William Whitaker

William Whitaker, D. D.—This most celebrated divine was born at Holme, in the parish of Burnley, in Lancashire, in the year 1547, and descended from an ancient and a respectable family. His mother was Elizabeth Nowell, sister to Dr. Alexander Nowell, Dean of St. Paul's, who married Thomas Whitaker, in 1550, and survived her

• MS. Register, p. 203. + Ibid. p. 198, 199.

t Bridget'! Hilt, of Northamptonshire, vol. i. p. 457. S Wood's Athense Ozon. vol. i. p. 491.

marriage the wonderful period of seventy-six years.* Early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, young VVhitaker was sent for to London by the dean his uncle. He was by this means taken from his parents, by whom he had been nursed in the superstitions of popery, and trained up in the public school founded by Dr. Colet, who was NowelTs pious predecessor. There he so profited in good literature, and gave such presages of his excellent endowments, that at the age of eighteen, his pious kinsman sent him to the university of Cambridge, and he was admitted into Trinity college; where his further progress being answerable to his beginning, he was first chosen scholar, then fellow of the house. He soon procured high esteem and great fame by his learned disputations and other exercises, which were performed to the great admiration of the most eminent persons in that scat of learnings He was a person of extraordinary talents and uncommon application, and it was his general practice, and that of several other eminent persons of his time, to stand while employed in study.f

As a proof of his great proficiency, and as a token of gratitude to his generous kinsman, he translated Nowell's Catechism into Greek, which he performed with the greatest accuracy, and presented it to him. He, at the same time, translated into Latin the English Liturgy, and Bishop Jewel's Reply to Harding, by which he obtained a distinguished reputation.^ Indeed, his great fame was not confined to the learned in Cambridge; but having taken his various degrees with great applause in that university, he was incorporated doctor in divinity at Oxford.|

Upon the preferment of Dr. William Chadderton to the bishopric of Chester, our learned divine succeeded him in the office of regius professor in the university of Cambridge. He was, indeed, very young for such a place; yet, on account of his great literary accomplishments, he was unanimously chosen to this high office, though some

• Churton's Life of Novell, p. 64.—Dean Nowell was prolocutor of the lover house of convocation, in 1562, when the articles of religion were agreed upon. In 1564, when the debates ran high about the use of the clerical garments, he discovered great moderation. He consented to the use of them, but with a protestation that he wished tbem taken away, for the following reasons:—I. " For fear of the abuse they might occasion.— 2. To express more strongly a detestation of the corruptions and superstitions of the papists.—3. For a fuller profession of christian liberty.—4. To put an end to the disputes among brethren."—Biog. Brltan. vol. v. p. 3258. Edit. 1747.

t Knight's Life of Colet, p. 397. Edit. 1724.

t Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. i. p. 99. S Clark's Ecd. Hist. p. 814.

| Wood's Athens Oxon. vol. i. p. 744.

were much vexed to see a man, whom they deemed unfit for the situation, preferred before those who were more advanced in years, fie no sooner entered upon his official duties, in the delivery of public lectures, than he gave the most perfect satisfaction to all his hearers. There was in him nothing wanting which could be found in the best divine, and the most accomplished professor. He at once discovered much reading, a sharp judgment, a pure and easy style, with sound and solid learning, by which his fame spread in every direction, and multitudes resorted to his lectures, and reaped from thcin incalculable advantage.* To qualify himself for these public exercises, he directed his studies, with uncommon application, to all the useful branches of human learning, lie was a grelit proficient in

he studied the sacred scriptures, to which he invariably appealed, not only in matters of faith, but in the determination of all doubts and controversies. He turned over most of the modern commentators and faithful interpreters of the word of God. With incredible industry, and in the space of a few years, he read over most of the fathers, both Greek and Latin. He attended to his studies with the greatest

exercises he should pursue during the day ; and if he was at any time interrupted in his engagements, he always protracted his studies to a late hour, and so deprived himself of his natural rest and sleep, in order to finish his appointed task. By this course of labour and watching he very much increased in learning, but greatly impaired his health, which he never after perfectly recovered.

