^BELARD, Peter, his genius, industry, and learning, iii. 339;
his self-sufficiency and heretical propensities, ib; his cele-
brity in the philosophical schools, ib.; seduces Eloisa, 342;
retires into a monastery, 343 ; broaches hereiical opinions,
ib. and seq.; summoned before a council, and ordered to burn
his writings, and to recite Athanasian creed, ib.; obeys the
council, 350; impugns their proceedings, ib.; his want of
veracity, ib.; his commentary on Romans, ib.; his contro-
versy with Bernard, 351 & seq.; appeals to the Pope, 358 ;
condemned by him, 369; confined to a monastery, ib.;
satisfies Bernard of his orthodoxy, ib.; his death, 370;
character of his correspondence with Eloisa, ib.
'Abraham, an Ascetic, confines himself to his cell for 50 years,
' ii. 259; chosen to convert Pagans, 260 ; his reluctance to
the work, ib.; compelled by his Bishop, ib.; his trials,
patience, and success, ib.; returns to his solitude, ib. ,
Absalom, Abp. of Lunden, his labours and character, iii. 429.
Abyssinia, progress of Christianity there, ii. 103.
Acacias, Bp. of Amida, extraordinary proof of his humanity,ii. 521.
Accept us, demanded Bishop by church of Frejus, ii. 177; his con-
scientious evasion, ib. . .,
Ace'sius, a Novatian Bishop, attends council of Nice, ii. 64; his
conversation with Constantine, ib.
Adalbert, Abp. of Prague, dissuades a Hungarian Prince from
aposlacy, iii. 253; sketch of his former life, ib.; his awful
sense of the ministerial duties, ib.; goes on a mission trf
Poland, 254; his success there, ib.; murdered, ib.; styled
the Apostle of Prussia, ib.; his character, ib.
Adalvard, a missionary to Sweden, beaten and expelled from the
country, iii. 257.
rot. v. R r
Adam of Bremen, his testimony to the conversion of the Danes,
Adelaide, wife of Otho I. ber zeal and liberality, iii. 251 ; expe-
riences vicissitudes, 261; her character, ib.
Adelard, a luminary of ninth century, declines an invitation to
the court of Charlemagne, iii. 234; becomes a monk, and
is made abbot, ib.; forced to court, ib.; his recluse and
pious habits, ib.; banished on suspicion, and recalled, ib.;
returns to his monastery, ib.; his exemplary character, ib.
— A monk, founds the monastery of New Corbie, iii. 235.
Adelbert, Abp. of Madgeburgh, his labours, iii. 260.
Adeldagus made Chancellor to Otho I. iii. 272 ; made Arch-
bishop of Hamburg, ib.; complaints of his flock on account
of his residence at court, 273; returns to his bishopric, ib.;
his character, ib.
Ado, Abp. of Vienua, his character, iii. 199; his attention to dis-
cipline, ib.; dissuades Lothaire from divorcing his queen, ib.
Adohard, Bp. of Verden,his character and labours, iii. 273.
Adrian, succeeds to the empire, i. 174; his rescript in favour of
the Christians, 178 ; his severity to the Jews, 179.
—Pope, his character, iii. 164; strengthens himself by the
support of Charlemagne, 165 ; receives considerable terri-
tories from him, ib.; his correspondence with Irene, re-
specting image worship, 166; his avaricious demands, ib.;
seeks approbation of decrees of second council of Nice from
western Bishops, 167; disappointed, ib.; his prudent coo-
duct towards Charlemagne, 168; his death, 169.
— VI. Pope, his character, v. 100, 105; his bitterness against
Luther, 101,note; his brieve to the diet of Nuremberg, 101;
his candid acknowledgement of ecclesiastical corruptions,103;
his brieves to the Elector of Saxony ,113,571; his death, 121;
account of his birth and rise, ib. note; his epitaph, ib.; so^
licits Erasmus to oppose Luther, 259; his brieve to Zuingle,
538 ; his correspondence with Erasmus, 582 & seq.
JEdesius, a martyr, his generous but imprudent indignation at the
cruelty perpetrated on Christians, ii. 20 ; his martyrdom, ib."
— A boy carried into Abyssinia, where he escapes being mur-
dered, and is employed at court in conjunction with Frumen-
tius, ii. 103.
AZlia Capitulina, another name for Jerusalem, i. 180; ii. 101.
Agapius, his martyrdom, ii. 22.
Agelius, a Novatian Bishop, exiled by the Arians, ii. 156; his
admirable character, ib.; his restoration, ib.; his death, 242.
Agobard, Abp. of Lyons, writes against image worship, iii. 211.
Agrippa, Herod, enjoys civil power in Judea, i. 23; his cha-
racter, ib.; persecutes the church ib.; puts James the
Apostle to death, ib.; proceeds against Peter, ib. j his
Axdan, an Irish monk, his mission to Northumbria, iii. 106;'
made Bishop of Lindisfern, 107; his character ib.
Aigilulph, King of the Lombards, converted to orthodoxy, iii. 50 ;
ravages the Roman territories, 61. • * Alaric, King of the Visigoths, reigns at Toulouse, Hi. 10; adopts
Arianism, ib.; his humanity to the orthodox, ib. Albert, Abp. of Mentz, promulgates the indulgences of Leo X. in
Germany, iv. 315; his answer to Luther, 441; prosecutes
Bernard for matrimony, v. 248.
— Marquis of Brandenburg, espouses the reformed doctrines
— Count of Mansfield, a friend of the Reformation, exhorts
Luther to appease Duke George, v. 358.
Albertus Magnus, his fame in school divinity, iv. 108, note.
Alcibiades, a martyr, induced to change his ascetic life, i. 230.
Alcuin, a celebrated Englishman, enjoys the favour of Charlemagne, ui. 166; his share in the Carolin Books, 168 ; disproves decrees of second council of Nice, 192 ; was a deacon of York, ib.; sent as ambassador to France, ib.; persuades Charlemagne to found two universities, ib.; his fame and writings, ib.
Aleander, appointed Pope's nuncio, iv. 481 ; sent to the Elector of Saxony with a bull against Luther, ib.; his character, ib.. & 484, 569, 624; his proceedings with the Elector, 481 6» seq.; burns Luther's books, 484 ; his extraordinary testimony to Luther's probity, 485; procures a second bull against Lnther, 501; his speech at Worms, 526 & seq.; corrupts the diet, 531 ; endeavours to prevent Luther's appearance there, 537 ; why employed to draw up the edict of Worms, 364; remonstrates with the Emperor, 576; persecutes the Lutherans, v. 147; his advice respecting Frederic the Wise, 170.
Alexander, a martyr, i. 235.
— Bp. of Jerusalem, his letter to the church at Antioch, i. 291;
dies in prison, 388. -— Bp. of Cappadocia, his sufferings, i. 301; associated with Narcissus in the bishopric of Jerusalem, 302.
— Bp. of Cemana, suffers martyrdom, i. 403.
— Bp. of Alexandria, tolerates Arius, ii. 51; roused to assert the
true faith, ib.; summons a 3ynod, 52 ; writes against Arianism, 55; his death, 66; points out Athanasius for his successor, ib.
— Bp. of Constantinople, his character ii. 71; menaced by
Eusebius, 72; his distress at being obliged to restore Arius, 73; his death, 77.
— IV. Pope, favours the friars, iv. 18 ; compelled to order the
burning of a Franciscan book, si. —- VI. Pope, guilty of scandalous crimes, iv. 304, 312.
— VII. Pope compels two kings to hold his bridle, iii. 480. * Alexandria, Gospel planted there by St. Mark, i. 286; Christian
school there, 287. Alfred, the Great, opposes the Danes, iii. 200; his speech befor
; ' a battle, i6.; defeats the Danes, ib.; bis translations, ib.; !.
endeavours to improve his subjects, ib.; his character, ib.
lilfrie, a writer against transubstantiation, iii. 247.
Allegories, use and abuse thereof, v. 383, 384.
AILix, his writings commended, iii. 376.
A/mansor, Caliph, founds Bagdad, iii. 165.
Alphaeus, a Bishop of Palestine, his extraordinary fortitude Jn
>■ martyrdom, ii. 14. > .
Alphage, Abp. of Canterbury, his magnanimity, iii. 300; exposa-
lates with the enraged Danes, 301; imprisoned, ib.; declms
a ransom at the expense of the Church, ib.; stoned, ib.
Alphonsus, Peter, a Jew, converted, iii. 433 ; publishes a dialogs
against the Jews, ib. ; his eminent learning, ib.
Alypius, the friend of Augustine, devotes himself to the Circassui
games, ii. 334; reformed by Augustine, ib...; involved ■
Manicheism, ib; captivated with the exhibitions of tf*
diators, 335; apprehended as a thief, and prsviden&allj
delivered, ib.; practises in the law, ib.; converted at tic
same time with Augustine, 351 6c seq. ; made Bishop of
Tagasta, 380; opposes Pelagianism, ib. & 400. <•
Ambrose, a Valentinian, confuted by Origen,i. 312 ; his liberalitj
to Oriiren, 319; entitles himself to the name of Coa-
— Bp. of Milan, his early history, ii. 173; his learning aw
celebrity as a pleader, ib.; appointed governor of Milan,
and renowned in that office, ib ; chosen Bishop in an extra-
ordinary manner, 174; his attempts to avoid the office, 175;
gives up his properly to th3 church and poor, ib.; hi
pastoral labours, 176 & 181; expels Arianism from Itak,
176 ; avails himself of the instructions of Simplician, ib ;
his correspondence with Gratian, 1/9; his encomium; o»
: ' virginity, 180; applies vessels of the church to redeem
captives, 181 ; insulted atSirmium, ib.; sent on an embassy
" to Maximus, 190; refuses to hold communion with "hi
bishops, ib.; receives ill-treatment from Valentinian tfct
younger, 194; his letter to hint respecting the Pagans,ib.;
his reply to Symmachus, 195; his talents for negociation.ib.;
challenged to a disputation by Auxentius,ig6; his answer, ib.;
refuses to deliver up his church, ib.; introduces response
singing, 197 ; his trials, ib.; his veneration for relics, 199;
his second embassy to Maximus, 200 ; composes a funeral
oration on Valentinian, ib.; opposes the rebuilding of a
Jewish synagogue, 201 ; his letter to Theodosius upon the
massacre at Thess&lonica, 202 ; prohibits the emperor fro»
the church, ib; enjoins him penance, 203 ; his death and
character, 229 ; his treatise on Offices, 230 ; his direction
to his clergy, 231 ; his book of repentance, ib-.; his notion*
'' ' of the pastoral office, 233; promoted monastic spirit, 234;
his summary of Gospel salvation, 235; his ideas on the
benefit of death, it).; his three books concerning the Holy.
1 1 .
,- - Ghost, 336; his condolence with Faustinus on the death of
f his sister, ib.; his epistolary address to clergymen, 237; his interpretations of Scripture exceptionable, ib.; his doctrinal notions, 238; his superstitions concerning the dead, ib.; how he promoted monastic bondage and prelatical pride, ib.;
: tisited by Augustine, 327 ; character of his preaching, ib.; forbids superstitious practices in honour of martyrs, 329.
Amelius, his attempt to unite Christiany and Platonism, i. 537.
Amnxmius, Saccas, his religious principles, i. 262 ; his platonic school, ii. 108.
Amphilochus, Bp. of Iconium, his behaviour at the court of Theodosius, ii. 185.
Anabaptists, what, v. 71, note; see also Peasants' war, their, fanaticism and violence, 496 & seq.; suffer persecution, 5<>7. 545, 562.
