^BELARD, Peter, his genius, industry, and learning, iii. 339;
his self-sufficiency and heretical propensities, ib; his cele-
brity in the philosophical schools, ib.; seduces Eloisa, 342;
retires into a monastery, 343 ; broaches hereiical opinions,
ib. and seq.; summoned before a council, and ordered to burn
his writings, and to recite Athanasian creed, ib.; obeys the
council, 350; impugns their proceedings, ib.; his want of
veracity, ib.; his commentary on Romans, ib.; his contro-
versy with Bernard, 351 & seq.; appeals to the Pope, 358 ;
condemned by him, 369; confined to a monastery, ib.;
satisfies Bernard of his orthodoxy, ib.; his death, 370;
character of his correspondence with Eloisa, ib.
'Abraham, an Ascetic, confines himself to his cell for 50 years,
' ii. 259; chosen to convert Pagans, 260 ; his reluctance to
the work, ib.; compelled by his Bishop, ib.; his trials,
patience, and success, ib.; returns to his solitude, ib. ,
Absalom, Abp. of Lunden, his labours and character, iii. 429.
Abyssinia, progress of Christianity there, ii. 103.
Acacias, Bp. of Amida, extraordinary proof of his humanity,ii. 521.
Accept us, demanded Bishop by church of Frejus, ii. 177; his con-
scientious evasion, ib. . .,
Ace'sius, a Novatian Bishop, attends council of Nice, ii. 64; his
conversation with Constantine, ib.
Adalbert, Abp. of Prague, dissuades a Hungarian Prince from
aposlacy, iii. 253; sketch of his former life, ib.; his awful
sense of the ministerial duties, ib.; goes on a mission trf
Poland, 254; his success there, ib.; murdered, ib.; styled
the Apostle of Prussia, ib.; his character, ib.
Adalvard, a missionary to Sweden, beaten and expelled from the
country, iii. 257.
rot. v. R r
Adam of Bremen, his testimony to the conversion of the Danes,
Adelaide, wife of Otho I. ber zeal and liberality, iii. 251 ; expe-
riences vicissitudes, 261; her character, ib.
Adelard, a luminary of ninth century, declines an invitation to
the court of Charlemagne, iii. 234; becomes a monk, and
is made abbot, ib.; forced to court, ib.; his recluse and
pious habits, ib.; banished on suspicion, and recalled, ib.;
returns to his monastery, ib.; his exemplary character, ib.
— A monk, founds the monastery of New Corbie, iii. 235.
Adelbert, Abp. of Madgeburgh, his labours, iii. 260.
Adeldagus made Chancellor to Otho I. iii. 272 ; made Arch-
bishop of Hamburg, ib.; complaints of his flock on account
of his residence at court, 273; returns to his bishopric, ib.;
his character, ib.
Ado, Abp. of Vienua, his character, iii. 199; his attention to dis-
cipline, ib.; dissuades Lothaire from divorcing his queen, ib.
Adohard, Bp. of Verden,his character and labours, iii. 273.
Adrian, succeeds to the empire, i. 174; his rescript in favour of
the Christians, 178 ; his severity to the Jews, 179.
—Pope, his character, iii. 164; strengthens himself by the
support of Charlemagne, 165 ; receives considerable terri-
tories from him, ib.; his correspondence with Irene, re-
specting image worship, 166; his avaricious demands, ib.;
seeks approbation of decrees of second council of Nice from
western Bishops, 167; disappointed, ib.; his prudent coo-
duct towards Charlemagne, 168; his death, 169.
— VI. Pope, his character, v. 100, 105; his bitterness against
Luther, 101,note; his brieve to the diet of Nuremberg, 101;
his candid acknowledgement of ecclesiastical corruptions,103;
his brieves to the Elector of Saxony ,113,571; his death, 121;
account of his birth and rise, ib. note; his epitaph, ib.; so^
licits Erasmus to oppose Luther, 259; his brieve to Zuingle,
538 ; his correspondence with Erasmus, 582 & seq.
JEdesius, a martyr, his generous but imprudent indignation at the
cruelty perpetrated on Christians, ii. 20 ; his martyrdom, ib."
— A boy carried into Abyssinia, where he escapes being mur-
dered, and is employed at court in conjunction with Frumen-
tius, ii. 103.
AZlia Capitulina, another name for Jerusalem, i. 180; ii. 101.
Agapius, his martyrdom, ii. 22.
Agelius, a Novatian Bishop, exiled by the Arians, ii. 156; his
admirable character, ib.; his restoration, ib.; his death, 242.
Agobard, Abp. of Lyons, writes against image worship, iii. 211.
Agrippa, Herod, enjoys civil power in Judea, i. 23; his cha-
racter, ib.; persecutes the church ib.; puts James the
Apostle to death, ib.; proceeds against Peter, ib. j his
Axdan, an Irish monk, his mission to Northumbria, iii. 106;'
made Bishop of Lindisfern, 107; his character ib.
Aigilulph, King of the Lombards, converted to orthodoxy, iii. 50 ;
ravages the Roman territories, 61. • * Alaric, King of the Visigoths, reigns at Toulouse, Hi. 10; adopts
Arianism, ib.; his humanity to the orthodox, ib. Albert, Abp. of Mentz, promulgates the indulgences of Leo X. in
Germany, iv. 315; his answer to Luther, 441; prosecutes
Bernard for matrimony, v. 248.
— Marquis of Brandenburg, espouses the reformed doctrines
— Count of Mansfield, a friend of the Reformation, exhorts
Luther to appease Duke George, v. 358.
Albertus Magnus, his fame in school divinity, iv. 108, note.
Alcibiades, a martyr, induced to change his ascetic life, i. 230.
Alcuin, a celebrated Englishman, enjoys the favour of Charlemagne, ui. 166; his share in the Carolin Books, 168 ; disproves decrees of second council of Nice, 192 ; was a deacon of York, ib.; sent as ambassador to France, ib.; persuades Charlemagne to found two uersities, ib.; his fame and writings, ib.
Aleander, appointed Pope's nuncio, iv. 481 ; sent to the Elector of Saxony with a bull against Luther, ib.; his character, ib.. & 484, 569, 624; his proceedings with the Elector, 481 6» seq.; burns Luther's books, 484 ; his extraordinary testimony to Luther's probity, 485; procures a second bull against Lnther, 501; his speech at Worms, 526 & seq.; corrupts the diet, 531 ; endeavours to prevent Luther's appearance there, 537 ; why employed to draw up the edict of Worms, 364; remonstrates with the Emperor, 576; persecutes the Lutherans, v. 147; his advice respecting Frederic the Wise, 170.
Alexander, a martyr, i. 235.
— Bp. of Jerusalem, his letter to the church at Antioch, i. 291;
dies in prison, 388. -— Bp. of Cappadocia, his sufferings, i. 301; associated with Narcissus in the bishopric of Jerusalem, 302.
— Bp. of Cemana, suffers martyrdom, i. 403.
— Bp. of Alexandria, tolerates Arius, ii. 51; roused to assert the
true faith, ib.; summons a 3ynod, 52 ; writes against Arianism, 55; his death, 66; points out Athanasius for his successor, ib.
— Bp. of Constantinople, his character ii. 71; menaced by
Eusebius, 72; his distress at being obliged to restore Arius, 73; his death, 77.
— IV. Pope, favours the friars, iv. 18 ; compelled to order the
burning of a Franciscan book, si. —- VI. Pope, guilty of scandalous crimes, iv. 304, 312.
— VII. Pope compels two kings to hold his bridle, iii. 480. * Alexandria, Gospel planted there by St. Mark, i. 286; Christian
school there, 287. Alfred, the Great, opposes the Danes, iii. 200; his speech befor
; ' a battle, i6.; defeats the Danes, ib.; bis translations, ib.; !.
endeavours to improve his subjects, ib.; his character, ib.
lilfrie, a writer against transubstantiation, iii. 247.
Allegories, use and abuse thereof, v. 383, 384.
AILix, his writings commended, iii. 376.
A/mansor, Caliph, founds Bagdad, iii. 165.
Alphaeus, a Bishop of Palestine, his extraordinary fortitude Jn
>■ martyrdom, ii. 14. > .
Alphage, Abp. of Canterbury, his magnanimity, iii. 300; exposa-
lates with the enraged Danes, 301; imprisoned, ib.; declms
a ransom at the expense of the Church, ib.; stoned, ib.
Alphonsus, Peter, a Jew, converted, iii. 433 ; publishes a dialogs
against the Jews, ib. ; his eminent learning, ib.
Alypius, the friend of Augustine, devotes himself to the Circassui
games, ii. 334; reformed by Augustine, ib...; involved ■
Manicheism, ib; captivated with the exhibitions of tf*
diators, 335; apprehended as a thief, and prsviden&allj
delivered, ib.; practises in the law, ib.; converted at tic
same time with Augustine, 351 6c seq. ; made Bishop of
Tagasta, 380; opposes Pelagianism, ib. & 400. <•
Ambrose, a Valentinian, confuted by Origen,i. 312 ; his liberalitj
to Oriiren, 319; entitles himself to the name of Coa-
— Bp. of Milan, his early history, ii. 173; his learning aw
celebrity as a pleader, ib.; appointed governor of Milan,
and renowned in that office, ib ; chosen Bishop in an extra-
ordinary manner, 174; his attempts to avoid the office, 175;
gives up his properly to th3 church and poor, ib.; hi
pastoral labours, 176 & 181; expels Arianism from Itak,
176 ; avails himself of the instructions of Simplician, ib ;
his correspondence with Gratian, 1/9; his encomium; o»
: ' virginity, 180; applies vessels of the church to redeem
captives, 181 ; insulted atSirmium, ib.; sent on an embassy
" to Maximus, 190; refuses to hold communion with "hi
bishops, ib.; receives ill-treatment from Valentinian tfct
younger, 194; his letter to hint respecting the Pagans,ib.;
his reply to Symmachus, 195; his talents for negociation.ib.;
challenged to a disputation by Auxentius,ig6; his answer, ib.;
refuses to deliver up his church, ib.; introduces response
singing, 197 ; his trials, ib.; his veneration for relics, 199;
his second embassy to Maximus, 200 ; composes a funeral
oration on Valentinian, ib.; opposes the rebuilding of a
Jewish synagogue, 201 ; his letter to Theodosius upon the
massacre at Thess&lonica, 202 ; prohibits the emperor fro»
the church, ib; enjoins him penance, 203 ; his death and
character, 229 ; his treatise on Offices, 230 ; his direction
to his clergy, 231 ; his book of repentance, ib-.; his notion*
'' ' of the pastoral office, 233; promoted monastic spirit, 234;
his summary of Gospel salvation, 235; his ideas on the
benefit of death, it).; his three books concerning the Holy.
1 1 .
,- - Ghost, 336; his condolence with Faustinus on the death of
f his sister, ib.; his epistolary address to clergymen, 237; his interpretations of Scripture exceptionable, ib.; his doctrinal notions, 238; his superstitions concerning the dead, ib.; how he promoted monastic bondage and prelatical pride, ib.;
: tisited by Augustine, 327 ; character of his preaching, ib.; forbids superstitious practices in honour of martyrs, 329.
Amelius, his attempt to unite Christiany and Platonism, i. 537.
Amnxmius, Saccas, his religious principles, i. 262 ; his platonic school, ii. 108.
Amphilochus, Bp. of Iconium, his behaviour at the court of Theodosius, ii. 185.
Anabaptists, what, v. 71, note; see also Peasants' war, their, fanaticism and violence, 496 & seq.; suffer persecution, 5<>7. 545, 562.
Ananias, a christian disciple struck dead for lying to the Holy Ghost, i. 12.
-— a disciple of Damascus, sent to Saul on his conversion, i. 19.
Anastasius, Bp. of Antiocb, resists an edict of Justinian, iii. 24; his exemplary piety, ib.; his farewell letter, 25; his intimacy with Gregory the First, 41; his ejection and restora,' : tion, 50 ; his death and character, 52.
T— Bp. of Constantinople, iii. 157.
Andreas, Chancellor ol Sweden, employed by Gustavus to translate the.Scriptures, v. 134.
Andrew, made King of Hungary on condition of restoring idolatry, iii. 293 ; moved by seeing an attack on four bishops, ib. ; revives Christianity; ib.
