion, is now, I think, in London; with whom, if I might talk but two words, before your lordship, a pacification, as I judge, might be made. I would demand what one word of my book he dare blame, with any colour of reason ;. and shew that if his course had not been stayed, he offered advantage to turn all the sway of the Bible against him.' By open speech it may best be declared. Your honour best knoweth your own leisure. So I commend both the causes to yourself, and your health to God. London, May 16, 1595.

" Your lordship's to command,

" Hugh Broughton."

It does not appear what answer Mr. Broughton received to this letter; but he certainly failed of gaining the object of his former petition, if not of the latter also. His second return to England was at the time when the plague was in London. His old friends were much surprised to see him in a season of so much affliction. He was particularly cheerful and happy, and not the least afraid of the distemper. His conversation very much savoured of the kingdom of God, and he spoke upon divine subjects greatly to their edification. In the year 1603, he preached before Prince Henry at Oatlands. He did not, however, continue long in his native country, but went abroad a third time, and was chosen preacher to the English congregation at Middleburg. During his abode at this place, he sent a curious petition to King James, now of England, requesting the favour of a pension, as the reward of his manifold labours and sufferings; of which the following is a copy :•

" Most gracious Sovereign. " Your majesty's most humble subject, Hugh Broughton, having suffered many years danger for publishing your right and God's truth, by your unlearned bishops, who spent two impressions of libels' to disgrace their Scottish mist; which libels their stationers deny that ever they sold. He requesteth your majesty's favour for a pension

• Harleian MSS. No. 787.

(it for his ago, study, and past travels, bearing always a most dutiful heart to your majesty. From Middleburg, Aug. 1604.

" Your most humble servant,

" Hugh Broughton."

While our divine was at Middle'burg, besides the care of his congregation, he published his smart discourse against Archbishop Bancroft, and sent the whole impression to Mr. William Cotton, younger brother to Sir Rowland Cotton, living in London; with a request, if he dare venture, to deliver a copy into the hands of the archbishop. Mr. Cotton was not without apprehension of danger; yet he could not well deny Mr. Broughton's request. Therefore, he waited upon the archbishop, and, after making the requisite apology, delivered a copy of the book into his hands, politely asking pardon for his great boldness. Though his grace treated him with all the civility that could have been desired, he was no sooner dismissed than the archbishop's officers came to his lodgings, seized all the books they could rind, and carried thcm away. This was Bancroft's short and easy method of refuting the arguments of his learned opponent !"*

Mr. Broughton having a complaint settled on his lungs, and being desirous of dying in his own country, returned at length the third and last time to England. In the month of November, 1611, he landed at Gravesend; and upon his arrival in London, told his friends that he was come to die in his native country; and if it was the will of God, he wished to die in Shropshire, his native county. Therefore, Sir Rowland Cotton, formerly his pupil, provided suitable accommodations for him, at his house in Shropshire. Herein, however, both the pupil and the tutor were disappointed. He continued in London during the winter, and in the following spring removed to a suitable situation in the vicinity.

During his confinement under affliction, Mr. Broughton gave his friends many pious and profitable exhortations. He often urged them to observe practical religion, saying, " Study your Bible. Labour for the salvation of one " another. Be peaceable. Meddle with jrour own matters. " Some judgment will come upon this kingdom. Never " fear popery : It will never overflow the land. But the '.' course which the bishops take will fill the land with

"atheism. Meddle not in the quarrel." As he drew near his end, he said, " Satan bath assaulted me: but the Son of " God hath rebuked him, and spoken comfortable words to «4 my soul." A little before his departure, he became speechless: yet his friends asking whether they should pray with him, he signified his warmest approbation by lifting up both his bands. Soon after the prayer was ended, he breathed his last, August 4, 1612, aged sixty-three years. His remains were interred in St. Autholin's church, London, with great funeral solemnity; and his funeral sermon was preached by Mr. Speght, from John xi. 8; but the bishops would not allow it to be printed.*

Mr. Broughton was an indefatigable student, and a most celebrated scholar, which rendered his temper too austere; yet, to his friends, his spirit was sweet, affable, and affectionate. He was bold and severe in opposing all error and impiety, and would sharply reprove them, whatever it cost him. He was free and communicative to all who wished to leam; but sometimes offended when his scholars did not understand him, accounting it a shame to live in ignorance, f As a writer, his style is rather harsh and obscure. He appears too vain and too severe against his opponents. But when it is recollected what kind of treatment he met with; how he was tossed to and fro, and often obliged to remove from one place to another, it will not appear surprizing, that so great a scholar sometimes forgot himself. Upon his death-bed, he confessed and lamented his infirmity. In his writings, adds our author, the impartial reader will find as much light thrown upon the scriptures, especially the most difficult passages, as can be found in any other author whatever; and they carry in them so happy a fascination, that the serious reader is constrained, by a sort of holy violence, to search the sacred scriptures.t