In the public exercises in the schools, his great learning and singular eloquence gained the admiration of all his auditors. When he read in rhetoric and philosophy, he seemed to be another Basil; when he catechised, another Origen; and when he preached his Conceo ad Clerum, it abounded with sanctity and all kinds of learning. In the office of professor, he delivered public lectures first upon various select parts of the New Testament, then he entered upon the controversies between the papists and protestants. He first encountered the vain-glorious Campian, who set forth his ten arguments, proudly boasting that he had utterly ruined the protestant religion. Whitaker so learnedly and so completely refuted the haughty Jesuit,

himself every morning what

that all his boasting vanished into smoke. Afterwards came forwards Dury, another Jesuit, who undertook to answer Whitaker, and to vindicate Campian. As Campian had set forth his work with great ostentation and youthful confidence; so Dury carried on the controversy with much railing and scurrility. Whitaker admitted his opponent to have the pre-eminence in calumny and abuse; but he refuted all his arguments, and discovered all his fallacies, with such good sense and sound judgment, that it is said, " the truth was never more fully cleared by any man." His next antagonist was Nicolas .Saunders, who boasted that by forty demonstrative arguments, he had proved that the pope was not antichrist. Whitaker examined these nrgumen Is, and answered them with great learning and solidity, retorting mnny of thcm upon the author himself. After this, Rainolds, another apostate, pretended to reply, and, with subtilty and malice, represented the English divines to be at variance among themselves ; and by this means, he endeavoured to expose protestantism to the greater hatred and contempt. But our learned Whitaker at once perceived, and with great judgment, exposed his crafty insinuations and falsehoods; yet, he declared that the book was so vain and foolish, that he scarcely thought the author Worthy of an answer.*

Dr. Whitaker was afterwards preferred to the mastership of St. John's college, Cambridge, though not without much opposition from the ill-affected in the university, of which Fuller gives the following curious account:—" He was appointed by the queen's mandamus; and Dr. Cap-coat, the vice-chancellor, went along with him, being attended by a

foodly company, solemnly to induct him tohis place, when e met with an unexpected opposition. They could not gain admittance. The gates were shut, partly manned and / partly boyed against him. The vice-chancellor retreated to Trinity college; and after consulting the lawyers, he, according to their advice, created Dr. Whitaker master of St. John's in his own chamber, by virtue of the queen's mandate. This done, he re-advanceth to St. John's, and with a Fosse Academic, demands admission. The Johnians having intelligence by their emissaries, that the property of the person was altered, and Dr. Whitaker invested with the mastership, and knowing the queen would

maintain her power from her crown to her foot, took wit in their anger, and received him."*

Notwithstanding the above opposition, the new master, by his clemency, his equity, and his goodness, presently overcame their exasperated minds, and turned their enmity and prejudice into love and admiration. He always governed the college with great prudence and moderation, and sacrificed his own interest for the advantage of the public, as appeared by his own frugality and the testimony of those who lived with him. In the choice of scholars and fellows, he was always impartial and unblameable, and would never suffer any corruption to creep into the elections. If he found any who by bribes had endeavoured to buy suffrages, they, however deserving in other respects, of all others, should not be chosen.t This account of his great integrity, and his particular care in the government of his college, affords a complete refutation of the great neglect, with which he is charged by the insinuation of another historian.} i

Under the mastership of Dr. Whitaker, all worthy scholars and fellows received the encouragement due to their character and desert. He distributed the rewards of learning with an impartial hand; but all indiscreet and improper'measures were justly discountenanced. There was only one way to preferment, and that was founded upon merit and real worth. This made the college flourish in sound learning, and swarm in the number of its members. There were no less than thirty-eight fellow-commoners in the house at one time, which, upon a moderate computation, are said to have been more than at any other period since the foundation, or than probably ever will be again. This, for the purpose of their accommodation, leu to several considerable enlargements of the college. His learning was not confined to himself: it was diffusive. It spread itself through the whole society; and, by his example, instruction, and encouragement, he raised so much emulation among the fellows, as to make others learned as well as himself. Indeed, the society in his time was looked upon as something more than a private college. He himself, who was no boaster, used to style it a little university 4