Ananias, a christian disciple struck dead for lying to the Holy Ghost, i. 12.
-— a disciple of Damascus, sent to Saul on his conversion, i. 19.
Anastasius, Bp. of Antiocb, resists an edict of Justinian, iii. 24; his exemplary piety, ib.; his farewell letter, 25; his intimacy with Gregory the First, 41; his ejection and restora,' : tion, 50 ; his death and character, 52.
T— Bp. of Constantinople, iii. 157.
Andreas, Chancellor ol Sweden, employed by Gustavus to translate the.Scriptures, v. 134.
Andrew, made King of Hungary on condition of restoring idolatry, iii. 293 ; moved by seeing an attack on four bishops, ib. ; revives Christianity; ib.
Angel, of the Church, what, i. 161. .•
Anicetus, Bp. of Rome, confers with Polycarp respecting the observance of Easter, i. 210.
Anna;, wife of Wolodomir, prevails on her husband to embrace. Christianity, iii. 263. 1 ,
Anne, wife of Richard II. of England, uses her influence to pro
; .• tect the Lollards, iv. 164; her character, 165.
— of Mecklenburgh, opposes the Reformation, v. 450.
Ansbert, quotation from his writings, iii. 274.
Anscurius, a monk, proceeds on a dangerous mission to Friezeland, iii. 2^6 ; his labours, 237; his mission to Sweden, ib.; pillaged by pirates, and suffers great hardships, ib.; success of his labours in Sweden, 238 ; made Archbishop of Hamburg, ib.; his pastoral labours, ib.; his pious resignation, 239; made Bishop of Bremen, ib.; propagates the. Gospel in Denmark, ib..; renews his attempts in Sweden, ib.;. his success, 240 ; returns to Denmark, ib.; his death and. character, ib.; erects a hospital, ib.; said to have possessed, the gift of miracles, ib.
Anselm, Abp. of Canterbury, his devotion to. the Pope, iii. 304 ;
. • his contests with William Rufus, ib;; contributes to enforce, celibacy of the'clergy, ib.; his character, 305,307,312;
offers himself to a monastery at the age of fifteen, 307;
gets entangled in vanities of the world, ib. ; becomes 1
monk, abbot, and friar, 308; his reluctance to be made
archbishop, ib.; retires to the Continent, 309 ; '-writes en tit
Incarnation, ib.; character of his works, ib.; bis resigna-
tion refused, 310; distinguished at council of Bari, 311;
writes on the Conception and Original Sin, ib. ; returns U
England and compromises with the King, ib.; bis death.
313; his-works on will, predestination, and grace, ib.; hk
direction for visitation of the sick, ib.; bis work, called,
" The Fool Refuted," 316; was the inventor of an argumec:
ascribed to Descartes, ib.
Anstlm, Bp. of Havelburg, his character, iii. 434; censures mo-
nastic institutions, 435.
Anthony, the Egyptian, founder of monastic societies, i.524;
stories of his contests with the devil ridiculous, 525; bis
character, ib.; also, ii. 96 & seq.; his opposition to A nanism,
97 ; pretends to live without food, 98 ; his death, ib.; his
answer to a letter from Constantius, 101.
— Bp. of Fussala, ordained by Augustine, ii. 459, note; dis-
appoints his expectations, and is expelled, ib.
Antichrist, early indication of, i. 134; when identified wilt
Bishops of Rome, iii. 157 ; description of, in a Waldensian
treatise, 475. .
Antioch, disciples first called Christians there, i. 49.
Antipas, a martyr, i. 91.
Antipoedobaplists, their rise, iii. 451.
Antoninus, Pius, succeeds to the empire, i. 181; his character, ib.;
his edict in favour of the Christians, 182; his great
worth, 183. -
— Abp. of Florence, his piety and extraordinary labours, iv. 29a.
Apollinarii, Father and Son, their ingenious attempt to counteract
Julian's prohibition of learning among Christians, ii. is6;
heresy of, confuted by Athanasius, 164; expelled for refusing
to give up the friendship of a Pagan, 248; set up a sect, ib.;
their learning and capacity, 249; works of the son, ib.
Apollinaris, of Hierapolis, his writings lost, i. 253; bis account
of the Montanists, 260.
Apollonia, an aged virgin, her heroic courage and martyr-
dom, i. 391.
Apollonius, a philosopher, accused as a Christian, i. 242; beheaded,
and his accuser also punished, 243. • ■-
Apollos, an early disciple, his character, i. 74.
Apostacy, God-denying, what, i. 259. • -
Apostles, their prejudices against the Gentiles, i. 42.
Apphian, a martyr of Palestine, leaves his family on account of
their hostility to the Gospel, ii. 19; his imprudent zeal, ib.;
and sufferings, ib.
Apultius, a ludicrous author, his manner of speaking of a Chris-
tian's faith, i. 527. . .. - ,, ■*
Jiquila, an early disciple, his acquaintance with Paul, i. 73; concerned in planting the Church of Rome, 79.
— kinsman to Adrian, his apostacy, i. 180.
Aquinas, Thomtu, the angelical doctor, his fame, iv. 36 ; defends doctrines of free-will, transubstantiation, and supererogation, ib.; his extraordinary notion respecting the interpretation of Scripture, 37 ; his corrupt sentiments respecting justification, ib.; shows traces of great devotion, ib.; Luther's opinion of him, v. 15.
Arcadius, one of the sons and successors of Theodosius, resides at Constantinople, ii. 279 ; insignificance of his character, 283; deposes Chrysostom, and persecutes his adherents, 290.
Archinixnus, a triniturian, his constancy in resisting temptations to Arianism, ii.495; ordered to execution by Genseric, ib.; escapes by his constancy, ib. Areopagus, Court of, i. 72 ; why it did not condemn Paul, ib. Arianism, high, ii. 61, note; its fruits, 163,183; expelled from Italy by Ambrose, 176; its decline in France, iii. 13; put an end to in Africa, 22 ; destroyed in Spain, 31. Arians, their subtlety, ii. 58, 67, 152, 185 ; present their confession of faith to Nicene Council, 60; unite with the Melitians, 67 ; their unjust proceedings against Athanasius, 70; enjoy court favour, 72 ; their profligacy, 74 ; persecute the trinitarians, 88, 89 ; their general success, 93; their divisions, ib.; attempt to ingratiate themselves with Jovian, 152 ; subscribe council of Nice, ib..; their insidious attempts against Athanasius defeated, 153; gain over Valeus, and persecute the church, 155; Justinas law in their favour, 195 ; commit an. erasure in St. John's Gospel, 236, note; their wickedness, 489; massacre the orthodox at Riga, 49,5; commit other dreadful persecutions, 498 &c seq.; forbidden to hold assemblies, iii. 22.
— Semi) ii. 156; persecuted by the Arians, ib.; reunite with the
orthodox, ib. Aristides, his apology for the Christians, i. 177.
— the Sophist, his notion of Christians, i.535. Ariktotk, effects of his philosophy in the Church, iv. 2,13. Arms, a presbyter of Alexandria, his promising character, ii.50;
joins the Meletian party, ib.; leaves it and reconciles himself to his Bishop, ib.; expelled for his factious spirit, ib.; again obtains favour, ib.; his true character, ib.; advances heretical opinions, 51; is joined by many of the clergy, 52 ; his industry in propagating his opinions, ib.; expelled by a synod, ib.; his epistle, .53, note ; forms alliances with various bishops, 55; condemned at a second synod at Alexandria, ib.; his doctrines condemned by Nicene Council, 60; deposed, 61; and banished to Illyricum, 6.9; returns, 66; summoned to Constantinople, 71; subscribes and swears to Nicene doctrines, 72 ; his secret reservation, ib.; his restoration ordered by Constantiue, 73 ; his death, ib,
Arnold, of Brescia, bis heretical opinions opposed by Bernard,
iii. 374; raises a sedition against the Pope, and is burned, ib.
Arnulph, a presbyter, preaches against vices of the clergy, iii. 439 ;
Arnulphxts, Bp. of Orleans, presides at council of Rheims, iii. 247 ;
his discourse against the Pope, ib.; his zeal and prudence, 248.
Arsenius, a Meletian bishop, story of his murder, ii. C8; re-
nounces his former connexions, and solicits communion with
— Bp. of Constantinople, renowned for his piety, iv. 15; appointed
guardian to the young emperor, ib.; compelled to crown
an usurper, ib.; retires to a monastery, ib.; recalled, ib.;
excommunicates the Emperor Michael, ib.; bauished, 16;
, his integrity, ib.
Arundtl, Abp. of York, and afterwards of Canterbury, his incon-
sistency, iv. 165; persecutes the Lollards, ib. & 167, 169;
' crowns Henry the Fourth, ib.; persecutes Lord Cobham,
170 & seq.; his artful conduct, 171, 182; his examination
of Lord Cobbam, 174.
Ataph, gives name to a see, iii. 109; his character, ib.
Asclepas, Bp. of Gaza, driven from his see by the Arians, ii. 67;
restored, 76, 84.
Asclepius, Bp. of the Mnrcionites, suffers martyrdom, ii. 25.
Asia, Seven Churches of, i. 84.
Aspebetcs, a Saracen chief, favours the Christians under a Persian
persecution, ii. 521 ; obliged to fly in consequence, ib.; re-
ceives baptism, ib.
Astulphiu, King of the Lombards, takes Ravenna, iii. 161.
Athanaric, King of the Goths, persecutes the Christians, ii. 166.
Athanasians, their constancy under persecution, ii. 165.
Athanasius, his Life of Anthony the Monk, i. 524 ; distinguishes
himself when deacon at council of Nice, ii. 59; is recom-
mended by Alexander as his successor, and is ordained
bishop, 66; suffers persecution for forty-six years from the
Arians, ib.; refuses to restore Anus, ib.; his conduct exa-
mined before a council at Tyre, 68; maliciously charged
with various crimes, ib.; extraordinary proof of his innocence
of the murder of Arsenius, 69; his conduct further examined
at Alexandria, 70; obliged to fly, 71; deposed, ib.; sues
for a fair trial at Constantinople, ib.; accused of stopping
supplies of corn, ib.; banished to Treves, ib.; restored and
received with acclamations, 76 5 deposed, 78 ; obliged to
fly> 79 '• publishes an epistle to the Christian world, ib.;
gains his cause before council of Sardica, 82 ; invited to
return, and well received by Constartius, 83; returns to
Alexandria, 84 ; condemned by council of Milan, 86 ; ex-
posed to various hardships, 88 ; shows great intrepidity, ib.;
retreats to the deserts and takes refuge among the monks, 89;
his apology, 90; his remarkable letter to the monks, 92 ;
t'l'poses the Macedonian heresy, 93; spends seven years in
concealment, 132; returns to his see, ib.; bis Christian be; haviour there, ib.; holds a council, ib.; banished by Julian, ■ 135; fl'es into Egypt, 137; saves his life by stratagem, and reappears at Alexandria, 137, 151; restored by Jovian, ib.; graciously received at Antioch by that emperor, 152; attempts of the Arians against him frustrated, 153; expelled and obliged to secrete himself for four months in his lather's sepulchre, 1.57; recalled, ib.; expels governor of I.ydia for his vices, 160 ; his death, and character of his worksr 161; creed called after him not his, but contains his sentiments, 164; character of his life, ib. Athenagoras, his apology, i. 254. ■ \
Athens, pleasing account of the Church there, i. 176.