Angel, of the Church, what, i. 161. .•
Anicetus, Bp. of Rome, confers with Polycarp respecting the observance of Easter, i. 210.
Anna;, wife of Wolodomir, prevails on her husband to embrace. Christianity, iii. 263. 1 ,
Anne, wife of Richard II. of England, uses her influence to pro
; .• tect the Lollards, iv. 164; her character, 165.
— of Mecklenburgh, opposes the Reformation, v. 450.
Ansbert, quotation from his writings, iii. 274.
Anscurius, a monk, proceeds on a dangerous mission to Friezeland, iii. 2^6 ; his labours, 237; his mission to Sweden, ib.; pillaged by pirates, and suffers great hardships, ib.; success of his labours in Sweden, 238 ; made Archbishop of Hamburg, ib.; his pastoral labours, ib.; his pious resignation, 239; made Bishop of Bremen, ib.; propagates the. Gospel in Denmark, ib..; renews his attempts in Sweden, ib.;. his success, 240 ; returns to Denmark, ib.; his death and. character, ib.; erects a hospital, ib.; said to have possessed, the gift of miracles, ib.
Anselm, Abp. of Canterbury, his devotion to. the Pope, iii. 304 ;
. • his contests with William Rufus, ib;; contributes to enforce, celibacy of the'clergy, ib.; his character, 305,307,312;
offers himself to a monastery at the age of fifteen, 307;
gets entangled in vanities of the world, ib. ; becomes 1
monk, abbot, and friar, 308; his reluctance to be made
archbishop, ib.; retires to the Continent, 309 ; '-writes en tit
Incarnation, ib.; character of his works, ib.; bis resigna-
tion refused, 310; distinguished at council of Bari, 311;
writes on the Conception and Original Sin, ib. ; returns U
England and compromises with the King, ib.; bis death.
313; his-works on will, predestination, and grace, ib.; hk
direction for visitation of the sick, ib.; bis work, called,
" The Fool Refuted," 316; was the inventor of an argumec:
ascribed to Descartes, ib.
Anstlm, Bp. of Havelburg, his character, iii. 434; censures mo-
nastic institutions, 435.
Anthony, the Egyptian, founder of monastic societies, i.524;
stories of his contests with the devil ridiculous, 525; bis
character, ib.; also, ii. 96 & seq.; his opposition to A nanism,
97 ; pretends to live without food, 98 ; his death, ib.; his
answer to a letter from Constantius, 101.
— Bp. of Fussala, ordained by Augustine, ii. 459, note; dis-
appoints his expectations, and is expelled, ib.
Antichrist, early indication of, i. 134; when identified wilt
Bishops of Rome, iii. 157 ; description of, in a Waldensian
treatise, 475. .
Antioch, disciples first called Christians there, i. 49.
Antipas, a martyr, i. 91.
Antipoedobaplists, their rise, iii. 451.
Antoninus, Pius, succeeds to the empire, i. 181; his character, ib.;
his edict in favour of the Christians, 182; his great
worth, 183. -
— Abp. of Florence, his piety and extraordinary labours, iv. 29a.
Apollinarii, Father and Son, their ingenious attempt to counteract
Julian's prohibition of learning among Christians, ii. is6;
heresy of, confuted by Athanasius, 164; expelled for refusing
to give up the friendship of a Pagan, 248; set up a sect, ib.;
their learning and capacity, 249; works of the son, ib.
Apollinaris, of Hierapolis, his writings lost, i. 253; bis account
of the Montanists, 260.
Apollonia, an aged virgin, her heroic courage and martyr-
dom, i. 391.
Apollonius, a philosopher, accused as a Christian, i. 242; beheaded,
and his accuser also punished, 243. • ■-
Apollos, an early disciple, his character, i. 74.
Apostacy, God-denying, what, i. 259. • -
Apostles, their prejudices against the Gentiles, i. 42.
Apphian, a martyr of Palestine, leaves his family on account of
their hostility to the Gospel, ii. 19; his imprudent zeal, ib.;
and sufferings, ib.
Apultius, a ludicrous author, his manner of speaking of a Chris-
tian's faith, i. 527. . .. - ,, ■*
Jiquila, an early disciple, his acquaintance with Paul, i. 73; concerned in planting the Church of Rome, 79.
— kinsman to Adrian, his apostacy, i. 180.
Aquinas, Thomtu, the angelical doctor, his fame, iv. 36 ; defends doctrines of free-will, transubstantiation, and supererogation, ib.; his extraordinary notion respecting the interpretation of Scripture, 37 ; his corrupt sentiments respecting justification, ib.; shows traces of great devotion, ib.; Luther's opinion of him, v. 15.
Arcadius, one of the sons and successors of Theodosius, resides at Constantinople, ii. 279 ; insignificance of his character, 283; deposes Chrysostom, and persecutes his adherents, 290.
Archinixnus, a triniturian, his constancy in resisting temptations to Arianism, ii.495; ordered to execution by Genseric, ib.; escapes by his constancy, ib. Areopagus, Court of, i. 72 ; why it did not condemn Paul, ib. Arianism, high, ii. 61, note; its fruits, 163,183; expelled from Italy by Ambrose, 176; its decline in France, iii. 13; put an end to in Africa, 22 ; destroyed in Spain, 31. Arians, their subtlety, ii. 58, 67, 152, 185 ; present their confession of faith to Nicene Council, 60; unite with the Melitians, 67 ; their unjust proceedings against Athanasius, 70; enjoy court favour, 72 ; their profligacy, 74 ; persecute the trinitarians, 88, 89 ; their general success, 93; their divisions, ib.; attempt to ingratiate themselves with Jovian, 152 ; subscribe council of Nice, ib..; their insidious attempts against Athanasius defeated, 153; gain over Valeus, and persecute the church, 155; Justinas law in their favour, 195 ; commit an. erasure in St. John's Gospel, 236, note; their wickedness, 489; massacre the orthodox at Riga, 49,5; commit other dreadful persecutions, 498 &c seq.; forbidden to hold assemblies, iii. 22.
— Semi) ii. 156; persecuted by the Arians, ib.; reunite with the
orthodox, ib. Aristides, his apology for the Christians, i. 177.
— the Sophist, his notion of Christians, i.535. Ariktotk, effects of his philosophy in the Church, iv. 2,13. Arms, a presbyter of Alexandria, his promising character, ii.50;
joins the Meletian party, ib.; leaves it and reconciles himself to his Bishop, ib.; expelled for his factious spirit, ib.; again obtains favour, ib.; his true character, ib.; advances heretical opinions, 51; is joined by many of the clergy, 52 ; his industry in propagating his opinions, ib.; expelled by a synod, ib.; his epistle, .53, note ; forms alliances with various bishops, 55; condemned at a second synod at Alexandria, ib.; his doctrines condemned by Nicene Council, 60; deposed, 61; and banished to Illyricum, 6.9; returns, 66; summoned to Constantinople, 71; subscribes and swears to Nicene doctrines, 72 ; his secret reservation, ib.; his restoration ordered by Constantiue, 73 ; his death, ib,
Arnold, of Brescia, bis heretical opinions opposed by Bernard,
iii. 374; raises a sedition against the Pope, and is burned, ib.
Arnulph, a presbyter, preaches against vices of the clergy, iii. 439 ;
Arnulphxts, Bp. of Orleans, presides at council of Rheims, iii. 247 ;
his discourse against the Pope, ib.; his zeal and prudence, 248.
Arsenius, a Meletian bishop, story of his murder, ii. C8; re-
nounces his former connexions, and solicits communion with
— Bp. of Constantinople, renowned for his piety, iv. 15; appointed
guardian to the young emperor, ib.; compelled to crown
an usurper, ib.; retires to a monastery, ib.; recalled, ib.;
excommunicates the Emperor Michael, ib.; bauished, 16;
, his integrity, ib.
Arundtl, Abp. of York, and afterwards of Canterbury, his incon-
sistency, iv. 165; persecutes the Lollards, ib. & 167, 169;
' crowns Henry the Fourth, ib.; persecutes Lord Cobham,
170 & seq.; his artful conduct, 171, 182; his examination
of Lord Cobbam, 174.
Ataph, gives name to a see, iii. 109; his character, ib.
Asclepas, Bp. of Gaza, driven from his see by the Arians, ii. 67;
restored, 76, 84.
Asclepius, Bp. of the Mnrcionites, suffers martyrdom, ii. 25.
Asia, Seven Churches of, i. 84.
Aspebetcs, a Saracen chief, favours the Christians under a Persian
persecution, ii. 521 ; obliged to fly in consequence, ib.; re-
ceives baptism, ib.
Astulphiu, King of the Lombards, takes Ravenna, iii. 161.
Athanaric, King of the Goths, persecutes the Christians, ii. 166.
Athanasians, their constancy under persecution, ii. 165.
Athanasius, his Life of Anthony the Monk, i. 524 ; distinguishes
himself when deacon at council of Nice, ii. 59; is recom-
mended by Alexander as his successor, and is ordained
bishop, 66; suffers persecution for forty-six years from the
Arians, ib.; refuses to restore Anus, ib.; his conduct exa-
mined before a council at Tyre, 68; maliciously charged
with various crimes, ib.; extraordinary proof of his innocence
of the murder of Arsenius, 69; his conduct further examined
at Alexandria, 70; obliged to fly, 71; deposed, ib.; sues
for a fair trial at Constantinople, ib.; accused of stopping
supplies of corn, ib.; banished to Treves, ib.; restored and
received with acclamations, 76 5 deposed, 78 ; obliged to
fly> 79 '• publishes an epistle to the Christian world, ib.;
gains his cause before council of Sardica, 82 ; invited to
return, and well received by Constartius, 83; returns to
Alexandria, 84 ; condemned by council of Milan, 86 ; ex-
posed to various hardships, 88 ; shows great intrepidity, ib.;
retreats to the deserts and takes refuge among the monks, 89;
his apology, 90; his remarkable letter to the monks, 92 ;
t'l'poses the Macedonian heresy, 93; spends seven years in
concealment, 132; returns to his see, ib.; bis Christian be; haviour there, ib.; holds a council, ib.; banished by Julian, ■ 135; fl'es into Egypt, 137; saves his life by stratagem, and reappears at Alexandria, 137, 151; restored by Jovian, ib.; graciously received at Antioch by that emperor, 152; attempts of the Arians against him frustrated, 153; expelled and obliged to secrete himself for four months in his lather's sepulchre, 1.57; recalled, ib.; expels governor of I.ydia for his vices, 160 ; his death, and character of his worksr 161; creed called after him not his, but contains his sentiments, 164; character of his life, ib. Athenagoras, his apology, i. 254. ■ \
Athens, pleasing account of the Church there, i. 176.