Bellarmine, the Romish disputant, growing famous

Fuller's Hist, of Catnb. p. 96,97. + Clark's Eccl. Hist. p. 818. 1 Fuller's Hist, of Camb. p. 97. (Baker's US. Collec. vol. i. p. 217—219.

about this time, and being'looked upon by his own party as an invincible champion, Dr. Whitaker undertook to defend the bulwarks of protestantism against the assaults of the

Eopish adversary; and it is observed, " that be cut off the end of his antagonist with his own weapons." The first part of this controversy was concerning the holy Scriptures; then about the Church, the Councils, the Bishop of Rome, the Ministers, departed Saints, the Church Triumphant, the Sacraments, Baptism, and the Lord's Supper; some of which he published; but he had not leisure to print them all. During the whole controversy, he treated his Romish opponent, not with keen reproach, or under the influence of passion, but as one who sought to promote the truth. Bellarmine being completely silenced, Thomas Stapleton, a superstitious old man, and professor at Louvain, undertook to answer Whitaker, which he performed in a volume sufficiently large, but in most abusive and scurrilous language. Therefore, lest the angry and bigotted old man should seem wise in his own eyes, Whitaker answered him according to his deserts, and in keener language than usual.* Dr. Whitaker was a man of the greatest celebrity, and was, for many years, concerned in most of the public transactions in the university of Cambridge. His name is often mentioned by historians, especially by an invaluable collector of scarce and curious information,+ as taking a most zealous and active part in promoting the peace and prosperity of this scat of learning. In the year 1580, he was presented by the queen to the chancellorship of St. Paul's, London, which he resigned in 1587; but on what account we cannot learn.t In the year 1591, Dr. Goad, provost of King's college, Cambridge, presented a request to Dean Nowefl, in behalf of Dr. Whitaker, that he might be preferred to some more valuable benefit. The venerable dean, anxious to serve his friend and kinsman, forwarded Dr. Goad's fetter, the day he received it, together with one of his own, to the lord treasurer; reminding his lordship of Dr. Whitaker's great learning, well known at Cambridge by the productions of his pen in Greek and Latin; and not unknown to his lordship, to whom several of his works had been dedicated. His fitness for presiding over a learned society had partly appeared, from the quietness and good order which had been established in St. John's college since he became master; and as to his circumstances, they

• Clark's Eccl. Hist. p. 818. + Baker's MS. Collections. " t Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. i. p. 81 J. x

were so far from being affluent, that the dean, in consideration of his poverty, had now for two years past taken upon himself the maintenance of one of his sons. This application, however, in behalf of Dr. Whitaker, whatever might be the reason of it, proved unsuccessful.*

Some of our historians affirm, that this celebrated divine was not a puritan; for which, indeed, they produce very little evidence, or rather no substantial evidence whatever. That which is commonly pleaded for evidence in this case, is Dr. Whitaker's letter to Dr. Whitgift, in which he gives his sentiments with great freedom,concerning Mr.Cartwright and his opinions, as follows:—" I have read," saith he, " a