This learned divine has been reproached with great

• Clark's Lives, p. 6, 7.

t This was exemplified in the following anecdote.—While Mr. Broughton was at Meniz in Germany, a young man of the name of Morton, from En-land, came to him continually, asking him questions, and receiving instructions. When the young pupil understood not his answers, but desired further explanation, Mr. Broughton would be angry, and call him dull and unlearned. Upon this, when Morton asked him any question, he used pleasantly to say, *' 1 pray you, whatsoever dolts or dullardt I am to be called, call me so before we begin, that your discourse and mine attention he' not interrupted:'* which, it is said, Mr. Broughton took ai pleasantly from him. This person, it is added, was afterwards the famous Dr. Morton, bishop of Durham.—Ibid. p. 6.

t Ibid. p. 7,8.

severity by tome of our historians; and by none with greater rancour than by Mr. William Gilpin.* This writer says, " that Mr. Broughton acted the basest and most " ungrateful part towards Mr. Bernard Gilpin, who had " educated and maintained him, both at school and the " university. He was vile enough to endeavour to supu plant the very patron who had raised him up." If Mr. Broughton really acted in the manner here represented, it would be difficult to censure him with too much severity: but, we think, there is no sufficient evidence for the charges alleged; at least Mr. Gilpin hath not produced it; and it seems hardly just to bring such black charges against a man without some substantial proof. Bishop Carlton, the first writer by whom any accusation appears to be brought against Mr. Broughton, speaks of his exciting the Bishop of Durham against Bernard Gilpin merely as a report; and, if this report were true, though there is no proof alleged, it seems very doubtful whether he was excited to it from a design of obtaining Gilpin's living.

Mr. Gilpin says of Broughton, " that London was the scene where he first exposed himself. Here, for some time, he paid a servile court to the vulgar, in the capacity of a popular preacher." But of this we can meet with no evidence. Indeed, servility to persons of any class, does not appear to have been any part of Mr. Broughton's character ; and the charge, we think, is sufficiently refuted in the foregoing narrative, as collected from the most authentic records.

Mr. Gilpin says, that Broughton had " lived out all his credit, and became even the jest of the stage." It is certain, ns our author observes, that he was satirized on the stage. But a man's being ridiculed in a dramatic exhibition, is no proof of his having out-lived cither his credit or his friends; nor docs this appear to have been the case, but the contrary, with Mr. Broughton.+

He also says, " Broughton was, indeed, famous in his time, and as a man of tetters esteemed by many, but in every other respect despicable." The numerous authentic testimonies given in the foregoing narrative, afford a sufficient refutation of this charge. The learned Dr. Ligbtfbot, who wrote Mr. Broughton's life, declares himself a mere child in comparison of this great master of Hebrew and

• Gilpin*. Life of Bernard Gilpin, p. 233, £34, 893,300. Edit. 1780. + Biographia Britannica, vol. ii. p. 605—610.

rabbinical learning.* Mr. Strype declares that he was one of the greatest scholars in Christendom, in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and all Talmudical literature.t

Most of his works were collected and printed in London, in 1602, with his life prefixed by Dr. Lightfoot, entitled, " The Works of the great Albionean Divine, renowned in many Nations for rare Skill in Salems and Athens Tongues, and familiar Acquaintance with all Rabbinical Learning, Mr. Hugh Broughton." This edition of his works, though bound in one large volume folio, is divided into four tomes. Towards the last tome is Mr. Broughton's funeral sermon by Mr. Speght, in which the preacher says, " Touching the fruit of his sowing, viz. his private reading in the time, and with the approbation of the reverend and learned Bishop Aylmer; and of his public preaching in Christ's church, in St. Peter's, and in my church; how many arc there (yea some alive) who may thank God daily, that ever they knew and heard him ? For myself, 1 confess, and profess so much, and shall ever do so whilst I breathc."t

There are many of Mr. Broughton's manuscripts, in his own hand, still preserved in the British Museum. Some of them are the literary productions of his pen ; others relate to the controversies in which he engaged ; and the rest arc miscellaneous. These, in all thirty-five, arc bound in one volume quarto.^ There is also his manuscript " Harmony of the Biblc."||