Attains, of Pergamus, distinguished in the persecution of Vienne,
i. 227 ; his serenity under it, 233 ; his martyrdom, 235. Atticus, Bp. of Constantinople, succeeds Arsacius, ii. 292 ; joins
. in persecuting Chrysostom, 294, 51S ; his character, ib. Attila, the Hun, ravages vaiious parts of the empire, ii. 493 ;
his respect for religion, ib. filbert, a monk, accompanies Anscarius on a dangerous mission,
iii. 236; his labours, 237. Audas, a zealot, burns a Persian temple, and thereby causes a
persecution of the Christians, ii. 520. Augendus,*. schismatic in church of Carthage, i. 366. Augsburg, Diet of, v. 428 & seq.; a second diet of, 559 & seq.;
confession of, 561. Augustine, St. the great instrument of reviving evangelical truth,
ii. 299 ; his first book of confessions, ib.; his birth and parentage, ib. note; second book, 307; third book, 312; fouith book, 316; fifth book, 320; sixth book, 329; seventh book, 338; eighth book, 346; ninth book, 354; made presbyter of Hippo, 367 ; licensed to preach in presence of the bishop, ib.; vanquishes Fortunatus, the Manichx, in a controversy, ib.; joined with Valerius in the bishopric, 368; institutes a monastery, ib.; success of his writings, ib.; opposes Pelagianism, 374, 380; his caution in controversy,
< 374. 4^5; writes against Coelestius, 375; his letter to Pelagius, ib.; persuades Demetrias to consecrate her virginity, 376; liable to charge of superstition, ib.; see also, 361, note, & 469; his refutation of Pelagius's letter to Demetrias, 376, 400; recovers two young men from Pelagianism, 376; his anonymous answer to a book of Pelagius, 377 ; his tenderness to Pelagius, 378 ; undeceives John of Jerusalem, respecting Pelagianism, 379; his history of Pelagianism, ib.; undeceives Innocent respecting the Pelagian imposition on the council of Diospolis, 380 ; hi3 treatise on
. 'original sin and grace, 384; defends the doctrines of the church respecting marriage, ib,; his treatise on rebuke and grace, 387, 412 ; converts Leporius from Pelagian notions, 387; his books on predestination and perseverance, 388; his • - letter to innocent respecting doctrine of grace, 406'; to Sixtus,
a presbyter, on same subject, 408 ; to Vitalts, and to Anas-
tasius on the same, 409; his treatise on infant baptism, ib.;
his three books to Marrellinus, 410 ; inaccurate in his Boum
of justification, 411; his other works, ib.; 430 & seq.; bit
notions of perseverance not scriptural, 411; his city of God,
413; nearly eradicated Pelagians and Manichees, 434;
often way-laid by the Circumcelliones, 425; providentially
escapes ou one occasion, ib.; his methods with the D<mi-
tists, 426 ; objects to compulsory methods, ib.; changes bis
opinion, 427 ; his eloquence, 440, note; his controversy witi
Jerom, 444 & seq.; his correspondence with the Madauriass,
447; converts a Manichee in an extraordinary manner,455;
disputes publicly with Felix, 456; opposes Ariaoism, ib.;
his patience and meekness, ib.; his discharge of the judicial
office, ib.; his regular attendance at councils, 457 ; his or-
dinations, ib.; his private and domestic habits, ib.; bis
charity, 458, 468, note; checks the practice of leaving
possessions to the church, ib.; his devotion to divine things,
ib.; his abstinence from female society, ib.; his retracta-
tions, 459; his conduct towards Anthony of Fussala, 459,
note ; his afflictions in later life, 459 ; endeavours to make
religious impressions on Boniface, 460 ; his death, 461; bis
notions of repentance, ib.; his theology, ib.; his celebrity as
a writer, 462 ; comparison between him and Jerom, 476;
meditations of, chiefly from writings of Anselm, iii. 308;
his writings characterised by meekness, iv. 336; apt to tor-
ture Scripture in controversy, v. 385.
Augustine, a monk, his mission to Britain, iii. 72; made archbishop
of the English nation,78; alleges his possession of miraculous
powers, 80; invites the Welsh bishops to a conference, 81;
convinces them by a miracle, ib.; his second conference with
them, 82 ; his death, ib.
Aurelian, the Emperor, succeeds Claudius, i. 489; conquer;
Zenobia, 496; turns persecutor, ib.; his death, 497.
Aureliut, a Christian youth, suffers persecution twice, i. 364;
ordained a reader by Cyprian, ih.
Auxentius, an Arian bishop of Milan, imposes upon VaJentiniaD,
- ,. ii. 169; his duplicity, 170; his death, 173.
— a Scythian, challenges Ambrose to a disputation, ii. 196.
V 1 . ■ . . . •
- • B.
Backer, Johnde, a reformer, his martyrdom, v. 381, 587.
Bacon, Roger, a Franciscan friar, his suprising learning, iv. 3;
imprisoned and treated as a magician, ib.; his piety ques-
tionable, ib.; his description of the ignorance of his times, ib.
Badby, John, a low workman, and a Lollard, his martyrdom,
iv. 1&8. . . ,
Bagdad, founded by AUnansor, iii. 165; becomes the residence
; of the Saracen ruonarchs, ib. .' !
Balthazar, Bp. of Promnitz, a reformer, his character, v. 380.
Baptism, how far accompanied by divine grace, i. 330, 331; whether immersion necessary, 444; superstition respecting its efficacy, ii. 75, 276; ought to be preceded by catechizing, .. 432 ; Roman mode of, iii. 84.
Infant, defended, i. 429, 430; ii. 374; abolition thereof attributed to Pelagianism, 404; remark of African Council on same point, 406 ; Augustine's treatise thereon, 409; sullied with superstition in dark ages, iii. 288.
— Re", controversy respecting, i. 443, 483 ; ii. 64. ZJarbatus, Bp. of Benevento, his labours, iii. 113; destroys idolatry in that state, ib.
Barbs, what, iii. 451.
Harcochebus, his imposition on the Jews, i. 179.
Burdasunes, of Mesopotamia, renowned for learning and eloquence, i. 252; seduced by Valentinian heresy, ib.; but recovers, ib.; his remarkable testimony to the purity of Christians, 253.
Barnabas, of Cyprus, distinguished for his liberality, i. 12; brings Paul to the Apostles, 21 ; accompanies Paul in his ministry, see Paul; led away by Peter's dissimulation, 30; sent to Antioch, 48; brings Paul thither, 49; sails with Mark to Cyprus, 56 ; Epistle ascribed to him spurious, 102.
Bartholomew, Governor of the Waldensian churches, iii. 445; story of his being declared Pope confuted, 495.
Basil, a priest, hig zeal against idolatry, ii. 129; charged with sedition, and tortured, ib.; his constancy and martyrdom,ib.
— the Great, why so called, ii. 265 ; his strict education, ib.;
forms an intimacy with Gregory Nazianzen, ib.; studies under Libanius, 266; his learning and talents, ib.; contracts an ascetic turn.ib.; refuses an invitation to court from Julian, ib.; lives in retirement at Neocassaria, and draws over many to the same life, 267; forms rules of monastic discipline, founds monasteries and hospitals, ib.; his success in pleading for the poor, ib.; resists the importunities of Valens, ib.; made Bishop of Cassarea, 268 ; his danger from the Arians, and constancy, ib.; his attention to discipline,ib.; his trials, patience, and death, ib ; his doctrine clouded, 269; bis scriptural notion of faith, ib.; his love of heavenly things, ib.
Basilides, a soldier, affected by the constancy of Pontamixna, i. 299; his conversion, 300 ; and martyrdom, ib.
— a Spanish Bishop, degraded, i. 438.
Baijle, Peter, his Dictionary, iv. 340; his principles and talents,
ib.; his remarks on Luther, 341. Beast, dominion of the, iii. 170, 250.
Beausobre, his misrepresentations, v. 198, note; 201, note;
312, note; 233, 238, 254, 255, 278, 486, 5*8, 599.571Bede, his history, iii. 96, 133 ; his devotion to the See of Rome,
J06 ; his birth and education, 133 ; lives amonaslic life, ib.;
the most learned man of his time, ib. & 190; ordained"
deacon and presbyter, 133; his celebrity, 134 ; his charade
and writings, ib. & seq.; his last sickness, lb.; compare!
with John of Damascus, 191.
Bedford, Duke of, brother to Henry V. his character, iv. 196,
persecutes the Lollards, ib.
Beghards, iv. 64.
Beguines, iv. 64.
BdUariiis, the General of Justinian, recovers Africa, iii. 22; hi
fame, ib.; takes Rome from the Goths, ib.; his irreligici
. ' and infamous venality, ib.
Benedict, his monastic rules, iii. 21 ; his zeal against idolatry.i,
— IX. Pope, deposed for simony and wickedness, iii. 285, note.
— XIII. Pope, pressed by council of Constance to resign, iv. 2*3;
deposed, 226; his character, ib. & 2gi.
Benefices, origin of, iii. 10.
Berengarius, of Tours, writes against transubstantiation, iii. 180;
compelled to burn his writings, ib.; his frequent recanta-
tions, ib.; question as to his final sentiments, 2go : bis cba- I
Berington, Mr. strictures on his work, iii. 425, 484.
Berkeley, Thomas Lord, his piety remarkable, iv. 166.
Bernard, an English missionary, attempts to evangelize Nonraj,
; Mb 259-
— St. his great celebrity, iii. 330, 372, 378 ; his devotion to the
, See of Rome, 330; his superstition, 331 ; laments his aus-
terities in after life, ib.; account of his miracles fabulous, ib.;
his zeal for crusades, 332 ; his descent, 334; his early devfc
tion and proficiency, ib.; becomes a Cistertian, ib.; made
abbot of Clairval, 335 ; his growth in the divine life, ib.;
1 moderates his austerity respecting noviciates, ib.; injures
his health by austerities, ib.; his conduct to his sister on brr
visit to his monastery, 336; begins to preach, ib.; his
eloquence, ib. 339; his influence, 336,337; refuses various
bishoprics, 336; his humility, 337 ; writes on the Camicles,
ib.; his five books to Pope Eugenius, 338, 401 ; visits the
nunnery of the Paraclete, 351; his controversy with Abelard,
ib. & seq.; his letter to the Pope on that subject, 360 ; sue-
1 cess of his opposition, 369; erroneously treats some good
men as heretics, 372; his controversy with. Gillebert, ib;
• opposes Arnold of Brescia, 374; successfully opposes Henry 1
heretic, 375; his unjust invectives against the Cathari, 38s;
review of his writings, 390 & seq.; his character and death,
•; 413 & seq.; considered the last of the fathers, 416, notei
inveighs against the Popes, 422 ; apt to torture the Scrip-
tures in controversy, v, 385.
— a French abbot, his zealous sermon to council of Constance,
— Bartholomew, the first reformed clergyman that niarried.v. 248;
summoned by bis archbishop, ib.; defended by Melancthon,ib.
— a Carmelite and a reformer, suffers martyrdon, y. 3&I.,..,
Bernardin, called the Burning Coal, his zeal, iv. 292. •* "
'JJerlha, a Saxon queen, Supports a mission to Britain, iii. 73; her character, 74. . . .
JSeryllus, Bp.ofBostra,hisheresy,i.32i; reclaimed by Origen, 32 2.
Beser, a Syrian, excites opposition to image worship, iii. 154.
Biblias, her lapse, recovery and martyrdom, i. 229.
Bishops, their order pointed out by Ignatius, i. 160; nature of their office in primitive times, 161 ; their election anciently by_the people, 514; their authority with respect to doctrine, ib.; their.exclusive powers of ordination, ib.; their power with respect to inferior appointments, ib.; their election sometimes episcopal, 515 ; their authority, how limited, ib.; ; •' not merely congregational pastors, 516 ; called angels, ib.; why chosen by people, 517; not deposable by people, ib.; ancient, how similar to presbyterian hierarchy, 518 ; ancient usage in choosing them altered, ii. 78; canons forbidding their translations <tud their journies to court, 82 ; their time of residence fixed, ib.; their election transferred to metropolitans, 158; Justinian's laws relating to them, iii. 18; decree of council of Clermont respecting them, 21 ; obliged to decide causes, 39 ; their residence, 195. -— of Rome, their magnificence in fourth century, ii. 171 ; their superiority in fifth century, 536 ; see Pope. '
— uersal title of, when assumed by See of Constantinople,
iii. 53, 63; offered to See of Rome, ib; taken from Constantinople and given to Rome, 69, note; re-assumed by Constantinople and retained by both, ib. 129.
Blanche, Queen, mother of Lewis IX. her pious education of her son, iv. 26; reduces the Albigenses, ib.
Blandina, distinguished in persecution at Vienne, i. 227; her extraordinary fortitude, ib. 232,235; her martyrdom, 236.
Bogoris, King of Bulgaria, his conversion, iii. 227 ; resigns his crown and enters a monastery, 229. • . . 't
Rologudes, a Hungarian chief, baptized, iii. 252 ; his apostacy, ib.
Boleslaus, King or Duke of Poland, attempts to force Christianity upon different nations, iii. 294, 427.
Bologna, celebrated as a law seminary, iii. 419.
Bonaventura, a Franciscan doctor, bis corrupt views of justifica
t -; tion, iv. 38 ; Luther's opinion of him, v. 15.
Boniface, Count, his character, ii. 4G0 ; defends Hippo against the Vandals, ib.? intimate with St. Augustine, ib.; slain in a duel, ib.
T— Archbishop' of Mentz, see "Winfred.
— a missionary, preaches in Hungary, iii. 291; in Prussia, 294; " murdered, ib.
1— VIII. Pope, imprisons Celestine, iv. 35 ; his character, ib. 66;
dies in prison,,36, 66 ; his absurd decretal, 36. Bare, Catherine, the wife of Luther, her character, v. 249, 483. Borelli, Francis, a monkish inquisitor, persecutes the VValdenses,
iii. 496. ... , ,
Botrus, a schismatic at Carthage, ii. 47.