freat part of that book (Cartwright's second Reply) which Ir. Cartwright lately published. I pray God I live not, if ever I saw anything more loosely and almost more childishly written. It is true that for words, he hath great store, and those both fine and new: but for matter, as far as I can judge, he is altogether barren. Moreover, he doth not only think perversely of the authority of princes, in causes ecclesiastical, but also flicth into the holds of the papists, from whom he would be thought to dissent with a mortal hatred. But in this point he is not to be endured : and in other parts also he borroweth his arguments from the papists. He playeth with words, and is lame in his sentences, and is altogether unworthy to be confuted by any man of learning." Our author adds, that Dr. Whitaker wrote this letter about the time that he began to write against Campian.f And what does the whole of it prove ? It is designed to reproach Mr. Cartwright, his book, and his sentiments, and to prove Dr. Whitaker to have been no puritan, of which it certainly contains no substantial evidence. For, admitting the letter to be genuine, it only contains Dr. Whitaker's opinion of Mr. Cartwright and his publication, and no evidence either for or against the puritanism of the writer. But there is some reason to suspect that the letter is a forgery^and devised only to blacken the memory of the puritans. It rests upon the sole authority of Dr. Bancroft, one of the bitterest and most violent of all their enemies; and is said to have been written near the time when Dr. Whitaker united with other learned divines in soliciting Mr. Cartwright to undertake an answer to the Rhemist translation, in which, among other commendations, they addressed him as follows:—" It is not for every one rashly

• Churton'sLifeofNowell,p.S22,SS3. + Bancroft's Sqrvey, p. 379,380.

to be thrust forth into the Lord's battles; but such captains are to be chosen from amongst David's worthies, one of which we acknowledge you to be, by the former bailies undergone for the walls of our city, the church. We doubt not, if you will enter this war, but that you, fighting for conscience and country,'will be able to tread under foot the forces of the Jebusites, which set themselves to assault the tower of David."*

The former battles which Mr. Cartwright is here said to have undergone for the walls or discipline of the church, and for which he received so high a commendation from Dr. Whitaker and his brethren, were the controversies he had with Dr. Whifgift: but when the same controversies are described by the unworthy pen of Dr. Bancroft, Dr. Whitaker is made to speak the language of keen reproach, both of Mr. Cartwright and of his former battles. How can the two things be reconciled ? Shall we conclude that Whitaker was guilty of such palpable inconsistency ? This was no trait in his character. Did he then completely change his opinion of Cartwright and his controversy, during the short interval of joining in the address to this divine, and writing the foregoing letter to Whitgift ? This would be contrary to numerous facts, as will presently appear. Did he address Whitgift, now Archbishop of Canterbury, merely to flatter him, and procure his favour ? He never lost his favour, and no one was ever less guilty of flattery.

In the year 1589, an assembly was held in St. John's college, Cambridge, of which Dr. Whitaker was master. Mr. Cartwright and many others were present on this occasion, and the meeting was designed to promote a purer form of discipline in the church. At the same time, " divers imperfections in the Book of Discipline were corrected, altered and amended; and they did not only perfect the said book, but did then and there voluntarily agree, that as many as were willing should subscribe the said Book of Discipline."t Therefore, among the learned divines who subscribed, was the renowned Dr. Whitaker.f He is also said to have united with other puritan divines in promoting the reformed discipline, and to have assembled with them for this purpose in their private associations.(,

The year following, this learned divine was charged with holding or forming a presbytery in his college, and with

• See Art. Cartwright. + Bancroft'! Survey, p. 67.

t Neal's Puritans, Voi. I, p. 483. S Baker's MS. Collec. vol. It. p. 79.

other unjust accusations, when he went up to London, and wrote the following letter to Lord Burleigh, chancellor of the university.* u My humble duty to your honourable lordship.

" I will not complain to your lordship, of those that " have complained of me ; who, seeing me resolved to come " up about my necessary defence, and fearing that the " complaint made concerning a presbytery would be easily " disproved, have devised other matters, which either touch " me nothing at all, or else arc most frivolous; and yet,' u being thus heaped together, seem to be of some weight. u Although I foresee the inconvenience of a new visitation, " which is the only thing they shoot at; yet I fear not any " course of justice whatsoever; and I do willingly submit " myself to what order your lordship shall take for due " trial of these matters. In one thing for a taste, your u lordship may judge of the rest. I am charged that I lay " at my brother Chadderton's, the night before I came up. u Indeed the truth is, I lay in the college, as I ever do: but " this was only a slight to bring in some mention of my " brother, whom they hate as much as me. If it may stand " with your honour's good pleasure, to let me have that " writing that was exhibited against me, I will set down " mine answer to every particular point, and return the " same again to your lordship. Thus I humbly take my " leave. From the Dean of Paul's house, October 24, « 1590.