Attains, of Pergamus, distinguished in the persecution of Vienne,
i. 227 ; his serenity under it, 233 ; his martyrdom, 235. Atticus, Bp. of Constantinople, succeeds Arsacius, ii. 292 ; joins
. in persecuting Chrysostom, 294, 51S ; his character, ib. Attila, the Hun, ravages vaiious parts of the empire, ii. 493 ;
his respect for religion, ib. filbert, a monk, accompanies Anscarius on a dangerous mission,
iii. 236; his labours, 237. Audas, a zealot, burns a Persian temple, and thereby causes a
persecution of the Christians, ii. 520. Augendus,*. schismatic in church of Carthage, i. 366. Augsburg, Diet of, v. 428 & seq.; a second diet of, 559 & seq.;
confession of, 561. Augustine, St. the great instrument of reviving evangelical truth,
ii. 299 ; his first book of confessions, ib.; his birth and parentage, ib. note; second book, 307; third book, 312; fouith book, 316; fifth book, 320; sixth book, 329; seventh book, 338; eighth book, 346; ninth book, 354; made presbyter of Hippo, 367 ; licensed to preach in presence of the bishop, ib.; vanquishes Fortunatus, the Manichx, in a controversy, ib.; joined with Valerius in the bishopric, 368; institutes a monastery, ib.; success of his writings, ib.; opposes Pelagianism, 374, 380; his caution in controversy,
< 374. 4^5; writes against Coelestius, 375; his letter to Pelagius, ib.; persuades Demetrias to consecrate her virginity, 376; liable to charge of superstition, ib.; see also, 361, note, & 469; his refutation of Pelagius's letter to Demetrias, 376, 400; recovers two young men from Pelagianism, 376; his anonymous answer to a book of Pelagius, 377 ; his tenderness to Pelagius, 378 ; undeceives John of Jerusalem, respecting Pelagianism, 379; his history of Pelagianism, ib.; undeceives Innocent respecting the Pelagian imposition on the council of Diospolis, 380 ; hi3 treatise on
. 'original sin and grace, 384; defends the doctrines of the church respecting marriage, ib,; his treatise on rebuke and grace, 387, 412 ; converts Leporius from Pelagian notions, 387; his books on predestination and perseverance, 388; his • - letter to innocent respecting doctrine of grace, 406'; to Sixtus,
a presbyter, on same subject, 408 ; to Vitalts, and to Anas-
tasius on the same, 409; his treatise on infant baptism, ib.;
his three books to Marrellinus, 410 ; inaccurate in his Boum
of justification, 411; his other works, ib.; 430 & seq.; bit
notions of perseverance not scriptural, 411; his city of God,
413; nearly eradicated Pelagians and Manichees, 434;
often way-laid by the Circumcelliones, 425; providentially
escapes ou one occasion, ib.; his methods with the D<mi-
tists, 426 ; objects to compulsory methods, ib.; changes bis
opinion, 427 ; his eloquence, 440, note; his controversy witi
Jerom, 444 & seq.; his correspondence with the Madauriass,
447; converts a Manichee in an extraordinary manner,455;
disputes publicly with Felix, 456; opposes Ariaoism, ib.;
his patience and meekness, ib.; his discharge of the judicial
office, ib.; his regular attendance at councils, 457 ; his or-
dinations, ib.; his private and domestic habits, ib.; bis
charity, 458, 468, note; checks the practice of leaving
possessions to the church, ib.; his devotion to divine things,
ib.; his abstinence from female society, ib.; his retracta-
tions, 459; his conduct towards Anthony of Fussala, 459,
note ; his afflictions in later life, 459 ; endeavours to make
religious impressions on Boniface, 460 ; his death, 461; bis
notions of repentance, ib.; his theology, ib.; his celebrity as
a writer, 462 ; comparison between him and Jerom, 476;
meditations of, chiefly from writings of Anselm, iii. 308;
his writings characterised by meekness, iv. 336; apt to tor-
ture Scripture in controversy, v. 385.
Augustine, a monk, his mission to Britain, iii. 72; made archbishop
of the English nation,78; alleges his possession of miraculous
powers, 80; invites the Welsh bishops to a conference, 81;
convinces them by a miracle, ib.; his second conference with
them, 82 ; his death, ib.
Aurelian, the Emperor, succeeds Claudius, i. 489; conquer;
Zenobia, 496; turns persecutor, ib.; his death, 497.
Aureliut, a Christian youth, suffers persecution twice, i. 364;
ordained a reader by Cyprian, ih.
Auxentius, an Arian bishop of Milan, imposes upon VaJentiniaD,
- ,. ii. 169; his duplicity, 170; his death, 173.
— a Scythian, challenges Ambrose to a disputation, ii. 196.
V 1 . ■ . . . •
- • B.
Backer, Johnde, a reformer, his martyrdom, v. 381, 587.
Bacon, Roger, a Franciscan friar, his suprising learning, iv. 3;
imprisoned and treated as a magician, ib.; his piety ques-
tionable, ib.; his description of the ignorance of his times, ib.
Badby, John, a low workman, and a Lollard, his martyrdom,
iv. 1&8. . . ,
Bagdad, founded by AUnansor, iii. 165; becomes the residence
; of the Saracen ruonarchs, ib. .' !
Balthazar, Bp. of Promnitz, a reformer, his character, v. 380.
Baptism, how far accompanied by divine grace, i. 330, 331; whether immersion necessary, 444; superstition respecting its efficacy, ii. 75, 276; ought to be preceded by catechizing, .. 432 ; Roman mode of, iii. 84.
Infant, defended, i. 429, 430; ii. 374; abolition thereof attributed to Pelagianism, 404; remark of African Council on same point, 406 ; Augustine's treatise thereon, 409; sullied with superstition in dark ages, iii. 288.
— Re", controversy respecting, i. 443, 483 ; ii. 64. ZJarbatus, Bp. of Benevento, his labours, iii. 113; destroys idolatry in that state, ib.
Barbs, what, iii. 451.
Harcochebus, his imposition on the Jews, i. 179.
Burdasunes, of Mesopotamia, renowned for learning and eloquence, i. 252; seduced by Valentinian heresy, ib.; but recovers, ib.; his remarkable testimony to the purity of Christians, 253.
Barnabas, of Cyprus, distinguished for his liberality, i. 12; brings Paul to the Apostles, 21 ; accompanies Paul in his ministry, see Paul; led away by Peter's dissimulation, 30; sent to Antioch, 48; brings Paul thither, 49; sails with Mark to Cyprus, 56 ; Epistle ascribed to him spurious, 102.
Bartholomew, Governor of the Waldensian churches, iii. 445; story of his being declared Pope confuted, 495.
Basil, a priest, hig zeal against idolatry, ii. 129; charged with sedition, and tortured, ib.; his constancy and martyrdom,ib.
— the Great, why so called, ii. 265 ; his strict education, ib.;
forms an intimacy with Gregory Nazianzen, ib.; studies under Libanius, 266; his learning and talents, ib.; contracts an ascetic turn.ib.; refuses an invitation to court from Julian, ib.; lives in retirement at Neocassaria, and draws over many to the same life, 267; forms rules of monastic discipline, founds monasteries and hospitals, ib.; his success in pleading for the poor, ib.; resists the importunities of Valens, ib.; made Bishop of Cassarea, 268 ; his danger from the Arians, and constancy, ib.; his attention to discipline,ib.; his trials, patience, and death, ib ; his doctrine clouded, 269; bis scriptural notion of faith, ib.; his love of heavenly things, ib.
Basilides, a soldier, affected by the constancy of Pontamixna, i. 299; his conversion, 300 ; and martyrdom, ib.
— a Spanish Bishop, degraded, i. 438.
Baijle, Peter, his Dictionary, iv. 340; his principles and talents,
ib.; his remarks on Luther, 341. Beast, dominion of the, iii. 170, 250.
Beausobre, his misrepresentations, v. 198, note; 201, note;
312, note; 233, 238, 254, 255, 278, 486, 5*8, 599.571Bede, his history, iii. 96, 133 ; his devotion to the See of Rome,
J06 ; his birth and education, 133 ; lives amonaslic life, ib.;
the most learned man of his time, ib. & 190; ordained"
deacon and presbyter, 133; his celebrity, 134 ; his charade
and writings, ib. & seq.; his last sickness, lb.; compare!
with John of Damascus, 191.
Bedford, Duke of, brother to Henry V. his character, iv. 196,
persecutes the Lollards, ib.
Beghards, iv. 64.
Beguines, iv. 64.
BdUariiis, the General of Justinian, recovers Africa, iii. 22; hi
fame, ib.; takes Rome from the Goths, ib.; his irreligici
. ' and infamous venality, ib.
Benedict, his monastic rules, iii. 21 ; his zeal against idolatry.i,
— IX. Pope, deposed for simony and wickedness, iii. 285, note.
— XIII. Pope, pressed by council of Constance to resign, iv. 2*3;
deposed, 226; his character, ib. & 2gi.
Benefices, origin of, iii. 10.
Berengarius, of Tours, writes against transubstantiation, iii. 180;
compelled to burn his writings, ib.; his frequent recanta-
tions, ib.; question as to his final sentiments, 2go : bis cba- I
Berington, Mr. strictures on his work, iii. 425, 484.
Berkeley, Thomas Lord, his piety remarkable, iv. 166.
Bernard, an English missionary, attempts to evangelize Nonraj,
; Mb 259-
— St. his great celebrity, iii. 330, 372, 378 ; his devotion to the
, See of Rome, 330; his superstition, 331 ; laments his aus-
terities in after life, ib.; account of his miracles fabulous, ib.;
his zeal for crusades, 332 ; his descent, 334; his early devfc
tion and proficiency, ib.; becomes a Cistertian, ib.; made
abbot of Clairval, 335 ; his growth in the divine life, ib.;
1 moderates his austerity respecting noviciates, ib.; injures
his health by austerities, ib.; his conduct to his sister on brr
visit to his monastery, 336; begins to preach, ib.; his
eloquence, ib. 339; his influence, 336,337; refuses various
bishoprics, 336; his humility, 337 ; writes on the Camicles,
ib.; his five books to Pope Eugenius, 338, 401 ; visits the
nunnery of the Paraclete, 351; his controversy with Abelard,
ib. & seq.; his letter to the Pope on that subject, 360 ; sue-
1 cess of his opposition, 369; erroneously treats some good
men as heretics, 372; his controversy with. Gillebert, ib;
• opposes Arnold of Brescia, 374; successfully opposes Henry 1
heretic, 375; his unjust invectives against the Cathari, 38s;
review of his writings, 390 & seq.; his character and death,
•; 413 & seq.; considered the last of the fathers, 416, notei
inveighs against the Popes, 422 ; apt to torture the Scrip-
tures in controversy, v, 385.
— a French abbot, his zealous sermon to council of Constance,
— Bartholomew, the first reformed clergyman that niarried.v. 248;
summoned by bis archbishop, ib.; defended by Melancthon,ib.
— a Carmelite and a reformer, suffers martyrdon, y. 3&I.,..,
Bernardin, called the Burning Coal, his zeal, iv. 292. •* "
'JJerlha, a Saxon queen, Supports a mission to Britain, iii. 73; her character, 74. . . .
JSeryllus, Bp.ofBostra,hisheresy,i.32i; reclaimed by Origen, 32 2.
Beser, a Syrian, excites opposition to image worship, iii. 154.
Biblias, her lapse, recovery and martyrdom, i. 229.