Bradamus, Michael, chosen their minister by the Hussites, as
forms plan of the Hussite Church, iv. 281. '
Bradwardine, Thomas, his education,iv. 77 ; his recluse tarn, 7ft
made confessor to Edward the Third, ib.; elected A rchbisfco;
of Canterbury, but detained by the King, ib.; again ekcos
and advanced, ib.; his modesty and innocence, ib.; ridicule!
at his consecration, ib.; his death, 79 ; his treatise agazs
the Pelagians, ib. & seq.; his success in preaching to the
army and moderating the King's temper, 86.
Braga, Council of, ii. 489, note.
Brandt, a Protestant historian, commended, v. 507.
Brentius, John, renowned among the reformers, iv. 351,415;
affected by the preaching of Luther, 351 ; writes in the u-
cramentary contest, v. 402, 412 ; 419, note.
Breslaw, treaty of, v. 493. ' •
Brethren of the Free Spirit, iv. 64;
— United, iv. 281.
Brettannio, a Scythian bishop, his bold refusal to eommuHicitf
with Valens, ii. 159 ; banished and recalled, ib.
Bridget, St. canonized, iv. 224.
Brisman, John, a reformer, his discourse on justification aaa*
works, v. 155; banished, 156; spreads the reformed doc-
trines in Prussia, ib. 178.
Brissonet, William, Bishop of Meaux, countenances the reformer?,
v. 153 ; compelled to withdraw his protection, ib.
Britain, probability of its receiving Christianity in third century,
i. 511; its religious state in fourth century, ii. 106 ; Pela-
gianism suppressed there, 484.
Brittany, origin of, iii. 26.
Brown, John, a Lollard, his persecution, fortitude, and martyr-
dom, iv. 199.
Brunehout, a Queen of infamous character, supports a mission to
Britain, iii. 73.
Bruno, brother to Otho the First, made Archbishop of Cologne,
iii. 272 ; invested with a dukedom, ib.; his character, ib.
— founder of the Carthusians, iii. 326, note; prosecutes Manasses
Archbishop of Cologne for simony, ib.; refuses the archbi-
shopric, 327, note ; his learning and character, ib.; aocepts
the archbishopric, 392.
Bruys, Peter de, a heretic, burned, iii. 375; his heresy question-
Bueir, Martin, renowned among the reformers, iv. 351; v. 96,
186; affected by preaching of Luther, iv. 351; sent to dissuade
Luther from appearing at Worms, 545; his opinion of
Luther's writings, 625 ; sketch of his 'character and history,
627 ; greatly distinguished by Cranmer, 628 ; his conduct
in the sacramentary contest, v. 235, 415, 416; 532, note!
instance of his party spirit, 236 ; attends the conferences *t
Bugenhaghis, a reformer, suffers persecution, v. 95; his sentiments respecting resistance, 196, 557; invited to Dantzic, 378; writes in the sacramentary contest, 398 ; his account of Luther's temptations, 480; sketch of his conversion and history, 5G8.
Bnrchard, Bp. of Wurtzburg, iii. 178 ; his successful labours, ibJ-;
resigns his bishoprick, ib. Rutins, a heretic, tortured under Julian persecution, ii. 129; his
constancy, ib.; returns to the church, ib. Butler, a stricture upon his work, iv. 39, ,
Cjecilian, a deacon, chosen Bishop of Carthage, ii. 47 ; his election
gives rise to the Donatist schism, 48. Ccesar, Leonard, a reformer, forced to recant, v. 468; repents,ib.;
his affecting martyrdom, 469, 470. Ccesarea, its situation and importance, i. 44. Ccesarius, brother to Gregory Nazianzen, practises physic at the
court of Julian, ii. 127; retires upon the remonstrance of his
brother, ib.; recalled to court by Jovian, 160 ; disengages
himself from the world, and dies, ib.
— Bp. of Aries presides at Council of Agde, iii. 10 ; his zeal to
rectify abuses in the church service, 11 ; spends part of his youth in monastery of Lerius, 12 ; hides among tombs to avoid a bishopric, ib.; made Bishop of Aries, ib.-; his advices to the laity, and preaching, ib.; ejected through calumny, but restored, ib.; his death, ib.; presides at council of Orange, 18 ; instrumental in checking Semi-pelagianism, 20; attends council of Vaison, 21. Cfijetan, Cardinal, see Boniface VIII.
— Cardinal, appointed to take cognizance of the complaint
against Luther, iv. 361 ; his angry letter to the Elector Frederic, 367 ; his character, ib ; his treatment of Luther, 369 ; blamed at Rome for his conduct in this affair, 376 ; complains to Frederic of Luther's escape, ib.; Luther's ani1» madversions on him, 448. Calama, an African colony, remarkable commotion there, ii.453. Caldonius, an African bishop, his correspondence with Cyprian, .L.354
Calixtines, persecute the Hussites, iv. 279, 286.
Cahinistic denomination, what, v. 154.
Cambridge, Uersity of, its celebrity, iii. 420 ; oppressed by the
Danes, ib.; revives, ib. Camerarius, a reformer, his character, v. 345 ; cautions Melanct
thon against Erasmus, ib. Carnpeggio, Cardinal, attends a diet at Nuremberg as Pope's
nuncio, v. 160; his character, ib.; insulted at Ausburg, i6j;
slighted at Nuremberg, 162 ; his artful letter to Frederic, the
Wise, 163 ; his conduct at the diet, 16.5 & ieq.; manifests corrupt principles respecting celibacy, 183 ; courts Erasmus, 261 ; sent as plenipotentiary to Ausburg, 560. Canirtniut, Frederic, a reformer, remarkable extract from him,
Canute, King of Denmark, elected, 111. 295 ; propagates the
Gospel, ib.; murdered on account of his zeal for the clergy, ifc. — King of England, overcomes Olaus of Norway, iii. 296. Capet, Hugh, begins a third dynasty in France, iii. 252. Capitaneit, Albert de, tortures the Waldenses, iii. 451 ; sent
against them by the Pope, 499. Capita, a reformer, his high repuiation, v. 186; called to assist
the reformation in Alsace, 377 ; administers the sacrament
after the reformed manner, ib. Caracalla, succeeds to the empire, i. 310; gives peace to the
church, ib.; his character, ib.; his lenity accounted for, ib.;
his death, 315.
Caracciolus, a nuncio of the Pope, remonstrates with the Elector
of Saxony respecting Luther, iv. 483. Carotin books, what, iii. 168.
Carolstadt, Archdeacon of Wittemberg, defends Lutberanism, iv. 400; his disputation with Eckius, ib.; his character, v. 25,
< 33. 40. *31 » 236. note 5 398 5 hi* violent proceedings, 33, 39, 192 & seq. 197 ; retires to Basil, 69 ; his death, ib.; Luther's account of him, ib.; his conduct in the sacramentary contest, 191 and seq.; 397 ; banished, i94; seeks a reconciliation with Luther, 196; his sufferings, 197 ; recalled, 199 ; recants his opinions on the sacrament, ib.; connected with the fanatics, 225; his misconduct instanced, '227; profits by adversity, 136.
Carpenter, George, a reformer, his martyrdom, v. 468.
Carpwald, King of the East Angles, embraces Christianity, iii. 104.
Carthusiant, their severity of life, iii. 326, note.
Caselius, a reformer, sent to conciliate in the sacramentary contest, v. 403.
Cauian, John, a Scythian monk, the great pillar of Semi-pelagianism, ii. 388, 487; his authority, 488 ; his confused opinions, 533 ; his learning and morals respectable, 534.
Cathari, interesting account of, iii. 378 4 seq.; 437.
Catherine, of Mecklenburg, her Christian character, v. 24.
Cave, his history commended, ii. 155, note.
Calais, a pastor, persecutes Huss, iv. 220, 237, 247.
Cedulph, King of Northumberland, retires to a monastery, iii. 140, note.
Celerinut, a confessor, intercedes for his lapsed sisters, i. 355 J made reader by Cyprian, 364; his sufferings, ib.
Ceksius, a schismatic at Carthage, ii. 47.
Celestine, V. Pope, his ascetic life, iv. 33, founds a monastery, ib.; chosen Pope, ib,; his purity in accepting office, 34; his unsuccessful attempts at reform, ib.; abdicates, ib.; makes
a constitution allowing the Pope to abdicate, ib.; imprisoned,
35; his patience and death, ib.
Celibacy, recommended by St. Paul, i. 76; voluntary traces of it
in third century, 425. See clergy.
Ciliary, Martin, a German fanatic, v. 44; his violence towards
Ce Tlins, Matthias, his bold defence of Luther, iv. 579.
Celsus, his imputations upon Christians, i. 528.
Centuriators, character of their work, iii. 243.
Ceulfrid, governor of two English monasteries, iii. 143; brings
over the Picts to the Romish communion, ib.
Ceremonies, accumulation of its effects, iii. 197.
Cerinthus, his heresy, i. 135.
Chapters, the Three, what, iii. 24; condemned by a council, ib.
Charlemagne, favours the Pope, iii. 165 ; expels Desiderius from
his dominions, ib.; assumes the title of King of France and
Lombardy, ib.; patronizes learning though illiterate, 167 ;
his conduct in the controversy on images, 167, 191; his
death and character, 201; revived Western Empire, ib.;
fixed the power of the popedom, ib.; his labours to revive
Charles Martel, defeats the Saracens, iii. 145 ; receives flattering
proposals from the Pope, ib.; his death, ib ; protects Boni-
— the Simple, King of France, forced to make humiliating con-
cessions by Rollo, iii. 261.
— V. Emperor, refuses to violate his safe conduct to Luther, iv.
251, note ; Luther's letter to him, 437 ; state of his court,
476; refuses compliance with the Pope's demands respecting
Luther, 484; his obligations to the Elector of Saxony, ib.
503 ; allows the burning of Luther's writings, 484; his
character, 503, 570; v. 553 ; rivalry between him and
Francis 1. of France, iv. 504; his politics, ib.; his conduct
at the diet of Worms, 526, 532, 536, 538, 545, 555, 5,56,
560, 564, 567 ; grants Luther a safe conduct,540 ; his pri-
vity in tbe stratagem for the protection of Luther, 564; his
fame, v. 131 ; persecutes the reformers in Flanders, ib.;
seconds the complaints of Campeggio agaiust the German
Princes, 166 ; offends the German Princes, 168 ; his intem-
perate letter to Frederic of Saxony, 169; his letter to
Erasmus, 346 ; calls a diet at Augsburg, 428 ; his hostility
to the Lutherans, 429, 436,437 ; his religion, 462,547; his
rupture with the Pope, ib. & seq.; bis letters to the Pope
and Cardinals, 548, 549 ; concludes a peace with the Pope,
552 ; his treatment of tbe Protestant ambassadors, 555;
his answer to their appeal,,556; summons a diet at Augsburg,
558 ; crowned by the Pope, ib.; moderates the Pope's mea-
sures against the Reformers, 559.
— Duke of Savoy, favours the Reformation, v. 156; Luther's
letter to him, 157.
Vol. V. S s
Chateauneuf, Peter de, a monk, preaches against the Waldewes
iii. 486 ; murdered, ib.
Cheregate, Fravcis, legate to the diet of Nuremburg, v. 101;
his offensive reply to the German Princes, 109; quits tk
diet abruptly, 111.
Chicheley, Henry, Abp. of Canterbury, his character, iv. 191
195; engages the Kingin an unjust war, ib. ; persecutes ib?
Chievres, the favourite of Charles V. his policy with Leo the
Tenth, iv. 571.
Childeric III. King of France, deposed, iii. 161.
Children, exposure of, means taken to suppress that practice bj
a council, ii. 492 ; instance of constancy to the faith amoK
China, Christianity extirpated there, iv. 65.
Chlvw, John de, a Bohemian lord, appointed to the care «'
John Huss, iv. 211; befriends him at the council of
Constance, 216, 220, 221, 239, 240; his manly advices
Chosroes, King of Persia, his impious boast, iii. 17, note; hi
conquests, 119; requires the Emperor Heraclius to blas-
pheme Christ, ib.; vanquished, 120 ; murdered, ib.