" Your lordship's to serve in the Lord,

" William Whitaker." We have not been able to learn what answer Dr. Whitaker gave to the accusations of his enemies, nor how long his troubles continued; but he most probably obtained his release, and, without much interruption, returned to his wonted exercises in the university. He was a divine who bad a correct view of the genuine principles of protestantism, and would appeal to the authority of the holy scriptures alone, in the decision of all religious controversy. " We may warrantably enough," says he, " reject all human testimonies, and insist upon some clear scripture testimony. For this is the constant sense of the catholic fathers, that nothing is to be received or approved in religion, which is not bottomed on the testimony of scripture, and cannot be proved and confirmed out of those sacred writings: and

' very deservedly, since the scripture is the absolute rule of 'truth."* From these generous principles, he was induced, with several other excellent divines, to write against the superstitious and ridiculous practice of bowing at the name of Jesus.t Upon the same generous principles, he was no friend to episcopacy, but a decided advocate for the eldership, which the puritans sought to have established. " Episcopacy," saith he, " was invented by men as a remedy against sin; which remedy many wise and holy men have judged to be worse than the disease itself, and so it hath proved by woeful experience."! In his answer to Campian's ten arguments, he says, " A presbyter and a bishop arc by divine right the same; and if Ariuswasan heretic for saying so, Jerome certainly was akin to the same heresy."^ And in his reply to Dury, he avows the same sentiment, saying, " Presbyters being by divine right the same as bishops, might warrantably set other presbyters over the churches."|| He was decidedly of opinion, that all ecclesiastical persons should confine themselves to their ecclesiastical functions, without the exercise of any temporal authority.I On these accounts, Mr. Strype very justly observes, that though he was a learned and pious man, a public professor of divinity, and a good writer against the church of Rome; yet " he was no friend to the church of England."**

Dr. Whitaker, Dr. Fulke, Dr. Chadderton, Mr. Dod, and other learned puritans, held their private meetings in the university, with a view to their own improvement in a knowledge of the holy scriptures. Our divine married for his first wife, the pious sister of the two famous preachers, Mr. Samuel and Mr. Ezekicl Culvcrwcll, and Dr. Lawrence Chadderton married another sister. For his second wife, he married the grave and pious widow of Mr. Dudley Fenner; » and by both of them he had eight children, to whom he gave a religious education.+t " It must be confessed," says Mr. Baker, " he had somewhat of the old leaven," meaning his puritanism. " His marriage into the families of the Culverwells and Fenners, and his acquaintance with Cartwright, Fulke, Chadderton and Dod, might give him

• Calamy's Defence of Noucon. vol. i. p. 127. Edit. 1703.

t Prynne's Cant. Doome, p. 469.—Wood's Athens Oxon. vol. i. p. 848.

t Leighton's Sion's Plea, p. 18 : from Whitaker.

I) Petition of Prelates Examined, p. 15. Edit. 1641.

|j Calamy's Defence of Noncon. vol. i. p. 71.