Bishops, their order pointed out by Ignatius, i. 160; nature of their office in primitive times, 161 ; their election anciently by_the people, 514; their authority with respect to doctrine, ib.; their.exclusive powers of ordination, ib.; their power with respect to inferior appointments, ib.; their election sometimes episcopal, 515 ; their authority, how limited, ib.; ; •' not merely congregational pastors, 516 ; called angels, ib.; why chosen by people, 517; not deposable by people, ib.; ancient, how similar to presbyterian hierarchy, 518 ; ancient usage in choosing them altered, ii. 78; canons forbidding their translations <tud their journies to court, 82 ; their time of residence fixed, ib.; their election transferred to metropolitans, 158; Justinian's laws relating to them, iii. 18; decree of council of Clermont respecting them, 21 ; obliged to decide causes, 39 ; their residence, 195. -— of Rome, their magnificence in fourth century, ii. 171 ; their superiority in fifth century, 536 ; see Pope. '
— universal title of, when assumed by See of Constantinople,
iii. 53, 63; offered to See of Rome, ib; taken from Constantinople and given to Rome, 69, note; re-assumed by Constantinople and retained by both, ib. 129.
Blanche, Queen, mother of Lewis IX. her pious education of her son, iv. 26; reduces the Albigenses, ib.
Blandina, distinguished in persecution at Vienne, i. 227; her extraordinary fortitude, ib. 232,235; her martyrdom, 236.
Bogoris, King of Bulgaria, his conversion, iii. 227 ; resigns his crown and enters a monastery, 229. • . . 't
Rologudes, a Hungarian chief, baptized, iii. 252 ; his apostacy, ib.
Boleslaus, King or Duke of Poland, attempts to force Christianity upon different nations, iii. 294, 427.
Bologna, celebrated as a law seminary, iii. 419.
Bonaventura, a Franciscan doctor, bis corrupt views of justifica
t -; tion, iv. 38 ; Luther's opinion of him, v. 15.
Boniface, Count, his character, ii. 4G0 ; defends Hippo against the Vandals, ib.? intimate with St. Augustine, ib.; slain in a duel, ib.
T— Archbishop' of Mentz, see "Winfred.
— a missionary, preaches in Hungary, iii. 291; in Prussia, 294; " murdered, ib.
1— VIII. Pope, imprisons Celestine, iv. 35 ; his character, ib. 66;
dies in prison,,36, 66 ; his absurd decretal, 36. Bare, Catherine, the wife of Luther, her character, v. 249, 483. Borelli, Francis, a monkish inquisitor, persecutes the VValdenses,
iii. 496. ... , ,
Botrus, a schismatic at Carthage, ii. 47.
Bradamus, Michael, chosen their minister by the Hussites, as
forms plan of the Hussite Church, iv. 281. '
Bradwardine, Thomas, his education,iv. 77 ; his recluse tarn, 7ft
made confessor to Edward the Third, ib.; elected A rchbisfco;
of Canterbury, but detained by the King, ib.; again ekcos
and advanced, ib.; his modesty and innocence, ib.; ridicule!
at his consecration, ib.; his death, 79 ; his treatise agazs
the Pelagians, ib. & seq.; his success in preaching to the
army and moderating the King's temper, 86.
Braga, Council of, ii. 489, note.
Brandt, a Protestant historian, commended, v. 507.
Brentius, John, renowned among the reformers, iv. 351,415;
affected by the preaching of Luther, 351 ; writes in the u-
cramentary contest, v. 402, 412 ; 419, note.
Breslaw, treaty of, v. 493. ' •
Brethren of the Free Spirit, iv. 64;
— United, iv. 281.
Brettannio, a Scythian bishop, his bold refusal to eommuHicitf
with Valens, ii. 159 ; banished and recalled, ib.
Bridget, St. canonized, iv. 224.
Brisman, John, a reformer, his discourse on justification aaa*
works, v. 155; banished, 156; spreads the reformed doc-
trines in Prussia, ib. 178.
Brissonet, William, Bishop of Meaux, countenances the reformer?,
v. 153 ; compelled to withdraw his protection, ib.
Britain, probability of its receiving Christianity in third century,
i. 511; its religious state in fourth century, ii. 106 ; Pela-
gianism suppressed there, 484.
Brittany, origin of, iii. 26.
Brown, John, a Lollard, his persecution, fortitude, and martyr-
dom, iv. 199.
Brunehout, a Queen of infamous character, supports a mission to
Britain, iii. 73.
Bruno, brother to Otho the First, made Archbishop of Cologne,
iii. 272 ; invested with a dukedom, ib.; his character, ib.
— founder of the Carthusians, iii. 326, note; prosecutes Manasses
Archbishop of Cologne for simony, ib.; refuses the archbi-
shopric, 327, note ; his learning and character, ib.; aocepts
the archbishopric, 392.
Bruys, Peter de, a heretic, burned, iii. 375; his heresy question-
Bueir, Martin, renowned among the reformers, iv. 351; v. 96,
186; affected by preaching of Luther, iv. 351; sent to dissuade
Luther from appearing at Worms, 545; his opinion of
Luther's writings, 625 ; sketch of his 'character and history,
627 ; greatly distinguished by Cranmer, 628 ; his conduct
in the sacramentary contest, v. 235, 415, 416; 532, note!
instance of his party spirit, 236 ; attends the conferences *t
Bugenhaghis, a reformer, suffers persecution, v. 95; his sentiments respecting resistance, 196, 557; invited to Dantzic, 378; writes in the sacramentary contest, 398 ; his account of Luther's temptations, 480; sketch of his conversion and history, 5G8.
Bnrchard, Bp. of Wurtzburg, iii. 178 ; his successful labours, ibJ-;
resigns his bishoprick, ib. Rutins, a heretic, tortured under Julian persecution, ii. 129; his
constancy, ib.; returns to the church, ib. Butler, a stricture upon his work, iv. 39, ,
Cjecilian, a deacon, chosen Bishop of Carthage, ii. 47 ; his election
gives rise to the Donatist schism, 48. Ccesar, Leonard, a reformer, forced to recant, v. 468; repents,ib.;
his affecting martyrdom, 469, 470. Ccesarea, its situation and importance, i. 44. Ccesarius, brother to Gregory Nazianzen, practises physic at the
court of Julian, ii. 127; retires upon the remonstrance of his
brother, ib.; recalled to court by Jovian, 160 ; disengages
himself from the world, and dies, ib.
— Bp. of Aries presides at Council of Agde, iii. 10 ; his zeal to
rectify abuses in the church service, 11 ; spends part of his youth in monastery of Lerius, 12 ; hides among tombs to avoid a bishopric, ib.; made Bishop of Aries, ib.-; his advices to the laity, and preaching, ib.; ejected through calumny, but restored, ib.; his death, ib.; presides at council of Orange, 18 ; instrumental in checking Semi-pelagianism, 20; attends council of Vaison, 21. Cfijetan, Cardinal, see Boniface VIII.
— Cardinal, appointed to take cognizance of the complaint
against Luther, iv. 361 ; his angry letter to the Elector Frederic, 367 ; his character, ib ; his treatment of Luther, 369 ; blamed at Rome for his conduct in this affair, 376 ; complains to Frederic of Luther's escape, ib.; Luther's ani1» madversions on him, 448. Calama, an African colony, remarkable commotion there, ii.453. Caldonius, an African bishop, his correspondence with Cyprian, .L.354
Calixtines, persecute the Hussites, iv. 279, 286.
Cahinistic denomination, what, v. 154.
Cambridge, University of, its celebrity, iii. 420 ; oppressed by the
Danes, ib.; revives, ib. Camerarius, a reformer, his character, v. 345 ; cautions Melanct
thon against Erasmus, ib. Carnpeggio, Cardinal, attends a diet at Nuremberg as Pope's
nuncio, v. 160; his character, ib.; insulted at Ausburg, i6j;
slighted at Nuremberg, 162 ; his artful letter to Frederic, the
Wise, 163 ; his conduct at the diet, 16.5 & ieq.; manifests corrupt principles respecting celibacy, 183 ; courts Erasmus, 261 ; sent as plenipotentiary to Ausburg, 560. Canirtniut, Frederic, a reformer, remarkable extract from him,
Canute, King of Denmark, elected, 111. 295 ; propagates the
Gospel, ib.; murdered on account of his zeal for the clergy, ifc. — King of England, overcomes Olaus of Norway, iii. 296. Capet, Hugh, begins a third dynasty in France, iii. 252. Capitaneit, Albert de, tortures the Waldenses, iii. 451 ; sent
against them by the Pope, 499. Capita, a reformer, his high repuiation, v. 186; called to assist
the reformation in Alsace, 377 ; administers the sacrament
after the reformed manner, ib. Caracalla, succeeds to the empire, i. 310; gives peace to the
church, ib.; his character, ib.; his lenity accounted for, ib.;
his death, 315.
Caracciolus, a nuncio of the Pope, remonstrates with the Elector
of Saxony respecting Luther, iv. 483. Carotin books, what, iii. 168.
Carolstadt, Archdeacon of Wittemberg, defends Lutberanism, iv. 400; his disputation with Eckius, ib.; his character, v. 25,
< 33. 40. *31 » 236. note 5 398 5 hi* violent proceedings, 33, 39, 192 & seq. 197 ; retires to Basil, 69 ; his death, ib.; Luther's account of him, ib.; his conduct in the sacramentary contest, 191 and seq.; 397 ; banished, i94; seeks a reconciliation with Luther, 196; his sufferings, 197 ; recalled, 199 ; recants his opinions on the sacrament, ib.; connected with the fanatics, 225; his misconduct instanced, '227; profits by adversity, 136.
Carpenter, George, a reformer, his martyrdom, v. 468.
Carpwald, King of the East Angles, embraces Christianity, iii. 104.
Carthusiant, their severity of life, iii. 326, note.
Caselius, a reformer, sent to conciliate in the sacramentary contest, v. 403.
Cauian, John, a Scythian monk, the great pillar of Semi-pelagianism, ii. 388, 487; his authority, 488 ; his confused opinions, 533 ; his learning and morals respectable, 534.
Cathari, interesting account of, iii. 378 4 seq.; 437.
Catherine, of Mecklenburg, her Christian character, v. 24.
Cave, his history commended, ii. 155, note.
Calais, a pastor, persecutes Huss, iv. 220, 237, 247.
Cedulph, King of Northumberland, retires to a monastery, iii. 140, note.
Celerinut, a confessor, intercedes for his lapsed sisters, i. 355 J made reader by Cyprian, 364; his sufferings, ib.
Ceksius, a schismatic at Carthage, ii. 47.
Celestine, V. Pope, his ascetic life, iv. 33, founds a monastery, ib.; chosen Pope, ib,; his purity in accepting office, 34; his unsuccessful attempts at reform, ib.; abdicates, ib.; makes
a constitution allowing the Pope to abdicate, ib.; imprisoned,
35; his patience and death, ib.
Celibacy, recommended by St. Paul, i. 76; voluntary traces of it
in third century, 425. See clergy.
Ciliary, Martin, a German fanatic, v. 44; his violence towards
Ce Tlins, Matthias, his bold defence of Luther, iv. 579.
Celsus, his imputations upon Christians, i. 528.
Centuriators, character of their work, iii. 243.
Ceulfrid, governor of two English monasteries, iii. 143; brings
over the Picts to the Romish communion, ib.
Ceremonies, accumulation of its effects, iii. 197.
Cerinthus, his heresy, i. 135.
Chapters, the Three, what, iii. 24; condemned by a council, ib.
Charlemagne, favours the Pope, iii. 165 ; expels Desiderius from
his dominions, ib.; assumes the title of King of France and
Lombardy, ib.; patronizes learning though illiterate, 167 ;
his conduct in the controversy on images, 167, 191; his
death and character, 201; revived Western Empire, ib.;
fixed the power of the popedom, ib.; his labours to revive
Charles Martel, defeats the Saracens, iii. 145 ; receives flattering
proposals from the Pope, ib.; his death, ib ; protects Boni-
— the Simple, King of France, forced to make humiliating con-
cessions by Rollo, iii. 261.