Christian fortitude distinguished from philosophical pride acd
Indian sullenness, i. 474.
Christianity, extension of, in third century, i. 510; its benefits
to the world, ii. 45; propagation of among the Abyssinian;.
103; among the Iberians, 104; among the Sabceans, 105;
along the Rhine and in remote parts of France, 106 ; amon|
theGoths.i. 511 ; ii. 106, 240,406; in Armenia and Persia,
106; establishment of by Theodosius, 209; progress of
among the Saracens, 239 ; its influence in society, 283,301!
note ; 483, 492,517 ; its corruption greater in cities than in
the country, 293; propagated in Ireland, 487 ; received ia
France, 515; received by the Lazi, iii. 14; its extension
among the Moors, 22 ; in England, 73 ; in Germany and
its neighbourhood, ill, 172 ; in Bulgaria, 227; among the
Sclavonians, 228; in Moravia, 229; in Russia, 230,263;
in Dalmatia, ib.; in Scandinavia, 234; in Sweden, 237.
256, 294; in Denmark, 239, 256, 293, 296 ; in Branden-
burg, 243 ; in Holland, ib.; in Hungary, 253, 291 ; in Po-
land, 254, 262; in Prussia, 255, & iv. 14, 65, 234; ia
Norway, iii. 258 ; its independence with regard to success
of any form of government, 259; progress of in Orknoy
Islands, Iceland,and Greenland, 260; among the Rugi, ib.;
its power over the heart exemplified, 293,296, 313; its
progress in Pomerania, 427 ; in Rugen, 428 ; in Finland,
429 ; among the Sclavonians, 430; in Livonia, 431; in
Samogitia, iv. 278.
Christians have all things common, i. 11 ; disciples so called first
at Antioch, 49; at first a term of reproach, ib.; their
character from Tacitus, 98 ; tommanded to retire previous
to destruction of Jerusalem. 100 ; how slandered, 101, 181 ; remarkable testimony of their increase in third century, 282 ; further proof thereof, 322; their unity in third century, 362 ; remarkable proofs of the practical superiority of their religion, 420,520; ii. 37; their increase under Dioclesian, i.497; accustomed to serve in the army, 500; their decay in godliness, 501; their independence of secular support, 521; not without means of resistance, 522; but resistance contrary to their principles, 523; testimonies to them by Pagan authors, 525.
ChristianTM, Bp. of Mentz, accused of incapacity for declining military and secular employment, iv. 40; resigns, 41.
Christiern, II. King of Sweden, exiled, v. 128 ; his misfortunes, ib. 130; his character, 129, & seq.; visits Frederic of Saxony, 130 ; impressed by Luther's preaching, ib.
— III. King of Denmark, promotes the Reformation, v. 130; intreats Luther to conciliate Henry the Eighth, 356.
Chrysostom, John, Bp. of Constantinople, his birth and education, ii. 279; his turn for eloquence, ib.; pleads at the forum, 280; drawn to study Scripture, ib.; practises and defends pious frauds,ib.; lives in monastic austerities, 281; made presbyter, ib.; preaches successfully upon a sedition at Antioch, 281; made bishop of Constantinople, 283; reforms his diocese, ib.; retrenches luxury, ib.; builds an hospital, ib.; his success in preaching, 284; opposed by the clergy and the great, ib.; reclaims many of the Goths from Arianism, ib.; his other labours, 285; finds it impossible to restore discipline, in regard to the Lord's supper, ib.; his expressions respecting repentance vindicated, 286; chargeable with anger, 287 ; unjustly condemned by a synod, ib.; his address to the bishops previous to the attempt to ruin him, ib.; deposed for contumacy, 289; conveyed to a port in the Black Sea, ib.; restored, 290; imprudently declaims against Eudoxia, ib.; suspended and confined, ib.; retires, 291; banished to Cucusus, ib.; his Christian labours in exile, ib.; suffers severe trials, 292; ordered to Pityus, ib.; dies on the road, 293; esteem shewn to his memory, ib.; his character, 294, 295 ; his writings, 295. Church, Christian, first at Jerusalem, i. 3, 9; increase thereof, 11; declension of piety therein under long peace, 322 ; its general appearance under Constantine, ii. 44.
— Eastern, more philosophic than Western, ii. 466; their
separation, iii. 226.
— Yards, their origin, iii. 156, note.
Cirila, an Arian bishop, his injurious treatment of the orthodox, ii.502.
Cktertians, their strictness, iii. 334.
Clara, a widow, suffers martyrdom for denying tiansubstantiation, v. 467.
Clark, Dr. his notion of the Trinity, ii. 6ii
Clark, John,a mechanic, and reformer,suffers dreadful persecntk:
and martyrdom, v. 153.
Claudius, Bp. of Turin, first of the reformers, iii. 21s ; in ear.';
life chaplain to Lewis the Meek, 213; his orthodox am-
nions, ib.; his labours in support of godliness, 214: oppose
image worship, 215; his apology, ib.; his opinion of pe-
grimages, 216, 219 ; influence of his opinions, 218.
Clemens, Alexandriniis, an eclectic philosopher, i. 289; succeed
Pantoenus in the catechetical school, 290; made presbyter,
ib.; his theological views, 291; his exhortations to lit
Gentiles, ib.; his Pedagogue, 292 ; Slromata, 293.
Clement, of Rome, his epistle, i. 122.
— VI. Pope, excommunicates the Emperor, iv. 73.
— VII. Pope, his uncanonical election, v. 160; his two letters u>
Frederic of Saxony, 162 ; his insincerity and corrupt maxima
165, 169; solicits Erasmus to oppose Luther, 260 ; insists
in all his treaties on the extirpation of the Lutherans, 434,
his treaty with the Emperor and King of England, ib.; hs
treaty with England and France, 435 ; his letter to the Par-
liament of Paris against the Lutherans. 436; his rupture
with the Emperor, 547, & seq.; absolves Francis I. from b»
oath, ib.; concludes peace with the Emperor, 552 ; presse
him to crush ihe reformers, 559; his precautions previous
to the diet of Augsburg, 560.
Cltrgij, decisions of Nicene council respecting their marriage
and translation, ii. 63 ; prohibited at Antioch from keeping
matrons in their houses, 283; Jerom's remark as to their
acceptance of invitations, 473 ; how anciently provided lor.
iii. 10; those in the country obliged to receive into thai
houses, persons intended for the ministry, 2 1 ; celibacy oi
opposed in tenth century, 246; contribute to revival of
learning, 283; their marriage forbidden by a council,
Climmachus, John, flourished, iii. 29.
Cltidomir, King of the Franks, defeats Sigismund, iii. 13 ; slain, ib.
Clotaire, King of the Franks, marries Radegunda, hi. «8.
Clotilda, wife of Clovis, her zeal for the doctrine of the Trinity,
ii. 514 ; endeavours to convert her husband, ib.; her exem-
plary piety, ib.
Clovis, King of the Franks, receives baptism, ii. 513 ; his cha-
racter, ib.; providential circumstances attending his con-
version, ib. & seq.; founds the French monarchy, ib.
Cluvtie, Cornelius, ridiculous story of his conversion to the doc-
trine of transubstantiation, iv. 589.
Cnophius, a reformer, persecuted, v. 95.
Cobham, Lord, hia partiality for the Lollards, iv. 169; becomes
obnoxious to the clergy, 170; his zeal for reform, ib.; his fa-
vour with the Kingand people, ib.; prosecuted asaheretic,ib.;
complained of to the King, 171; his open avowal to him, 172;
cited, and refuses obedience, 173; excommunicated, ib.; bis
confession of faith, ib.; his challenge, ih.; arrested, 147; his first and second examinations, ib. & seq ; his acuteness and intrepidity, 177; condemned, 183 ; escapes from the Tower, 185; falsely accused of treason, 188; taken in Wales, 191 ; cruelly put to death, ib.; his conduct before the lords, 193; his fortitude, 195.
Cochleus, a papal advocate, opposes Luther, iv. 558 ; translates Erasmus's Diatribe, v. 270; his prejudices, 545 ; his account of papal barbarity, ib.
Ctrlestine, Bp. of Rome, his nine articles, ii. 485; opposes doctrines of Cassian, 535 ; his testimony to Augustine, ib.; his character, ib.: his maxims respecting ordination, .536.
Ctclestius, an Irishman, accompanies Pelagius, ii. 370 ; his genius, 371; his character, 372; flies to Africa, ib.; summoned before a synod at Carthage, 373 ; condemned as a heretic, ib.; settles in Sicily, 375; deceives Zosimus, 380; condemned by Zosimus, 383; retires to Constantinople, ib.; again appears at Rome, and is expelled, 386; reduced to obscurity, 387.
Coiji, chief of the Northumbrian priests, his conversion, iii. 102 ; profanes the idol temples, 103.
Colomban, an Irish priest, labours successfully among the Picts, iii. 28 ; his disciples remarkable for holiness and abstemiousness, ib.
Colosse, church of, i. 81 ; Paul's epistle to it, 82.
Columban, an Irish monk, his successful labours, iii. 112; his
writings, 131. ... . . . -(
Commodus, the Emperor, his reign remarkable for peace granted
to the Christians, i. 241. Communion, Holy; see Eucharist. Sacramentary Coutest and
Transubstantiation, question relating to both kinds, iv. 235,
Commutation of offences, doctrine of, iv. 12.
Commenus, Alexius, burns a supposed Manicbee, iii. 421.
Condigmty, what, iv. 81, note.
Confessor, what, i. 357, note.
Congruiti/, what, iv. lit, 81, note.
Constans, son of Constantine the Great, rules in Italy and Africa, ii. 75 ; his attachment to the Nicene faith, 82 ; his deaih, 85.
— Emperor of the East, forbids the agitation of the monothelite controversy, iii. 124 ; his character, 125 ; persecutes Martin and Maximus, ib.; murders his brother, 128 ; murdered, ib.
Constantia, sister of Constantine, patronises the Arians, ii. 6a, 6(i.
Constantine, the Great, succeeds his father and gives toleration to the Christians, ii. 31 ; subverts the kingdom of Maxentius, and becomes sole master of the western world, 32 ; married to the daughter of Maximian, ib.; puts his father-in-law to death, ib.; his early predilection for Christianity, 40; his doubts and prayers, 41; receives (« miraculous token, ib.; consults the pastors, and professes Christianity, 42 ; his re
ligious character questionable, 43,75; builds churches, aid
gives various encouragements to Christians, ib.; his war
with Licinius, 44; forbids heathen sacrifices, ib.; bis ap-
parent zeal, 45; makes Christian orations, ib.; directs
observance of Lord's day and Friday, ib.; his disposition to
depreciate divinity of Christ, 46; his oppressiveness, 47; his
patience with the Donatists, 48; endeavours to heal th*
Arian divisions, 55; summons the Nicene council, 56;
appears in person, and exhorts the council to peace, 58;
burns the mutual accusations presented to him, ib.; acta at
moderator, ib.; his theological opinions, 61; his remarkable
reply to Acesius, 64; is imposed on by Arius, 66; orders
a synod to examine the conduct of Athanasius, 68 ; weakly
listens to reports against him, 71; sends for Arius, and
examines his real sentiments, 72 ; is deceived by him, and
orders his re-admission, 73 ; his baptism and death, 74; his
letter to Anthony the monk, 101 ; his measures for patro-
nizing Christianity, 111; abolishes crucifixion, ib.; forbids
divination, ib.; exposes the mysteries, and profanes the
statues of the Pagans, ib.
Constantine, II. son of the former, rules in Spain and Gaul, ii. 75;
restores Athanasius, 76 ; slain, ib.
— Pogoiritus, Emperor, presides at council of Constantinople,
— Bp. of Nacolia, his eminence as an opposer of image worship,
— VI. Emperor, his zeal against images, iii. 160, 162 ; forbids
prayers to saints, and discountenances monks, 164 ; calum-
nies against his character, ib.; his death, 165.
— VII. Emperor, succeeds his father in childhood, iii. 165;
dethroned, and barbarously treated by his mother, 169, note;
his death, ib.
— founder of the Paulician sect, history of his opinions, iii. 202;
assumes the name of Sylvanus, 203 ; his successful preaching,
205 ; stoned to death, 206.
Constantinople, city of, its learning and politeness, iii. 284.