1 Baker's MS. Collec. vol. xx. This vol. is not paged.

Strype's Wbitgift, p. 355. +1 Clark's Eccl. Hist. p. 817.


an insensible bias that way; yet the meetings he held with these persons, were not intended to introduce a new discipline, but to expound the scripture."*

In the year 1595, there were many warm disputes about points of christian doctrine. The tire of contention broke out in the university of Cambridge, in which Dr. Whitaker was deeply involved. He shewed himself the zealous advocate of the supralapsarian sentiments, and was warmly opposed by Dr. Baro and others of the same party. To put an ma to these disputes, the heads of the university sent Dr. Whitaker and Dr. Tyndal up to Lambeth, for the purpose of consulting with the archbishop, and other learned divines, upon these points; when they concluded upon nine propositions, commonly called the Lambeth articles, to which the scholars in the university were enjoined an exact conformity.t

Dr. Whitaker, during his journey to Lambeth, fell sick, occasioned by his unusual fatigue and want of sleep, and died soon after his return to Cambridge. Through the whole of his affliction, he discovered great submission to the divine will. With holy and happy composure, he said, u O Lord my God, though thou kill me; yet, I am sure, that with these eyes I shall sec thee; for in thee do I hope." To a friend, who asked him one morning how he did, he replied, " O happy night! I have not taken so sweet a sleep since my disease fell upon me." His friend aflenvards finding him m a cold sweat, and telling him that signs of death were upon him, he immediately answered, " Life or death is welcome to me, which God pleascth; for death shall be an advantage to me. I desire not to live, but only

• Baker's MS. Collec. vol. 1. p. 814. vol. xx.

t These articles were the following :—" God hath, from eternity, predestinated certain persons to life i and hath reprobated certain persons onto death.—The moving or efficient cause of predestination unto life, is not the foresight of faith, or of perseverance, or of good works, or of any thing that Is in the persons predestinated ■ but only the good will and pleasure of God.—There is pre-determined a certain number of the predestinate, which can neither be augmented nor diminished.—Those who are not predestinated to salvation, shnll Inevitably be condemned for their •ins.—A true, lively, and justifying faith, and the spirit of God justifying, is not extinguished, doth not utterly fail, doth not vanish away, in the elect, either finally or totally.—A true believer, that is, one who is endued with justifying faith, is certain with the full assurance of faith, of the remission of his sins, and of his evci lasting salvation by Christ.—Saving grace is not given, is not granted, is not communicated to all men, by which they may be saved if they will.—No man Is able to come unto Christ, unless it be given him, and unless the Father draw him : and all men are not drawn by the Father, that they may come to the Son.—It is not in the will or power of every man to be saved."—FuHsr't CAurcA UM. b. Ix. p. 830—831.

so far as I may do God and his church service;"* and soon after quietly departed in the Lord, December 4, 1595, in the forty-seventh year of his age, having filled the professor's chair about sixteen years, and that of master almost nine.

Dean Nowell, in his last trill and testament, made the following bequest: " To his cousin, Dr. Whitakcr of Cambridge, he gives twenty books of his own choosing:" but the venerable dean survived him some years.t In the above year he was preferred to a prebendary in the church of Canterbury. He certainly deserved greater preferment, and he stood in need of it; for he died poor, considering the family he left behind him. It was some reproach to the nation, that the two greatest men that ever filled the professor's chair in the university of Cambridge, should have been no better provided for: these were Dr. Whitaker, and the celebrated Martin Bucer, who was forced to borrow money with his last breath.} Dr. Whitaker's library was very choice and valuable,which the queen designed to obtain for herself, and Archbishop Whitgift wished to procure his numerous and valuable manuscripts. At his death, the college conferred upon him the honour of a public funeral, an account of which is still preserved among the records of the society, where so much is put down for bis funeral feast, so much for his tomb, and so much for the other necessary expenses. Mr. Bois delivered a funeral oration at his grave, and the vice-chancellor and public orator or his deputy at St. Mary's churchy His corpse was, with very great solemnity and lamentation, carried to the grave, and was interred in the chapel of St. John's college. Near the place of his interment was a costly monumental inscription erected to his memory, of which the following is a translation :||

This Monument is erected to the memory of Doctor Whitaker, formerly the royal interpreter of Scripture. His interpretations were adorned with elegance of language; his judgment was acute, . his method beautiful, ( his memory strong, i bis labours and perseverance invincible,

and his life most holy. 1 With these very rare endowments of mind, his candour, virtue, and humility,

> Clark's Eccl. Hiit. p. 819. + Chorion's Life of Novell, p. 344,350. | Baker's MS. Collec. vol. i. p. 884. S Ibid. p. 881. if Knlfht's Life of Colet, p. 891.

shone with the greatest splendour.
He was a prudent Master of this College

more than eight years,
being a firm defender of all that was right,
and an avenger of whatever was wrong.