— V. Emperor, refuses to violate his safe conduct to Luther, iv.
251, note ; Luther's letter to him, 437 ; state of his court,
476; refuses compliance with the Pope's demands respecting
Luther, 484; his obligations to the Elector of Saxony, ib.
503 ; allows the burning of Luther's writings, 484; his
character, 503, 570; v. 553 ; rivalry between him and
Francis 1. of France, iv. 504; his politics, ib.; his conduct
at the diet of Worms, 526, 532, 536, 538, 545, 555, 5,56,
560, 564, 567 ; grants Luther a safe conduct,540 ; his pri-
vity in tbe stratagem for the protection of Luther, 564; his
fame, v. 131 ; persecutes the reformers in Flanders, ib.;
seconds the complaints of Campeggio agaiust the German
Princes, 166 ; offends the German Princes, 168 ; his intem-
perate letter to Frederic of Saxony, 169; his letter to
Erasmus, 346 ; calls a diet at Augsburg, 428 ; his hostility
to the Lutherans, 429, 436,437 ; his religion, 462,547; his
rupture with the Pope, ib. & seq.; bis letters to the Pope
and Cardinals, 548, 549 ; concludes a peace with the Pope,
552 ; his treatment of tbe Protestant ambassadors, 555;
his answer to their appeal,,556; summons a diet at Augsburg,
558 ; crowned by the Pope, ib.; moderates the Pope's mea-
sures against the Reformers, 559.
— Duke of Savoy, favours the Reformation, v. 156; Luther's
letter to him, 157.
Vol. V. S s
Chateauneuf, Peter de, a monk, preaches against the Waldewes
iii. 486 ; murdered, ib.
Cheregate, Fravcis, legate to the diet of Nuremburg, v. 101;
his offensive reply to the German Princes, 109; quits tk
diet abruptly, 111.
Chicheley, Henry, Abp. of Canterbury, his character, iv. 191
195; engages the Kingin an unjust war, ib. ; persecutes ib?
Chievres, the favourite of Charles V. his policy with Leo the
Tenth, iv. 571.
Childeric III. King of France, deposed, iii. 161.
Children, exposure of, means taken to suppress that practice bj
a council, ii. 492 ; instance of constancy to the faith amoK
China, Christianity extirpated there, iv. 65.
Chlvw, John de, a Bohemian lord, appointed to the care «'
John Huss, iv. 211; befriends him at the council of
Constance, 216, 220, 221, 239, 240; his manly advices
Chosroes, King of Persia, his impious boast, iii. 17, note; hi
conquests, 119; requires the Emperor Heraclius to blas-
pheme Christ, ib.; vanquished, 120 ; murdered, ib.
Christian fortitude distinguished from philosophical pride acd
Indian sullenness, i. 474.
Christianity, extension of, in third century, i. 510; its benefits
to the world, ii. 45; propagation of among the Abyssinian;.
103; among the Iberians, 104; among the Sabceans, 105;
along the Rhine and in remote parts of France, 106 ; amon|
theGoths.i. 511 ; ii. 106, 240,406; in Armenia and Persia,
106; establishment of by Theodosius, 209; progress of
among the Saracens, 239 ; its influence in society, 283,301!
note ; 483, 492,517 ; its corruption greater in cities than in
the country, 293; propagated in Ireland, 487 ; received ia
France, 515; received by the Lazi, iii. 14; its extension
among the Moors, 22 ; in England, 73 ; in Germany and
its neighbourhood, ill, 172 ; in Bulgaria, 227; among the
Sclavonians, 228; in Moravia, 229; in Russia, 230,263;
in Dalmatia, ib.; in Scandinavia, 234; in Sweden, 237.
256, 294; in Denmark, 239, 256, 293, 296 ; in Branden-
burg, 243 ; in Holland, ib.; in Hungary, 253, 291 ; in Po-
land, 254, 262; in Prussia, 255, & iv. 14, 65, 234; ia
Norway, iii. 258 ; its independence with regard to success
of any form of government, 259; progress of in Orknoy
Islands, Iceland,and Greenland, 260; among the Rugi, ib.;
its power over the heart exemplified, 293,296, 313; its
progress in Pomerania, 427 ; in Rugen, 428 ; in Finland,
429 ; among the Sclavonians, 430; in Livonia, 431; in
Samogitia, iv. 278.
Christians have all things common, i. 11 ; disciples so called first
at Antioch, 49; at first a term of reproach, ib.; their
character from Tacitus, 98 ; tommanded to retire previous
to destruction of Jerusalem. 100 ; how slandered, 101, 181 ; remarkable testimony of their increase in third century, 282 ; further proof thereof, 322; their unity in third century, 362 ; remarkable proofs of the practical superiority of their religion, 420,520; ii. 37; their increase under Dioclesian, i.497; accustomed to serve in the army, 500; their decay in godliness, 501; their independence of secular support, 521; not without means of resistance, 522; but resistance contrary to their principles, 523; testimonies to them by Pagan authors, 525.
ChristianTM, Bp. of Mentz, accused of incapacity for declining military and secular employment, iv. 40; resigns, 41.
Christiern, II. King of Sweden, exiled, v. 128 ; his misfortunes, ib. 130; his character, 129, & seq.; visits Frederic of Saxony, 130 ; impressed by Luther's preaching, ib.
— III. King of Denmark, promotes the Reformation, v. 130; intreats Luther to conciliate Henry the Eighth, 356.
Chrysostom, John, Bp. of Constantinople, his birth and education, ii. 279; his turn for eloquence, ib.; pleads at the forum, 280; drawn to study Scripture, ib.; practises and defends pious frauds,ib.; lives in monastic austerities, 281; made presbyter, ib.; preaches successfully upon a sedition at Antioch, 281; made bishop of Constantinople, 283; reforms his diocese, ib.; retrenches luxury, ib.; builds an hospital, ib.; his success in preaching, 284; opposed by the clergy and the great, ib.; reclaims many of the Goths from Arianism, ib.; his other labours, 285; finds it impossible to restore discipline, in regard to the Lord's supper, ib.; his expressions respecting repentance vindicated, 286; chargeable with anger, 287 ; unjustly condemned by a synod, ib.; his address to the bishops previous to the attempt to ruin him, ib.; deposed for contumacy, 289; conveyed to a port in the Black Sea, ib.; restored, 290; imprudently declaims against Eudoxia, ib.; suspended and confined, ib.; retires, 291; banished to Cucusus, ib.; his Christian labours in exile, ib.; suffers severe trials, 292; ordered to Pityus, ib.; dies on the road, 293; esteem shewn to his memory, ib.; his character, 294, 295 ; his writings, 295. Church, Christian, first at Jerusalem, i. 3, 9; increase thereof, 11; declension of piety therein under long peace, 322 ; its general appearance under Constantine, ii. 44.
— Eastern, more philosophic than Western, ii. 466; their
separation, iii. 226.
— Yards, their origin, iii. 156, note.
Cirila, an Arian bishop, his injurious treatment of the orthodox, ii.502.
Cktertians, their strictness, iii. 334.
Clara, a widow, suffers martyrdom for denying tiansubstantiation, v. 467.
Clark, Dr. his notion of the Trinity, ii. 6ii
Clark, John,a mechanic, and reformer,suffers dreadful persecntk:
and martyrdom, v. 153.
Claudius, Bp. of Turin, first of the reformers, iii. 21s ; in ear.';
life chaplain to Lewis the Meek, 213; his orthodox am-
nions, ib.; his labours in support of godliness, 214: oppose
image worship, 215; his apology, ib.; his opinion of pe-
grimages, 216, 219 ; influence of his opinions, 218.
Clemens, Alexandriniis, an eclectic philosopher, i. 289; succeed
Pantoenus in the catechetical school, 290; made presbyter,
ib.; his theological views, 291; his exhortations to lit
Gentiles, ib.; his Pedagogue, 292 ; Slromata, 293.
Clement, of Rome, his epistle, i. 122.
— VI. Pope, excommunicates the Emperor, iv. 73.
— VII. Pope, his uncanonical election, v. 160; his two letters u>
Frederic of Saxony, 162 ; his insincerity and corrupt maxima
165, 169; solicits Erasmus to oppose Luther, 260 ; insists
in all his treaties on the extirpation of the Lutherans, 434,
his treaty with the Emperor and King of England, ib.; hs
treaty with England and France, 435 ; his letter to the Par-
liament of Paris against the Lutherans. 436; his rupture
with the Emperor, 547, & seq.; absolves Francis I. from b»
oath, ib.; concludes peace with the Emperor, 552 ; presse
him to crush ihe reformers, 559; his precautions previous
to the diet of Augsburg, 560.
Cltrgij, decisions of Nicene council respecting their marriage
and translation, ii. 63 ; prohibited at Antioch from keeping
matrons in their houses, 283; Jerom's remark as to their
acceptance of invitations, 473 ; how anciently provided lor.
iii. 10; those in the country obliged to receive into thai
houses, persons intended for the ministry, 2 1 ; celibacy oi
opposed in tenth century, 246; contribute to revival of
learning, 283; their marriage forbidden by a council,
Climmachus, John, flourished, iii. 29.
Cltidomir, King of the Franks, defeats Sigismund, iii. 13 ; slain, ib.
Clotaire, King of the Franks, marries Radegunda, hi. «8.
Clotilda, wife of Clovis, her zeal for the doctrine of the Trinity,
ii. 514 ; endeavours to convert her husband, ib.; her exem-
plary piety, ib.
Clovis, King of the Franks, receives baptism, ii. 513 ; his cha-
racter, ib.; providential circumstances attending his con-
version, ib. & seq.; founds the French monarchy, ib.
Cluvtie, Cornelius, ridiculous story of his conversion to the doc-
trine of transubstantiation, iv. 589.
Cnophius, a reformer, persecuted, v. 95.
Cobham, Lord, hia partiality for the Lollards, iv. 169; becomes
obnoxious to the clergy, 170; his zeal for reform, ib.; his fa-
vour with the Kingand people, ib.; prosecuted asaheretic,ib.;
complained of to the King, 171; his open avowal to him, 172;
cited, and refuses obedience, 173; excommunicated, ib.; bis
confession of faith, ib.; his challenge, ih.; arrested, 147; his first and second examinations, ib. & seq ; his acuteness and intrepidity, 177; condemned, 183 ; escapes from the Tower, 185; falsely accused of treason, 188; taken in Wales, 191 ; cruelly put to death, ib.; his conduct before the lords, 193; his fortitude, 195.
Cochleus, a papal advocate, opposes Luther, iv. 558 ; translates Erasmus's Diatribe, v. 270; his prejudices, 545 ; his account of papal barbarity, ib.
Ctrlestine, Bp. of Rome, his nine articles, ii. 485; opposes doctrines of Cassian, 535 ; his testimony to Augustine, ib.; his character, ib.: his maxims respecting ordination, .536.
Ctclestius, an Irishman, accompanies Pelagius, ii. 370 ; his genius, 371; his character, 372; flies to Africa, ib.; summoned before a synod at Carthage, 373 ; condemned as a heretic, ib.; settles in Sicily, 375; deceives Zosimus, 380; condemned by Zosimus, 383; retires to Constantinople, ib.; again appears at Rome, and is expelled, 386; reduced to obscurity, 387.
Coiji, chief of the Northumbrian priests, his conversion, iii. 102 ; profanes the idol temples, 103.