Constantius, one of the Caesars, under Dioclesian, his probity and
humanity, ii. 2 ; reluctantly demolishes the churches, but
spares the persons of Christians, 5 ; obliged to persecute, 17;
his remarkable conduct in this respect in his own household,
18; succeeds to the western part of the empire, 19; his
death, 31 ; his sentiments respecting Christianity, 40.
— son of Constantine the Great, rules in the east, ii. 75 ; his
character, 76; becomes an Arian, ib.; encourages and
directs an Arian council, 78; his unjust proceedings, ib.;
invites Athanasius to return, 83; his reception of him, ib.;
revives the persecution of the Trinitarians, 85; assembles
a council at Milan, ib.; his violent proceedings there, 86;
his cosily offerings, 93 ; his death, 94 ; his attempt to depose
I-'rumentius, 104; sends ambassadors to the Sabean*, pro-
posing the erection of churches, 105; his zeal against idolatry, 112.
Constitutions, concerning persecution of Christians, ii. 16. Consubstantiation, doctrine of, v. 192; see also Sacramentary Contest.
Contest, sacramentary, v. 154, 191, & seq.; 226, 396, & seq. Copin, a Waldensian martyr, iii. 500.
Corinth, church of, i. 73; epistles thereto, 75 ; its character, ib.
Cornelius, a Centurion, his character and conversion, i. 45.
— elected Bp. of Rome during Decian persecution, i. 372 ; his character, ib.; opposed by Novatiau, ib.; his letter to Fabius, 373; his election confirmed in African synod, 375; complained of at Carthage by the Novatians, 377; restores Maximus and other separatists, 381; harshness of his language towards schismatics, 382; dies in exile, 401; account of his banishment, 413.; not eminent for genius, 415.
Council, first Christian, at Jerusalem, i. 25 ; several at Carthage, 375; »• 373. 379; 22; two African, i. 428; ii. 405; of Alexandria expels Arius, ii. 52 J a second council there condemns him, 55; others at Alexandria, 132; iii. 121; of Nice, ii. 56, 61, 62; second of Nice, iii. 167; of Tyre, ii. 68 ; Arian at Constantinople, ii. 78; of too bishops in Egypt protest against appointment of Eusebius to see of Constantinople, ib.; Arian at Antioch, ib.; of Rome, several, i.487; ii.81,509; of Antioch, concerning Paul of Samosata,
i. 488 ; a second council concerning the same, 489, 491 ; another at Antioch, ii. 160; of Valence, ii. 177 ; another of Valence, iii. 225; of Sardica, ii. 82; of Milan, ii. 85; of Rimini, ii. 93; of Silencia, ib.; of Laodicea, ii. 158; of Constantinople, several, ii. 183; iii. 23, 128; of Aquilera,
ii. 184; of Diospolis, ii. 377 ; of Milenum, ii. 380, 406 ; of Braga, ii. 489, note; two of Vaison, ii. 492; iii. 21 ; of Ephesus, ii. 526; of Chalcedon, ii. 526; of Agde, iii. 10; of Orange, iii. 18; two of Clermont, iii. 21, 417; two of Orleans, iii. 23, 287; of Mascon, iii. 95; two of Paris, iii. 119,211; two of the Lateran, iii. 124; iv.313; of Cloveshoo, iii. 141 ; one under Constantius the Sixth, iii. 162 ; of Frankfort, iii. 169; of Mentz, iii. 223 ; one held by Hincknian of Rheims, iii. 223 ; two other councils, ib.; of Troste,
iii. 246; two of Rheims, iii. 247, 373; of Sutris, iii. 285, note; of Placentia, iii. 285; of Arras, iii. 287; of Bari, iii. 310; of Soissons, iii. 349; three of London, iii. 422 ; iv. 70, i6y; of Florence, iii. 422; of Toulouse, iii. 495; of Lambeth,
iv. 71; of Constance, iv. 135,205; of Basil, iv. 280; of Pisa, iv. 312.
Councils, objections tn them canvassed, i. 494 ; their great authority, 517 ; their superiority to Popes, iv. 206.
Courtney, Bp. of London,cites Wicklifl'e, iv. 114; his character, ib.; made archbishop of Canterbury, 164; persecutes the Lol-
lards, ib.; opposes Wickliffe, 587, 591 ; his ability Ju
Courts, spiritual, remarks upon them, iii. 49.
Cranmer, Abp. his notions respecting the extent of dioccsa,
Creed, Nicene, ii. 60 ; of Athanasius, not genuine, 164.
Crete, evangelized, i. 84.
Crontberg, see Hartmurth.
Cromer, Alexius, a proselyte of the Reformers, made chaplain iff
Duke George of Saxony, v. 488 ; his conduct in his offict,
ib.; dismissed, 489; his misfortunes, ib.
Cross, miraculous, ii. 41; made a military ensign, 4a; remark-
able story of a battle, 44.
Crusades, evil effects of, iii. 285, 418; policy and justice of tbera
discussed, 232, & seq.; promoted by a special council, 417.
Culdees, iii. 199, note.
Cunigilisus, King of the West Saxons, receives baptism, iii. 10S.
Cyprian, chosen bishop of Carthage, i. 323 ; his previous history,
324; his great charity, 325; reluctant to become a bisbop,
ib.; his letter to Donatus, and therein his testimony to the
power of converting grace, 326, & seq.; his testimony to
continuance of miraculous gifts, 328; not remarkable for
learning, 330; refers the persecution under Decius tn a de-
cline of discipline, 335; congratulates the Roman clergy 00
the martyrdom of their bishop, 337 ; his letters to Aloyses
and Maximus, ib. 358; obliged to retire from. Carthage,
338; his exertions during his retreat, 339 ; his letter to his
clergy, from his retirement, 341 ; refuses to do any thing
without consent of clergy and people, 345; records some
visions, 347; displeased at re-admission of lapsed without
his consent, 349; vindicated from charge of stretching epis-
copal power, 350; his letter to the laity, ib.; his observations
to his clergy on the letter of Lucian, respecting re-admission
of lapsed, 353; his correspondence with Caldonius, ib.; his
correspondence with church of Rome respecting the lapsed,
357 ; his letter to the lapsed, 359; receives commendations
from Roman clergy, 360 ; ordains Amelius, and apologizes
for not consulting his clergy, 364; his patronage of those who
suffered persecution, 365 ; two other letters to his clergy, ib.;
severely tried by a schism in Carthage, 367; orders Feliris-
simus to be suspended in consequence, 368 ; his affectionate
letter to the people on the subject, ib.; returns to Carthage,
374; engaged at a council there, 375; his letter to Corne-
lius, 379; endeavours to heal breaches in church of Rome,
380; his delicate attention to order, ib.; his letter to the
Roman confessors, 383; his letter to Antonius concerning
Novatian schism, 385; hastens reception of penitents in tbe
prospect of persecution, 386; supports the episcopal dignity,
in a letter to Cornelius 387; character of this epistle, ib.;
his censures of Novatianism immoderate, 412; his letter to Cornelius in banishment, 413; his letter to people ofThebais, 416; bis letter to Demetrianus, a persecutor, 419; excites his people to charity during a pestilence, 420 ; his treatise on mortality, 421 ; writes to the Numidian church, 424; to Coecilins, relative to the use of water in the Eucharist, 427 ; presides at a council, 428 ; his opinion of players, 433 ; opposes restoration of a lapsed bishop, 436 ; asserts the authority of a bishop over his deacon, 437 ; his argument on the occasion censured, ib.; protests against the clergy taking secular offices, 438; accused of haughtiness, 440 ; his answer, 441 ; contends for re-baptism of heretics, 443 ; seized, and commanded to sacrifice, 446 ; his confession, ib.; banished to Curulin, 447; his letter to nine suffering bishops, 448 ; returns from exile, 450; sent for to Utica, 452 ; conceals himself, and why, ib.; returns to Carthage, 453 ; seized, ib.; testimonies of the respect in which he was held, ib.; confesses, and is beheaded, ib. 455; compared with Origen, ib.; his letter to Demetrian, 462; character of his writings, 468; success of his labours, 469 ; his writings pleasing to learned Pagans, ii. 16; why called Coprianus, ib.; apt to torturescripture in controversy, v. 385.
Cyprian, Bp. of Unizilia, his charity to those persecuted by Huneric, ii. 500 ; his sufferings for the faith, ib.
Cyriac, Martinis, a Hungarian, enters at Wittemberg, in order to hear Luther, v. 143.
Cyriacus, an African bishop, delivered by his people to the Saracens, iii. 286 ; his piety, ib.
Ci/ril, a child, his uncommon fortitude, i. 472.
— Bp. of Alexandria, opposes Nestorian heresy, ii. 526.
— a Thessalonian, his birth and education, iii. 226; reproves
Photius, 227; his character, ib.; becomes an active missionary, ib. & seq.; his disinterested refusal of presents, 229; inveuts an alphabet, ib.; dies a monk, ib.
Dumas, a youthful bishop of Magnesia, commended by Ignatius., i. 160.
Damasus, succeeds Liberias in see of Rome, ii. 170; his severity to the Luciferians, 162.
Dambrouca, wife of Micislaus, her zeal, iii. 263.
Danes invade England, iii. 199 ; their savage character, ib.; reformed by influence of Christianity, 2C,6 ; their zeal, 297.
Daniel, Bp. of Winchester, his advice respecting the best method of dealing with idolaters, iii. 176; his advice respecting communion and discipline, 177.
Deacons, institution of the order, i. 15.
Decius, Emperor, succeeds Philip, i. 323 ; persecutes the church beyond all his predecessors, 334 ; obliged by an incursion 01
the Goths to leave Rome, 375; slain in battle, 377; isa
character, ib. 411. Degrees in law and divinity, when instituted, iii. 419. Deitleben, agent at Rome for Frederic the Wise, his letter to lk
prince, iv. 460.
Demetrias, an illustrious Roman lady, flies into Africa foz the Goths, ii. 375; persuaded by Augustin to a vo« j virginity, 376.
Demetrius, Bp. of Alexandria, elected, i. 295 ; commits tbesdwi there to Origen, 297; envies his fame, 301 ; procures b ejection, 320 ; his death, ib.
Vemophilus, an Arian Bp. of Constantinople, expelled, ii. 18s.
Descartes, not the inventor of a famous argument attributed him, iii. 316.
Desiderius, Duke of Tuscany; his intrigues with the Pope for \k crown of Lombardy, iii. 164; expelled by Charlemagne, 165.
Diddensis, a presbyter of Cyprian's, communicates with the lapsi i, 359 ; his obstinacy, ib.
Didymus, of Alexandria, loses his sight at five years old, ii.250; attains great learning, and fills the chair at Alexandria, ib.; his character, ib.; his treatise on the Holy Spirit commended, ib. ,
Dicthmar, Abp. of Prague, his dying remorse for neglect of doty, iii. 253.
Dinoth, Abbot of Bangor, iii. 34.
Diocese, ancient name, »apoi)e»a, i. 515 ; their extent, ib.; antkffi ones, small, 516 ; evil of large ones, 517.
Dioclcsian succeeds to the empire, i. 497; his indulgence fa eighteen years to the Christians, ib.; becomes a persecutor, 499 ; objects to a general persecution, ii. 2 ; bis rage against the Christians, 4; compels his wife and daughters to sacrifice, ib.; Spanish inscriptions in testimony of his persecution, 6 ; remarkable motto 011 his medal, ib.; resigns the empire, 19 ; his death, 37.
Diodorus, an Ascetic, his zeal, ii. 83.
Dionysius, the Areopagite, converted, i. 73; becomes the first bishop of Athens, 249.
— Bp. of Corinth, his writings, i. 249,
— Bp. of Alexandria, sutlers persecution, i. 389; ordered by
a divine manifestation to remove, ib.; seized and led to Taposiris, ib.; his remarkable deliverance, ib.; his account ot the persecution of Alexandria, 390; opposes Novaliaa schism, 397 ; his letter to Novatian, ib.; brought before tlx prefect, 475; his confession, ib.; banished, 476; his account of the sufferings of himself and others, 477 ; his great celebrity, 482; his account of the Subellian heresy, ib.; his opinion respecting re-baptism, 483; and the Novatian schism, ib.; returns to Alexandria, 484; opposes Neposin his notion of the Millenium, 486 ; controverts Sabeliianism, 487; his expressions disproved by a council, ib.; tu>
apology, ib.; his letter to council of Antioch, respecting Paul
of Samosata, 489 ; his death, ib.