Dr. Whitaker, through the whole of his life, both in public and private, discovered great piety and holiness. He was most patient under insults, and easily reconciled to those who injured him. He was very bountiful to the poor; especially to pious and industrious students. He was always modest in giving his judgment upon mens' opinions and actions. Among his friends, he was courteous and pleasant; faithful in keeping secrets; prudent and grave; and always ready to assist them with counsel or money. He was of a grave aspect, a ruddy complexion, a strong constitution, a solid judgment, a liberal mind, and 'an affable disposition; but that which added the greatest lustre to his character, was his great meekness and humility.* " He was one of the greatest men his college ever produced; and," says Wood, " the desire and love of the present times, and the envy of posterity, that cannot bring forth a parallel."t " The learned Whitaker," says Leigh, " was the honour of our schools, and the angel of our church; than whom our age saw nothing more memorable. What clearness of judgment, what sweetness of style, what gravity of person, what gracefulness of carriage, was in the man!" " Who ever saw him without reverence!" said Bishop Hall, " or heard him without wonder ?"} He was styled " the oracle of Cambridge, and the miracle of the world."

It was a maxim with this celebrated divine, " that refreshing the memory was a matter of great importance in every kind of learning, but especially in the most useful parts of it. He therefore read over his grammar and logic once every ycar.^ He was the greatest champion in the cause of the protestants, even by the confession of Cardinal Bellarminc, who, though he had been so often baffled by him, procured his picture from England, and preserved it in his study. When his friends were introduced to him, he used to point to the picture and say, that though Whitaker

• Clark's Eccl. Hist. p. 819, 820—Fuller's Abel. Red. p. 406. .+ Baker's MS. Collec. vol. i. p. 213.—Wood's Athena;, vol. i. p. 744. ' $ Leigh on Religion and Learning, p. 363, 364. $ Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. i. p. 213.

was an heretic, " he was the most learned heretic he ever read."*

His Works.—1. Translation of Novell's Catechism into Greek.— 2. Translation of the English Liturgy into Latin.—3. Translation of Bishop Jewel's Dispute against Harding into Latin.—4. Answer to Edmund Campian his Ten Reasons.—6. A Defence of his Answer against John Durey.—6. A Refutation of Nicolas Saunders his Demonstration, whereby he would prove that the Pope is not Antichrist.—7. A Collection thereto added of ancient Heresies raked up again to make up the Popish Apostacic.—8. A Thesis propounded and defended at the Commencement in 1582, that the Pope is the Antichrist spoken of in Scripture.—9. Answer to William Rainolds against the Preface to that against Saunders in English.— 10. A Disputation concerning the Scripture against the Papists of these times, especially Itellarniine and Stapleton.—11. A Defence of the Authority of the Scriptures, against Thomas Stapleton his Defence of the Authority of the Church.—12. Lectures on the Controversies concerning the Bishop of Rome.—13. Lectures on the Controvcrsie concerning the Church.—14. Lectures on the Controversic concerning Councils.—15. A Treatise of Original Sin, against Staplcton's three former books of Justification. The four articles last mentioned were published after the author's death by John Allenson. —16. A Lecture on the first of Timothy, ii. 4. read on February 27,1594; before the Earl of Essex, and other Honourable Persons.— 17. Lectures concerning the Sacraments in general, and the Eucharist and Baptism in particular. This last was taken down by John Allenson, and published by Dr. Samuel Ward.f His " Works" were afterwards collected and published in Latin, at Geneva, in two volumes folio, in lo'lO.J