Colomban, an Irish priest, labours successfully among the Picts, iii. 28 ; his disciples remarkable for holiness and abstemiousness, ib.
Colosse, church of, i. 81 ; Paul's epistle to it, 82.
Columban, an Irish monk, his successful labours, iii. 112; his
writings, 131. ... . . . -(
Commodus, the Emperor, his reign remarkable for peace granted
to the Christians, i. 241. Communion, Holy; see Eucharist. Sacramentary Coutest and
Transubstantiation, question relating to both kinds, iv. 235,
Commutation of offences, doctrine of, iv. 12.
Commenus, Alexius, burns a supposed Manicbee, iii. 421.
Condigmty, what, iv. 81, note.
Confessor, what, i. 357, note.
Congruiti/, what, iv. lit, 81, note.
Constans, son of Constantine the Great, rules in Italy and Africa, ii. 75 ; his attachment to the Nicene faith, 82 ; his deaih, 85.
— Emperor of the East, forbids the agitation of the monothelite controversy, iii. 124 ; his character, 125 ; persecutes Martin and Maximus, ib.; murders his brother, 128 ; murdered, ib.
Constantia, sister of Constantine, patronises the Arians, ii. 6a, 6(i.
Constantine, the Great, succeeds his father and gives toleration to the Christians, ii. 31 ; subverts the kingdom of Maxentius, and becomes sole master of the western world, 32 ; married to the daughter of Maximian, ib.; puts his father-in-law to death, ib.; his early predilection for Christianity, 40; his doubts and prayers, 41; receives (« miraculous token, ib.; consults the pastors, and professes Christianity, 42 ; his re
ligious character questionable, 43,75; builds churches, aid
gives various encouragements to Christians, ib.; his war
with Licinius, 44; forbids heathen sacrifices, ib.; bis ap-
parent zeal, 45; makes Christian orations, ib.; directs
observance of Lord's day and Friday, ib.; his disposition to
depreciate divinity of Christ, 46; his oppressiveness, 47; his
patience with the Donatists, 48; endeavours to heal th*
Arian divisions, 55; summons the Nicene council, 56;
appears in person, and exhorts the council to peace, 58;
burns the mutual accusations presented to him, ib.; acta at
moderator, ib.; his theological opinions, 61; his remarkable
reply to Acesius, 64; is imposed on by Arius, 66; orders
a synod to examine the conduct of Athanasius, 68 ; weakly
listens to reports against him, 71; sends for Arius, and
examines his real sentiments, 72 ; is deceived by him, and
orders his re-admission, 73 ; his baptism and death, 74; his
letter to Anthony the monk, 101 ; his measures for patro-
nizing Christianity, 111; abolishes crucifixion, ib.; forbids
divination, ib.; exposes the mysteries, and profanes the
statues of the Pagans, ib.
Constantine, II. son of the former, rules in Spain and Gaul, ii. 75;
restores Athanasius, 76 ; slain, ib.
— Pogoiritus, Emperor, presides at council of Constantinople,
— Bp. of Nacolia, his eminence as an opposer of image worship,
— VI. Emperor, his zeal against images, iii. 160, 162 ; forbids
prayers to saints, and discountenances monks, 164 ; calum-
nies against his character, ib.; his death, 165.
— VII. Emperor, succeeds his father in childhood, iii. 165;
dethroned, and barbarously treated by his mother, 169, note;
his death, ib.
— founder of the Paulician sect, history of his opinions, iii. 202;
assumes the name of Sylvanus, 203 ; his successful preaching,
205 ; stoned to death, 206.
Constantinople, city of, its learning and politeness, iii. 284.
Constantius, one of the Caesars, under Dioclesian, his probity and
humanity, ii. 2 ; reluctantly demolishes the churches, but
spares the persons of Christians, 5 ; obliged to persecute, 17;
his remarkable conduct in this respect in his own household,
18; succeeds to the western part of the empire, 19; his
death, 31 ; his sentiments respecting Christianity, 40.
— son of Constantine the Great, rules in the east, ii. 75 ; his
character, 76; becomes an Arian, ib.; encourages and
directs an Arian council, 78; his unjust proceedings, ib.;
invites Athanasius to return, 83; his reception of him, ib.;
revives the persecution of the Trinitarians, 85; assembles
a council at Milan, ib.; his violent proceedings there, 86;
his cosily offerings, 93 ; his death, 94 ; his attempt to depose
I-'rumentius, 104; sends ambassadors to the Sabean*, pro-
posing the erection of churches, 105; his zeal against idolatry, 112.
Constitutions, concerning persecution of Christians, ii. 16. Consubstantiation, doctrine of, v. 192; see also Sacramentary Contest.
Contest, sacramentary, v. 154, 191, & seq.; 226, 396, & seq. Copin, a Waldensian martyr, iii. 500.
Corinth, church of, i. 73; epistles thereto, 75 ; its character, ib.
Cornelius, a Centurion, his character and conversion, i. 45.
— elected Bp. of Rome during Decian persecution, i. 372 ; his character, ib.; opposed by Novatiau, ib.; his letter to Fabius, 373; his election confirmed in African synod, 375; complained of at Carthage by the Novatians, 377; restores Maximus and other separatists, 381; harshness of his language towards schismatics, 382; dies in exile, 401; account of his banishment, 413.; not eminent for genius, 415.
Council, first Christian, at Jerusalem, i. 25 ; several at Carthage, 375; »• 373. 379; 22; two African, i. 428; ii. 405; of Alexandria expels Arius, ii. 52 J a second council there condemns him, 55; others at Alexandria, 132; iii. 121; of Nice, ii. 56, 61, 62; second of Nice, iii. 167; of Tyre, ii. 68 ; Arian at Constantinople, ii. 78; of too bishops in Egypt protest against appointment of Eusebius to see of Constantinople, ib.; Arian at Antioch, ib.; of Rome, several, i.487; ii.81,509; of Antioch, concerning Paul of Samosata,
i. 488 ; a second council concerning the same, 489, 491 ; another at Antioch, ii. 160; of Valence, ii. 177 ; another of Valence, iii. 225; of Sardica, ii. 82; of Milan, ii. 85; of Rimini, ii. 93; of Silencia, ib.; of Laodicea, ii. 158; of Constantinople, several, ii. 183; iii. 23, 128; of Aquilera,
ii. 184; of Diospolis, ii. 377 ; of Milenum, ii. 380, 406 ; of Braga, ii. 489, note; two of Vaison, ii. 492; iii. 21 ; of Ephesus, ii. 526; of Chalcedon, ii. 526; of Agde, iii. 10; of Orange, iii. 18; two of Clermont, iii. 21, 417; two of Orleans, iii. 23, 287; of Mascon, iii. 95; two of Paris, iii. 119,211; two of the Lateran, iii. 124; iv.313; of Cloveshoo, iii. 141 ; one under Constantius the Sixth, iii. 162 ; of Frankfort, iii. 169; of Mentz, iii. 223 ; one held by Hincknian of Rheims, iii. 223 ; two other councils, ib.; of Troste,
iii. 246; two of Rheims, iii. 247, 373; of Sutris, iii. 285, note; of Placentia, iii. 285; of Arras, iii. 287; of Bari, iii. 310; of Soissons, iii. 349; three of London, iii. 422 ; iv. 70, i6y; of Florence, iii. 422; of Toulouse, iii. 495; of Lambeth,
iv. 71; of Constance, iv. 135,205; of Basil, iv. 280; of Pisa, iv. 312.
Councils, objections tn them canvassed, i. 494 ; their great authority, 517 ; their superiority to Popes, iv. 206.
Courtney, Bp. of London,cites Wicklifl'e, iv. 114; his character, ib.; made archbishop of Canterbury, 164; persecutes the Lol-
lards, ib.; opposes Wickliffe, 587, 591 ; his ability Ju
Courts, spiritual, remarks upon them, iii. 49.
Cranmer, Abp. his notions respecting the extent of dioccsa,
Creed, Nicene, ii. 60 ; of Athanasius, not genuine, 164.
Crete, evangelized, i. 84.
Crontberg, see Hartmurth.
Cromer, Alexius, a proselyte of the Reformers, made chaplain iff
Duke George of Saxony, v. 488 ; his conduct in his offict,
ib.; dismissed, 489; his misfortunes, ib.
Cross, miraculous, ii. 41; made a military ensign, 4a; remark-
able story of a battle, 44.
Crusades, evil effects of, iii. 285, 418; policy and justice of tbera
discussed, 232, & seq.; promoted by a special council, 417.
Culdees, iii. 199, note.
Cunigilisus, King of the West Saxons, receives baptism, iii. 10S.
Cyprian, chosen bishop of Carthage, i. 323 ; his previous history,
324; his great charity, 325; reluctant to become a bisbop,
ib.; his letter to Donatus, and therein his testimony to the
power of converting grace, 326, & seq.; his testimony to
continuance of miraculous gifts, 328; not remarkable for
learning, 330; refers the persecution under Decius tn a de-
cline of discipline, 335; congratulates the Roman clergy 00
the martyrdom of their bishop, 337 ; his letters to Aloyses
and Maximus, ib. 358; obliged to retire from. Carthage,
338; his exertions during his retreat, 339 ; his letter to his
clergy, from his retirement, 341 ; refuses to do any thing
without consent of clergy and people, 345; records some
visions, 347; displeased at re-admission of lapsed without
his consent, 349; vindicated from charge of stretching epis-
copal power, 350; his letter to the laity, ib.; his observations
to his clergy on the letter of Lucian, respecting re-admission
of lapsed, 353; his correspondence with Caldonius, ib.; his
correspondence with church of Rome respecting the lapsed,
357 ; his letter to the lapsed, 359; receives commendations
from Roman clergy, 360 ; ordains Amelius, and apologizes
for not consulting his clergy, 364; his patronage of those who
suffered persecution, 365 ; two other letters to his clergy, ib.;
severely tried by a schism in Carthage, 367; orders Feliris-
simus to be suspended in consequence, 368 ; his affectionate
letter to the people on the subject, ib.; returns to Carthage,
374; engaged at a council there, 375; his letter to Corne-
lius, 379; endeavours to heal breaches in church of Rome,
380; his delicate attention to order, ib.; his letter to the
Roman confessors, 383; his letter to Antonius concerning
Novatian schism, 385; hastens reception of penitents in tbe
prospect of persecution, 386; supports the episcopal dignity,
in a letter to Cornelius 387; character of this epistle, ib.;
his censures of Novatianism immoderate, 412; his letter to Cornelius in banishment, 413; his letter to people ofThebais, 416; bis letter to Demetrianus, a persecutor, 419; excites his people to charity during a pestilence, 420 ; his treatise on mortality, 421 ; writes to the Numidian church, 424; to Coecilins, relative to the use of water in the Eucharist, 427 ; presides at a council, 428 ; his opinion of players, 433 ; opposes restoration of a lapsed bishop, 436 ; asserts the authority of a bishop over his deacon, 437 ; his argument on the occasion censured, ib.; protests against the clergy taking secular offices, 438; accused of haughtiness, 440 ; his answer, 441 ; contends for re-baptism of heretics, 443 ; seized, and commanded to sacrifice, 446 ; his confession, ib.; banished to Curulin, 447; his letter to nine suffering bishops, 448 ; returns from exile, 450; sent for to Utica, 452 ; conceals himself, and why, ib.; returns to Carthage, 453 ; seized, ib.; testimonies of the respect in which he was held, ib.; confesses, and is beheaded, ib. 455; compared with Origen, ib.; his letter to Demetrian, 462; character of his writings, 468; success of his labours, 469 ; his writings pleasing to learned Pagans, ii. 16; why called Coprianus, ib.; apt to torturescripture in controversy, v. 385.