Dionysius, Bp. of Rome, holds a council on Sabellian heresy,
i. 487; his death, 496; his letter respecting doctrine of the
Bp. of Milan, banished by a council, ii. 87.
Discipline, proof of its strictness in primitive times, i. 249; its
decline in long peace, 335 ; how tempered in early church
of Rome, 341; its decline in church of Carthage, 357 ; dif-
ferent regard paid to it by first Christians and those of pre-
sent day, 361; remarkable proof of its strictness in purest
churches, 386; held too high in third century, 396 ; strict
and godly prevalent in that century, 429; its relaxation and
consequent evils, 498 ; revived by Nicene council, ii. 63 ;
nearly lost in our age, ib.; remarkable instance of it in the
case of Theodosius, 203 ; Basil's attention to it in the church
of Casarea, 268; neglect of, respecting administration of
Lord's Supper, 285; difficulty experienced by Chrysostom
of reforming it, ib.; strongly recommended by Augustine,
433; excess of, in decrees of a Roman council, 510; Coeles-
tine's decrees respecting it, 536; Leo's decrees, 540; canons
of council of Agde, iii. 10; laws of Justinian relating to
bishops, 18; decrees of council of Vaison, respecting the
education of ministers, 21 ; decree of council of Clermont,
respecting patronage, ib.; of council of Orleans, respecting
the same, 23; instance of, in a case of debauchery, 49;
instance of, in case of episcopal neglect, 58 ; rules of council
of Marcon, 95 ; declaration of Martin, bishop of Rome, 131;
attention to it by Ado, archbishop of Mentz, 199 ; defect of,
in tenth century, 272 ; dissolved by sale of indulgences, 418 ;
among the Waldenses, 460; attempts to revive it by council
of Constance, iv. 208, 209; a favourite point with the Hus-
sites, 281 ; instance of its abuse, v. 183.
— monastic, rules of, formed by Basil and Gregory, ii. 267.
Dissenters, first body of, i. 372; second body of, ii.48; third
body of, 50 ; penalties denounced against them, 185.
Divinations, forbidden by council of Agde, iii. 11 ; divination by
the Gospel condemned by Augustine, ii. 470. See also
Oracles and Magic.
Divinity, scholastic, its three periods, iv. 108, note.
Docetce, i. 135.
Doctrine, its connection with practice, i. 543 ; obscured in fourth
century, ii. 46.
Dominic, a monk, founder of the Dominicans, preaches against
the Waldenses, iii. 486 ; attends the disputation against the
Albigenses, 488 ; his activity in the inquisition, 494; his
death, ib.; his fictitious miracles and monstrous austerities,
. iv. 23; his pride and ignorance, 24; constituted the
— a friar, his martyrdom, iv. 290.
Dominicans, their character, iv. 3 ; why called Jacobins, 4, as
enlist men for the crusades, 11; their usurpation of je^
in the Sorbonne, 18; intrude into dioceses and parishes, i.
Domiiian, Emperor, persecutes the Christians, i. 100; is
Donation, an orthodox bishop, bastinadoed and banished, ii.502
Donatists, their schism, ii. 47, 425; character, 48 ; not calk?
Nicene council, 65 ; had no effusion of the Spirit, ib.; attea:
to unite them to the church, 101; their flagitiousnes3.1T:
distinction of their characters, 424; their activity in re-ia>-
tizing, 425; subjected to civil penalties, 426; forbkhia*
hold assemblies, iii. 22.
Donatus, heads a schism, ii. 47.
Donysia, a martyr, under the persecution of Huneric, ii. 504; if
extraordinary fortitude, ib.
Dounotias, a Jew, and a King in Arabia Felix, his cruelty:
Christians, iii. 14; conquered and slain, ib.
Draco, John, a Reformer, suffers persecution, v. 147; hiscb-
racter by Erasmus, ib. note; sketch of his history, 576.
Dungal, a recluse, writes against Claudius of Turin, iii. 216.
Du Pin, Monsieur, his criticisms on a work of Luther's, iv. 45?.
instance of his prejudice against Luther, 543, note.
Eadbald, King of Kent, his contempt for Christianity, iii. 98; b
reformation, 99 ; death, 108.
Easconbert, son and successor to Eadbald, totally destroys idolatry
in his dominions, iii. 108.
Easter, controversy respecting celebration of, i. 210, 259 ; settle;
by Nicene council, ii. 62.
Ebionitcs, their heresy, i. 135; improperly considered orthodox,^
Ecdicius, remarkable for his great charity, ii. 497.
Ecebolius, a sophist, his apostasy and repentance, ii. 126.
Echard, an inquisitor, persecutes the VValdenses, iii. 509 ; is cos-
vinced by and joins them, ib.; burned, ib.
Eckius, a celebrated Romanist, writes against the theses of Lute,
iv. 351; his talents and learning, 399 ; his former friendship
with the Reformer, ib.; motives of his enmity, ib.; con-
troversy between him and Luther, ib.; challenges CaroUtadt
to a disputation, 400; his superiority to him, 401; challengn
Luther, 402 ; conscious of defeat, 412; attacks JMelauctbce,
430 ; Luther's animadversions on him, 448 ; endeavours to
ruin Luther, 461,472 ; experiences violent opposition, 475;
his hypocrisy, 479; assists in the persecution of Leonard
Cassar, 469; employed to defend divisions among the Re-
— John, Emperor's speaker at diet of Worms, his violence against
Luther, iv. 553.
Eclectics, their principles of philosophy, i. 562.
■xolampadivs, a celebrated reformer, his letter to the Waldenses, iii. 506 ; his renown, iv. 350 ; v. 96 ; his conduct in the sacramentary contest, 235, 401; his intimacy with Erasmus, 318; his works recommended by Erasmus, 320, note; ■401 ; his character, 396, 402, 403 ; attends the conferences at Marpurg, 518, & seq.; his letter to two persecuted persons, 542.
ulgar Atheling, the last of the Saxon princes, retreats under the protection of Malcolm, iii. 306.
7Alicia, a married woman, vows perpetual continency, ii. 452 ; disposes of her property to monks, ib.; Augustine's remonstrance with her, 453.
Edxvard I. King of England, exposes a fraudulent miracle at his father's tomb, iii. 332 ; defeats the Earl of Leicester, iv 29 ; his character, 72.
— II. his weakness, iv. 72.
— III. his firm opposition to papal exactions, iv. 72.
Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, his conversion, iii. loo; bap-
tized, 103; slain in battle, 105.
English, their deplorable ignorance in ninth century, iii. 200.
Egbert, becomes King of Wessex, iii. 201 ; of all England, ib.
— Abbot of Schonauge, his account of the Cathari, iii. 384. E/eazar, Count of Arian, his piety, iv. 68 ; remarkable regulations of his house, ib.; his death, 69.
Election, doctrine of, ii. 238, 393.
Elesbaan, King of Abyssinin, conquers Dounouas, iii. 14; embraces a monastic life, ib.
Elfric, Abp. of Canterbury, his canon respecting church service, iii. 302.
Elizabeth, Queen of Denmark, her character and misfortunes, v. 128, 131.
— Wife of the Elector of Brandenburg, persecuted for her attach
ment to the Gospel, v. ,543 ; escapes into Saxony, ib.
E/uisa, seduced by Abelard, iii. 342 ; glories in the infamous connection, ib.; her ingratitude to her uncle, ib.; retires into a convent, 343; character of her correspondence with Abelard, 370.
Eli/mas, a sorcerer, struck blind by St. Paul, i. 50.
Emmerman, a Frenchman, abandons his possessions to preach the Gospel, iii. 115; his labours and success, ib.; murdered, ib.
Emperor, German, how chosen, iii. 250.
Empire, Western, revived by Charlemagne, iii. 201 ; separated from French monarchy and fixed in Germany, 250.
Emser, a doctor of Leipsic, depreciates Luther's version, v. 74 ; produces a counter-translation, 84 ; translates Erasmus's Diatribe, 270; translates the correspondence between Luther and Henry the Eighth, 363, note ; his unchristian conduct to Crostier, 4S9 ; his death, ib.; his attempt to entrap Luther, 570 ; his character, ib.
England, Church of, its rudiments, iii. 78, 79.
Ennodius, Bp. of Pavia, his writings, iii. 93.
Epaphras, his example deserving the imitation of all pastoral*'.
Epaphroditus, ministers to St. Paul, i. 65; his sickness and 3-
Ephesvs, church of, i. 84 ; its spirituality, 85; idolatry of the tin,
86 ; character of the church, 89.
Ephraim, his birth and education, ii. 251 ; his taste for solitu*.
252 ; persuaded to live in the city of Edessa, ib. ; compel
various pieces, ib.; feigns madness to evade a bishopric, &•
composes Christian hymns to combat heretical notions, i..
writes on utility of psalmody, ib.; his noble conduct dura; 1
famine, 253 ; extracts from his writings, 254, & seq.; to
superstition, 258 ; general superiority of his views, 259.
Epictetus, the stoic, his manner of noticing Christians, i. 526.
Epiphanius, Bp. of Cyprus, his character, ii. 277; reniarkahf
stories of his beneficence, ib.
— Bp. of Pavia, intercedes with Theodoric for the adherents a
Odoacer, ii. 510 ; sent by Theodoric on a mission, ib.; Is
success, 511; sketch of his life, ib.
Episcopacy, form of inferred from letter of church of Rome, 1.341;
ancient, free from secularity, 518. See also Government
Erasmus, bow serviceable to the Reformation, iv. 288, 343,
v. 258, 353 ; revives classical literature, iv. 327 ; v. 25S;
his character, iv. 343, 620 ; v. 100, 258, 351, 462 ; bis at-
count of Luther's character, proceedings, and doctrine, i».
344, 360, 464, 486, 488; his letter to the Elector Frederic,
387 ; his letter to Luther, 395 ; his remarkable interne*
with Frederic, 485 ; v. 353; his axioms, iv. 487 ; refuses J
bribe to write against Luther, 488; becomes an adversary to
the Reformers, 620; his religious sentiments, 633 ; condemns
persecution, v. 148; his opinions respecting the Eucharist,
239; his ill-natured remarks on Luther's marriage, 251 i
his controversy with Luther, 258, & seq.; his SpoDgia,s6;,
how far chargeable with scepticism, 315, & seq.; his inti-
macy with Ecolampadius, 318 ; bis judgment of that writer's
work, 320, note; 401 ; his levity, 331, 344, & seq.; his
correspondence with Melancthon, 322, & seq.; his artfal
letter to Clement the Seventh, 326; a similar letter toCnm-
peggio, 327 ; his powers, 328 ; his apologies, 336, <i se<).;
his inconsistency, 344, & seq.; also throughout the contro-
versy passim, censured by Uersity of Paris, 347; hi?
defence, ib.; his propensity to Pelagianism, 354; his letter
to Henckell, 462; maligns the Reformers, 511; his cor-
respondence with Adrian,582, & seq.
Eric, King of Sweden, sends for missionaries to evangelize his
kingdom, iii. 257 ; murdered on account of his piety, ib.
— King of Denmark, imposes Christianity on people of Rugcn,
iii. 428; vanquishes the F'inlanders, 429; passionately
laments their falling unbaptized, 430; spreads Christianity
in the country, ib.; his character, ib.; murdered, ib.
Eric, a German prince, enters into a confederacy against the
Lutherans, v. 427.
Esch, John, a reformed monk, his martyrdom, v. 148, 577.
Establishments, religious, question of discussed, ii. 209.
Ethelbcrt, King of Kent, his character, iii. 74, 81; favourably
receives a mission from Gregory, ib.; converted, 77; his
Ethelburg, a Christian princess, her marriage with Edwin, King
of the Northumbrians, iii. 101.
Ethelred, King of England, orders a massacre of the Danes, iii.
300; flies into Normandy, ib.; returns, 303.
Ethiopia, Gospel planted there, i. 43.
Eucharist, superstitious notions respecting it in third century,
i- 396; frequency of its administration in primitive churches,
416, 519; water used in it in some churches, 427.
Eucherius, of Lyons, renowned for piety, ii. 543.
Eudemun, Bp. of Smyrna, apostatizes, i. 403.