Cyprian, Bp. of Unizilia, his charity to those persecuted by Huneric, ii. 500 ; his sufferings for the faith, ib.
Cyriac, Martinis, a Hungarian, enters at Wittemberg, in order to hear Luther, v. 143.
Cyriacus, an African bishop, delivered by his people to the Saracens, iii. 286 ; his piety, ib.
Ci/ril, a child, his uncommon fortitude, i. 472.
— Bp. of Alexandria, opposes Nestorian heresy, ii. 526.
— a Thessalonian, his birth and education, iii. 226; reproves
Photius, 227; his character, ib.; becomes an active missionary, ib. & seq.; his disinterested refusal of presents, 229; inveuts an alphabet, ib.; dies a monk, ib.
Dumas, a youthful bishop of Magnesia, commended by Ignatius., i. 160.
Damasus, succeeds Liberias in see of Rome, ii. 170; his severity to the Luciferians, 162.
Dambrouca, wife of Micislaus, her zeal, iii. 263.
Danes invade England, iii. 199 ; their savage character, ib.; reformed by influence of Christianity, 2C,6 ; their zeal, 297.
Daniel, Bp. of Winchester, his advice respecting the best method of dealing with idolaters, iii. 176; his advice respecting communion and discipline, 177.
Deacons, institution of the order, i. 15.
Decius, Emperor, succeeds Philip, i. 323 ; persecutes the church beyond all his predecessors, 334 ; obliged by an incursion 01
the Goths to leave Rome, 375; slain in battle, 377; isa
character, ib. 411. Degrees in law and divinity, when instituted, iii. 419. Deitleben, agent at Rome for Frederic the Wise, his letter to lk
prince, iv. 460.
Demetrias, an illustrious Roman lady, flies into Africa foz the Goths, ii. 375; persuaded by Augustin to a vo« j virginity, 376.
Demetrius, Bp. of Alexandria, elected, i. 295 ; commits tbesdwi there to Origen, 297; envies his fame, 301 ; procures b ejection, 320 ; his death, ib.
Vemophilus, an Arian Bp. of Constantinople, expelled, ii. 18s.
Descartes, not the inventor of a famous argument attributed him, iii. 316.
Desiderius, Duke of Tuscany; his intrigues with the Pope for \k crown of Lombardy, iii. 164; expelled by Charlemagne, 165.
Diddensis, a presbyter of Cyprian's, communicates with the lapsi i, 359 ; his obstinacy, ib.
Didymus, of Alexandria, loses his sight at five years old, ii.250; attains great learning, and fills the chair at Alexandria, ib.; his character, ib.; his treatise on the Holy Spirit commended, ib. ,
Dicthmar, Abp. of Prague, his dying remorse for neglect of doty, iii. 253.
Dinoth, Abbot of Bangor, iii. 34.
Diocese, ancient name, »apoi)e»a, i. 515 ; their extent, ib.; antkffi ones, small, 516 ; evil of large ones, 517.
Dioclcsian succeeds to the empire, i. 497; his indulgence fa eighteen years to the Christians, ib.; becomes a persecutor, 499 ; objects to a general persecution, ii. 2 ; bis rage against the Christians, 4; compels his wife and daughters to sacrifice, ib.; Spanish inscriptions in testimony of his persecution, 6 ; remarkable motto 011 his medal, ib.; resigns the empire, 19 ; his death, 37.
Diodorus, an Ascetic, his zeal, ii. 83.
Dionysius, the Areopagite, converted, i. 73; becomes the first bishop of Athens, 249.
— Bp. of Corinth, his writings, i. 249,
— Bp. of Alexandria, sutlers persecution, i. 389; ordered by
a divine manifestation to remove, ib.; seized and led to Taposiris, ib.; his remarkable deliverance, ib.; his account ot the persecution of Alexandria, 390; opposes Novaliaa schism, 397 ; his letter to Novatian, ib.; brought before tlx prefect, 475; his confession, ib.; banished, 476; his account of the sufferings of himself and others, 477 ; his great celebrity, 482; his account of the Subellian heresy, ib.; his opinion respecting re-baptism, 483; and the Novatian schism, ib.; returns to Alexandria, 484; opposes Neposin his notion of the Millenium, 486 ; controverts Sabeliianism, 487; his expressions disproved by a council, ib.; tu>
apology, ib.; his letter to council of Antioch, respecting Paul
of Samosata, 489 ; his death, ib.
Dionysius, Bp. of Rome, holds a council on Sabellian heresy,
i. 487; his death, 496; his letter respecting doctrine of the
Bp. of Milan, banished by a council, ii. 87.
Discipline, proof of its strictness in primitive times, i. 249; its
decline in long peace, 335 ; how tempered in early church
of Rome, 341; its decline in church of Carthage, 357 ; dif-
ferent regard paid to it by first Christians and those of pre-
sent day, 361; remarkable proof of its strictness in purest
churches, 386; held too high in third century, 396 ; strict
and godly prevalent in that century, 429; its relaxation and
consequent evils, 498 ; revived by Nicene council, ii. 63 ;
nearly lost in our age, ib.; remarkable instance of it in the
case of Theodosius, 203 ; Basil's attention to it in the church
of Casarea, 268; neglect of, respecting administration of
Lord's Supper, 285; difficulty experienced by Chrysostom
of reforming it, ib.; strongly recommended by Augustine,
433; excess of, in decrees of a Roman council, 510; Coeles-
tine's decrees respecting it, 536; Leo's decrees, 540; canons
of council of Agde, iii. 10; laws of Justinian relating to
bishops, 18; decrees of council of Vaison, respecting the
education of ministers, 21 ; decree of council of Clermont,
respecting patronage, ib.; of council of Orleans, respecting
the same, 23; instance of, in a case of debauchery, 49;
instance of, in case of episcopal neglect, 58 ; rules of council
of Marcon, 95 ; declaration of Martin, bishop of Rome, 131;
attention to it by Ado, archbishop of Mentz, 199 ; defect of,
in tenth century, 272 ; dissolved by sale of indulgences, 418 ;
among the Waldenses, 460; attempts to revive it by council
of Constance, iv. 208, 209; a favourite point with the Hus-
sites, 281 ; instance of its abuse, v. 183.
— monastic, rules of, formed by Basil and Gregory, ii. 267.
Dissenters, first body of, i. 372; second body of, ii.48; third
body of, 50 ; penalties denounced against them, 185.
Divinations, forbidden by council of Agde, iii. 11 ; divination by
the Gospel condemned by Augustine, ii. 470. See also
Oracles and Magic.
Divinity, scholastic, its three periods, iv. 108, note.
Docetce, i. 135.
Doctrine, its connection with practice, i. 543 ; obscured in fourth
century, ii. 46.
Dominic, a monk, founder of the Dominicans, preaches against
the Waldenses, iii. 486 ; attends the disputation against the
Albigenses, 488 ; his activity in the inquisition, 494; his
death, ib.; his fictitious miracles and monstrous austerities,
. iv. 23; his pride and ignorance, 24; constituted the
— a friar, his martyrdom, iv. 290.
Dominicans, their character, iv. 3 ; why called Jacobins, 4, as
enlist men for the crusades, 11; their usurpation of je^
in the Sorbonne, 18; intrude into dioceses and parishes, i.
Domiiian, Emperor, persecutes the Christians, i. 100; is
Donation, an orthodox bishop, bastinadoed and banished, ii.502
Donatists, their schism, ii. 47, 425; character, 48 ; not calk?
Nicene council, 65 ; had no effusion of the Spirit, ib.; attea:
to unite them to the church, 101; their flagitiousnes3.1T:
distinction of their characters, 424; their activity in re-ia>-
tizing, 425; subjected to civil penalties, 426; forbkhia*
hold assemblies, iii. 22.
Donatus, heads a schism, ii. 47.
Donysia, a martyr, under the persecution of Huneric, ii. 504; if
extraordinary fortitude, ib.
Dounotias, a Jew, and a King in Arabia Felix, his cruelty:
Christians, iii. 14; conquered and slain, ib.
Draco, John, a Reformer, suffers persecution, v. 147; hiscb-
racter by Erasmus, ib. note; sketch of his history, 576.
Dungal, a recluse, writes against Claudius of Turin, iii. 216.
Du Pin, Monsieur, his criticisms on a work of Luther's, iv. 45?.
instance of his prejudice against Luther, 543, note.
Eadbald, King of Kent, his contempt for Christianity, iii. 98; b
reformation, 99 ; death, 108.
Easconbert, son and successor to Eadbald, totally destroys idolatry
in his dominions, iii. 108.
Easter, controversy respecting celebration of, i. 210, 259 ; settle;
by Nicene council, ii. 62.
Ebionitcs, their heresy, i. 135; improperly considered orthodox,^
Ecdicius, remarkable for his great charity, ii. 497.
Ecebolius, a sophist, his apostasy and repentance, ii. 126.
Echard, an inquisitor, persecutes the VValdenses, iii. 509 ; is cos-
vinced by and joins them, ib.; burned, ib.
Eckius, a celebrated Romanist, writes against the theses of Lute,
iv. 351; his talents and learning, 399 ; his former friendship
with the Reformer, ib.; motives of his enmity, ib.; con-
troversy between him and Luther, ib.; challenges CaroUtadt
to a disputation, 400; his superiority to him, 401; challengn
Luther, 402 ; conscious of defeat, 412; attacks JMelauctbce,
430 ; Luther's animadversions on him, 448 ; endeavours to
ruin Luther, 461,472 ; experiences violent opposition, 475;
his hypocrisy, 479; assists in the persecution of Leonard
Cassar, 469; employed to defend divisions among the Re-
— John, Emperor's speaker at diet of Worms, his violence against
Luther, iv. 553.
Eclectics, their principles of philosophy, i. 562.
■xolampadivs, a celebrated reformer, his letter to the Waldenses, iii. 506 ; his renown, iv. 350 ; v. 96 ; his conduct in the sacramentary contest, 235, 401; his intimacy with Erasmus, 318; his works recommended by Erasmus, 320, note; ■401 ; his character, 396, 402, 403 ; attends the conferences at Marpurg, 518, & seq.; his letter to two persecuted persons, 542.
ulgar Atheling, the last of the Saxon princes, retreats under the protection of Malcolm, iii. 306.
7Alicia, a married woman, vows perpetual continency, ii. 452 ; disposes of her property to monks, ib.; Augustine's remonstrance with her, 453.
Edxvard I. King of England, exposes a fraudulent miracle at his father's tomb, iii. 332 ; defeats the Earl of Leicester, iv 29 ; his character, 72.
— II. his weakness, iv. 72.
— III. his firm opposition to papal exactions, iv. 72.
Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, his conversion, iii. loo; bap-
tized, 103; slain in battle, 105.
English, their deplorable ignorance in ninth century, iii. 200.
Egbert, becomes King of Wessex, iii. 201 ; of all England, ib.
— Abbot of Schonauge, his account of the Cathari, iii. 384. E/eazar, Count of Arian, his piety, iv. 68 ; remarkable regulations of his house, ib.; his death, 69.
Election, doctrine of, ii. 238, 393.
Elesbaan, King of Abyssinin, conquers Dounouas, iii. 14; embraces a monastic life, ib.
Elfric, Abp. of Canterbury, his canon respecting church service, iii. 302.
Elizabeth, Queen of Denmark, her character and misfortunes, v. 128, 131.
— Wife of the Elector of Brandenburg, persecuted for her attach
ment to the Gospel, v. ,543 ; escapes into Saxony, ib.
E/uisa, seduced by Abelard, iii. 342 ; glories in the infamous connection, ib.; her ingratitude to her uncle, ib.; retires into a convent, 343; character of her correspondence with Abelard, 370.
Eli/mas, a sorcerer, struck blind by St. Paul, i. 50.
Emmerman, a Frenchman, abandons his possessions to preach the Gospel, iii. 115; his labours and success, ib.; murdered, ib.
Emperor, German, how chosen, iii. 250.
Empire, Western, revived by Charlemagne, iii. 201 ; separated from French monarchy and fixed in Germany, 250.
Emser, a doctor of Leipsic, depreciates Luther's version, v. 74 ; produces a counter-translation, 84 ; translates Erasmus's Diatribe, 270; translates the correspondence between Luther and Henry the Eighth, 363, note ; his unchristian conduct to Crostier, 4S9 ; his death, ib.; his attempt to entrap Luther, 570 ; his character, ib.
England, Church of, its rudiments, iii. 78, 79.
Ennodius, Bp. of Pavia, his writings, iii. 93.
Epaphras, his example deserving the imitation of all pastoral*'.
Epaphroditus, ministers to St. Paul, i. 65; his sickness and 3-
Ephesvs, church of, i. 84 ; its spirituality, 85; idolatry of the tin,
86 ; character of the church, 89.
Ephraim, his birth and education, ii. 251 ; his taste for solitu*.
252 ; persuaded to live in the city of Edessa, ib. ; compel
various pieces, ib.; feigns madness to evade a bishopric, &•
composes Christian hymns to combat heretical notions, i..
writes on utility of psalmody, ib.; his noble conduct dura; 1
famine, 253 ; extracts from his writings, 254, & seq.; to
superstition, 258 ; general superiority of his views, 259.
Epictetus, the stoic, his manner of noticing Christians, i. 526.
Epiphanius, Bp. of Cyprus, his character, ii. 277; reniarkahf
stories of his beneficence, ib.
— Bp. of Pavia, intercedes with Theodoric for the adherents a
Odoacer, ii. 510 ; sent by Theodoric on a mission, ib.; Is
success, 511; sketch of his life, ib.
Episcopacy, form of inferred from letter of church of Rome, 1.341;
ancient, free from secularity, 518. See also Government
Erasmus, bow serviceable to the Reformation, iv. 288, 343,
v. 258, 353 ; revives classical literature, iv. 327 ; v. 25S;
his character, iv. 343, 620 ; v. 100, 258, 351, 462 ; bis at-
count of Luther's character, proceedings, and doctrine, i».
344, 360, 464, 486, 488; his letter to the Elector Frederic,
387 ; his letter to Luther, 395 ; his remarkable interne*
with Frederic, 485 ; v. 353; his axioms, iv. 487 ; refuses J
bribe to write against Luther, 488; becomes an adversary to
the Reformers, 620; his religious sentiments, 633 ; condemns
persecution, v. 148; his opinions respecting the Eucharist,
239; his ill-natured remarks on Luther's marriage, 251 i
his controversy with Luther, 258, & seq.; his SpoDgia,s6;,
how far chargeable with scepticism, 315, & seq.; his inti-
macy with Ecolampadius, 318 ; bis judgment of that writer's
work, 320, note; 401 ; his levity, 331, 344, & seq.; his
correspondence with Melancthon, 322, & seq.; his artfal
letter to Clement the Seventh, 326; a similar letter toCnm-
peggio, 327 ; his powers, 328 ; his apologies, 336, <i se<).;
his inconsistency, 344, & seq.; also throughout the contro-
versy passim, censured by University of Paris, 347; hi?
defence, ib.; his propensity to Pelagianism, 354; his letter
to Henckell, 462; maligns the Reformers, 511; his cor-
respondence with Adrian,582, & seq.
Eric, King of Sweden, sends for missionaries to evangelize his
kingdom, iii. 257 ; murdered on account of his piety, ib.
— King of Denmark, imposes Christianity on people of Rugcn,
iii. 428; vanquishes the F'inlanders, 429; passionately
laments their falling unbaptized, 430; spreads Christianity
in the country, ib.; his character, ib.; murdered, ib.
Eric, a German prince, enters into a confederacy against the
Lutherans, v. 427.
Esch, John, a reformed monk, his martyrdom, v. 148, 577.
Establishments, religious, question of discussed, ii. 209.
Ethelbcrt, King of Kent, his character, iii. 74, 81; favourably
receives a mission from Gregory, ib.; converted, 77; his
Ethelburg, a Christian princess, her marriage with Edwin, King
of the Northumbrians, iii. 101.
Ethelred, King of England, orders a massacre of the Danes, iii.
300; flies into Normandy, ib.; returns, 303.
Ethiopia, Gospel planted there, i. 43.
Eucharist, superstitious notions respecting it in third century,
i- 396; frequency of its administration in primitive churches,
416, 519; water used in it in some churches, 427.
Eucherius, of Lyons, renowned for piety, ii. 543.
Eudemun, Bp. of Smyrna, apostatizes, i. 403.
Eudoxia, the Empress, her character, ii. 287; lends her influence
to ruin Chrysostom, ib.; compared to Jezebel, 289 ; writes
respectfully to Chrysostom, and presses his recal, 290.
Eudoxius, translated from See of Antioch to that of Constan-
tinople, ii. 93; baptizes Valens, 158; his ascendant over
that Emperor, ib.; his death, 159.
Eugeniut, an usurper of the empire, put down by Theodosius,
— appointed Bishop of Carthage, ii. 498 ; his exemplary cha-
racter, ib.; his letter to his flock, 504 ; his banishment and
sufferings, 508 ; recalled, 509.
— III. Pope, educated under St. Bernard, iii. 337; practises
austerities after his elevation, 338; his character, ib..;
obliged to fly into France, ib.; testimony of his uprightness,
403, note ; institutes degrees in law, 419.
F.uiwmius, an able Arian, banished by Theodosius, ii. 208.
Euodius, a military man, friend of Augustine, regenerated, ii. 357.
Euphraxus, governor of Calabria, his character, iii. 281 ; endea-
vours to mortify Nilus the monk, ib.; sends for him on his
death bed, ib.; receives the monastic habit, ib.
Euplius, a Sicilian martyr, refuses to deliver up the Scrip-
tures, ii. 18.
Eusebius, a deacon, attends the confessors at great personal risk,
i. 477 ; becomes bishop of Laodicea, 478.
— Bp. of Ca:sarea, the historian, disposed to lessen the honours
of Christ, ii. 46, 52, 60; speaks in a subordinate manner
of the Holy Ghost, i. 46; was the great favourite of Con-
stantine, ii. 61 ; declines See of Antioch, 67; presides at
council of Tyre, and is insulted by Potamo, 68 -, his death,
76; his character, 77.
— Bp. of Nicomedia, supports Arianism, ii. 55; his interest
with Constantine, ib.; his letter to Nicene council, 60 ; is
rebuked by an Arian bishop for dissimulation, 62 ; had been
bishop of Berytus, 64; banished, 66; restored, ib.; im
to Athanasius to restore Arius, ib.; his villauous arc
tion of Athanasius, 71 ; menaces Alexander of Consti.
nople, 72 ; translated to See of Constantinople, 78 ; his cat
and character, 80.
Eusebius, an eunuch, his influence over Constantius, ii. 76; asas
in opposing Liberius, 87.
— Bp. of Vercella;, supports Nicene faith at council of Milin,:
86 j banished, ib.; his piety and sufferings, 90; nUma
his see, ts>6; distinguished at council of Alexandria, 131
— of Samosata, his exemplary passiveness, ii. 166; further par-
ticulars of his life, 167.
Eustathians, ii. 83.
Eustathius, of Antioch, deposed through the artifices of cbe
Arians, ii. 67; dies in exile, ib.; opposed Eusebius,
Eusus, a bishop, appears at disputation against the Albigeoss.
Eutychcs, a monk, his heresy, ii. 526.
EutychUau, endeavour to propagate Christianity, iii. 129.
F.utychius, Bp. of Constantinople, refuses to publish a decree d
Justinian, iii. 24; banished, and dies in exile, ib.; his cha-
racter, ib. ; excepted from recal of the exiled bishops, 25:
restored, 26; his whimsical notion respecting the body, ib.
Euzoius, the friend of Arius, made bishop of Antioch, ii. 94; lis
popularity, 133 ; his moderation, ib.; opposes Peter's electica
to See of Alexandria, 164.
Evagrius, elected bishop of Constantinople, ii. 159 ; banished by
— Sckolasticus, his character as an historian, iii. 16, note; his
Erervinus, of Steinfold, his letter to Bernard respecting the
Cathari, iii. 378.
Ewald, two brothers of that name murdered on a mission, iii. 174.
Eicummunication, how brought into contempt, iv. 44.
Faber, John, vicar of Constance, and afterwards bishop of Vi-
enna, opposes Luther, v. 122 ; his passionate endeavours to
preserve doctrine of transubstantialion, 449; foments divi-
sions among the reformers, 556.
— James, a Lutheran, persecuted, v. 152; sent to confer with
Bucer and Capito, 168.
Fabian, Bp. of Rome, suffers martyrdom, i. 337.
Facundus, Bp. of Hermiana, his notion of the Lord's Supper, iii.94.
Fathers, deference paid to their writings, iii. 197.
Faustus, his sufferings for the Gospel, i. 477, 478. ^
— a Manichee bishop, enchants the people by bis eloquence, b.
321 ; his frankness, 322.
Faust us, Bishop of Ries, sketch of his life and character, ii. 546. Favel, a Lutheran, persecuted, v. 152 ; flies to Switzerland, and
adopts.the tenets of Zuingle, 153. Fclicis.simus, his exceptionable character, i. 367 ; seduces part of
Cyprian's flock, ib.; suspended, 368 ; condemned by African
synod, 375; goes to Rome, raises a party, and threatens
Felicitas, a Christian slave, delivered of a child in prison, i. 307 ; her reply to a door-keeper, ib.; exposed to a wild cow, 308 ; her martyrdom, 309.
Felix, Bp. of Rome, elected, i. 496 ; his testimony to the divinity of Christ, ib.
— of Tiberia, his martyrdom, ii. 18.
— a Manichee, attempts to disseminate his sentiments at Hippo,
ii. 456 ; convinced at a public disputation with Augustine, ib.
— Bp. of Dummock, his successful preaching, iii. 105. -.— Bp. of Urgel, his heresy, iii. 192.
Fetter, a monk, attempts to reclaim the Landgrave of Hesse from Protestanism, v. 176.
Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, persecutes the Lutherans, v. 87, 127, 467 ; his treatment of his sister, 128 ; his conduct at diet of Nuremberg, 161, 166, 167; joins confederacy at Ratisbon, 173 ; aspires to be declared King of the Romans, 175 ; inclines to pacific measures towards the reformers, 429, 433 ; his conduct at the diet of Spires, 443, & seq.; succeeds to the kingdom of Hungary, 460.
Ferrer, Vincent, a friar, his piety and zeal, iv. 290; his book on spiritual life, ib.; engaged in the service of the Pope, 291 ; refuses honours, and becomes a missionary, ib.; his labours and success, ib.; proofs of his humility, ib.
Fdastre, William, a cardinal, maintains at council of Constance their right to depose the Pope, iv. 223.
Firmiliau, Bp. of Cappadocia, supports Cyprian's opinion concerning re-baptism, i. 443 ; presides at council held concerning Paul of Samosata, 489 ; dies on his way to a second council, 490; was a great luminary, ib.; studied under Origen, 503.
— Governor of Csesarea, persecutes the Christians, ii. 24; is
capitally punished, 26.