Eudoxia, the Empress, her character, ii. 287; lends her influence
to ruin Chrysostom, ib.; compared to Jezebel, 289 ; writes
respectfully to Chrysostom, and presses his recal, 290.
Eudoxius, translated from See of Antioch to that of Constan-
tinople, ii. 93; baptizes Valens, 158; his ascendant over
that Emperor, ib.; his death, 159.
Eugeniut, an usurper of the empire, put down by Theodosius,
— appointed Bishop of Carthage, ii. 498 ; his exemplary cha-
racter, ib.; his letter to his flock, 504 ; his banishment and
sufferings, 508 ; recalled, 509.
— III. Pope, educated under St. Bernard, iii. 337; practises
austerities after his elevation, 338; his character, ib..;
obliged to fly into France, ib.; testimony of his uprightness,
403, note ; institutes degrees in law, 419.
F.uiwmius, an able Arian, banished by Theodosius, ii. 208.
Euodius, a military man, friend of Augustine, regenerated, ii. 357.
Euphraxus, governor of Calabria, his character, iii. 281 ; endea-
vours to mortify Nilus the monk, ib.; sends for him on his
death bed, ib.; receives the monastic habit, ib.
Euplius, a Sicilian martyr, refuses to deliver up the Scrip-
tures, ii. 18.
Eusebius, a deacon, attends the confessors at great personal risk,
i. 477 ; becomes bishop of Laodicea, 478.
— Bp. of Ca:sarea, the historian, disposed to lessen the honours
of Christ, ii. 46, 52, 60; speaks in a subordinate manner
of the Holy Ghost, i. 46; was the great favourite of Con-
stantine, ii. 61 ; declines See of Antioch, 67; presides at
council of Tyre, and is insulted by Potamo, 68 -, his death,
76; his character, 77.
— Bp. of Nicomedia, supports Arianism, ii. 55; his interest
with Constantine, ib.; his letter to Nicene council, 60 ; is
rebuked by an Arian bishop for dissimulation, 62 ; had been
bishop of Berytus, 64; banished, 66; restored, ib.; im
to Athanasius to restore Arius, ib.; his villauous arc
tion of Athanasius, 71 ; menaces Alexander of Consti.
nople, 72 ; translated to See of Constantinople, 78 ; his cat
and character, 80.
Eusebius, an eunuch, his influence over Constantius, ii. 76; asas
in opposing Liberius, 87.
— Bp. of Vercella;, supports Nicene faith at council of Milin,:
86 j banished, ib.; his piety and sufferings, 90; nUma
his see, ts>6; distinguished at council of Alexandria, 131
— of Samosata, his exemplary passiveness, ii. 166; further par-
ticulars of his life, 167.
Eustathians, ii. 83.
Eustathius, of Antioch, deposed through the artifices of cbe
Arians, ii. 67; dies in exile, ib.; opposed Eusebius,
Eusus, a bishop, appears at disputation against the Albigeoss.
Eutychcs, a monk, his heresy, ii. 526.
EutychUau, endeavour to propagate Christianity, iii. 129.
F.utychius, Bp. of Constantinople, refuses to publish a decree d
Justinian, iii. 24; banished, and dies in exile, ib.; his cha-
racter, ib. ; excepted from recal of the exiled bishops, 25:
restored, 26; his whimsical notion respecting the body, ib.
Euzoius, the friend of Arius, made bishop of Antioch, ii. 94; lis
popularity, 133 ; his moderation, ib.; opposes Peter's electica
to See of Alexandria, 164.
Evagrius, elected bishop of Constantinople, ii. 159 ; banished by
— Sckolasticus, his character as an historian, iii. 16, note; his
Erervinus, of Steinfold, his letter to Bernard respecting the
Cathari, iii. 378.
Ewald, two brothers of that name murdered on a mission, iii. 174.
Eicummunication, how brought into contempt, iv. 44.
Faber, John, vicar of Constance, and afterwards bishop of Vi-
enna, opposes Luther, v. 122 ; his passionate endeavours to
preserve doctrine of transubstantialion, 449; foments divi-
sions among the reformers, 556.
— James, a Lutheran, persecuted, v. 152; sent to confer with
Bucer and Capito, 168.
Fabian, Bp. of Rome, suffers martyrdom, i. 337.
Facundus, Bp. of Hermiana, his notion of the Lord's Supper, iii.94.
Fathers, deference paid to their writings, iii. 197.
Faustus, his sufferings for the Gospel, i. 477, 478. ^
— a Manichee bishop, enchants the people by bis eloquence, b.
321 ; his frankness, 322.
Faust us, Bishop of Ries, sketch of his life and character, ii. 546. Favel, a Lutheran, persecuted, v. 152 ; flies to Switzerland, and
adopts.the tenets of Zuingle, 153. Fclicis.simus, his exceptionable character, i. 367 ; seduces part of
Cyprian's flock, ib.; suspended, 368 ; condemned by African
synod, 375; goes to Rome, raises a party, and threatens
Felicitas, a Christian slave, delivered of a child in prison, i. 307 ; her reply to a door-keeper, ib.; exposed to a wild cow, 308 ; her martyrdom, 309.
Felix, Bp. of Rome, elected, i. 496 ; his testimony to the divinity of Christ, ib.
— of Tiberia, his martyrdom, ii. 18.
— a Manichee, attempts to disseminate his sentiments at Hippo,
ii. 456 ; convinced at a public disputation with Augustine, ib.
— Bp. of Dummock, his successful preaching, iii. 105. -.— Bp. of Urgel, his heresy, iii. 192.
Fetter, a monk, attempts to reclaim the Landgrave of Hesse from Protestanism, v. 176.
Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, persecutes the Lutherans, v. 87, 127, 467 ; his treatment of his sister, 128 ; his conduct at diet of Nuremberg, 161, 166, 167; joins confederacy at Ratisbon, 173 ; aspires to be declared King of the Romans, 175 ; inclines to pacific measures towards the reformers, 429, 433 ; his conduct at the diet of Spires, 443, & seq.; succeeds to the kingdom of Hungary, 460.
Ferrer, Vincent, a friar, his piety and zeal, iv. 290; his book on spiritual life, ib.; engaged in the service of the Pope, 291 ; refuses honours, and becomes a missionary, ib.; his labours and success, ib.; proofs of his humility, ib.
Fdastre, William, a cardinal, maintains at council of Constance their right to depose the Pope, iv. 223.
Firmiliau, Bp. of Cappadocia, supports Cyprian's opinion concerning re-baptism, i. 443 ; presides at council held concerning Paul of Samosata, 489 ; dies on his way to a second council, 490; was a great luminary, ib.; studied under Origen, 503.
— Governor of Csesarea, persecutes the Christians, ii. 24; is
capitally punished, 26.
Fiimus, a merchant, converted from Manicheism by Augustine, ii 455; becomes a presbyter, 4,56.
Fisher, Bp. of Rochester, his cruel treatment of a Lollard, iv. 200 ; concise account of him, ib. note.
Fizraf, Abp. of Armagh, opposes the Mendicants, iv. 75; summooed before the Pope, ib.; appears and defends his cause, ib.; suffers persecution, 76 ; his death and character, ib.
Flaccilla, the wife of Theodosius the Great, her character, ii. 208.
Flagellants, iv. 64.
Flavin, Domitilla, banished, i. 101.
Flavian, Bp. of Antioch, his zeal, ii. 83; composes the famous vor.. v. T T
doxology, Gloria Patri, Ate. ib.; intercedes at court for the
people of Antioch, 281; bis success, 282.
Flaritis, Clemens, the consul, put to death by Domitiun, i. 101 ;
his character, 102.
Fleury, his credulity as an historian, i. 472.
Fluentius, Bp. of Florence, reprimanded by the Pope for teaching
that Antichrist was eome, iii. 422.
Fortunatus, a presbyter of Carthage, made bishop by a faction in
opposition to Cyprian, i. 370 ; sinks into insignificance, 376.
— Bp. of Assarae, lapses, i. 436.
— his life of Hilary condemned, ii. a6i.
Francis I. King of France, persecutes the Waldcnses, iii. 500;
surprised into the measure, 507; revokes the edict, ib.;
his repentance, ib.; becomes candidate for the empire, i v. 504;
his rivalry with Charles the Fifth, ib.; persecutes the
Lutherans, v. 153, 544; taken prisoner, 434 ; his treaty with
the Pope, 435 ; his treaty to recover his liberty, ib.; his in-
consistent conduct respecting the Reformation, 544; ab-
solved from his oath by the Pope, 547.
— of Assisiuin, founder of the Minor Friars, disinherited for
enthusiasm, iv. 22 ; his character, ib.; his pretended mira-
culous wounds, ib.; his great fame, ib.
Franciscans, their character, iv. 3 ; enlist men for the crusades,
11; intrude into parishes, 19; assume arbitary p<>wer in
the Sorbonne, ib.
Franks, short account of them, ii. 513 ; receive Christianity, 515.
Frederic, of Devonshire, made bishop of Utrecht, iii. 230 ; rebukes
Lewis the Meek, 231 ; assassinated, ib.
— the Wise, Elector of Saxony, promotes literature, iv. 319;
patronizes Luther, ib. 326, 367; his character, 329, 349,
361, 367, 382, note ; 485, 503, 573, 609; 43, 74, 97,
125, 205; interposes in favour of Luther, iv. 361 ; his extra-
ordinary firmness and discretion in the case of Luther, 364,
367, 384, 434, 460, 480, 486, note ; 525, 543, 563, 609;
his letter to Erasmus, 388 ; receives the golden rose, 389;
his improvement in religion, 425, 480; v. 243 ; his in-
structions to bis agent at Rome, iv. 460; his interview with
Aleander, 481 ; seeks an interview with Erasmus, 485;
endeavours to repress Luther's acrimony, 495, note ; 610;
refuses the empire, 503 ; his conduct at the diet of Worms,
53*, 540, 661 ; extracts from his letters, 541; his admira-
tion of Luther's speech, 553, conceals Luther in the castle
of Warburg, 563 ; his opinions and orders respecting pri«
vate masses, v. 34, 373 ; his perplexities on account uf
disturbances at YVittemberg, 41 ; sends a communication to
Luther on the subject, ib.; his conduct respecting the fanatics,
45 ; his great conscientiousness, ib.; sends a confidential
agentto Luther,54; his replies to the remonstrances of Duke
George, 81, 82 ; receives two papal brieves complaining of
his conduct, 113, 571; Iiis answers thereto, 114, 115;
enters his protest against fettering the use of the Scriptures,
116 ; his critical situation at one period, 123 ; consults the
reformed ministers on lawfulness of defending his subjects by
force, 126; his prudent conduct at Nuremburg, 163; his
remonstrance to the diet, 167,168; his answer to an intem-
perate letter from the Emperor, 169; exerts his authority
against Carolstadt, 193, 194 ; his death, 199, note ; 241, &
seq.; his observations respecting the Rustic war, 224 ; re-
view of his politics, 245; his answer to Luther concerning
his resignation of the monkish habit, 247 ; his answer to a
complaint of Henry VIII. against Luther, 356 ; how far he
supported the reformers, 368; vindicated from charge of
Frederic, Duke of Holstein, succeeds to the throne of Denmark,
v. 130 ; promotes the Reformation, ib.; his edict of tolera-
Friars, see Dominicans, Franciscans, and Mendicants.
Frumentiut, carried, when a boy, into Abysssinia, ii. 103 ; escapes
being murdered, and is promoted at court, 103 ; projects
the conversion of the country, ib.; consecrated Bishop of
the Indians, ib.; his success, ib,; unsuccessful attempt of
Constantius to depose him, 104.
Fulgentius, Bp. of Ruspa:, his birth and education, iii. 2 ; his
early austerities, ib.; enters the monastery of Faustus, ib.;
suffers severe persecution from the Arians, ib.; his humility
and sincerity, 3 ; declines an opportunity of revenge, ib.; his
reflection on the splendourof Theodoric, ib.; banished, ib.; sent
for by Thrasamond, 4; excites his admiration, ib.; remanded
to exile, ib.; restored, ib.; his death and theology, ib.; his
epistles, 6; his humble surrender of precedency, 7, note.
Gabriel, a reformer, accused by Duke George, v. 81 ; brief sketch
of his history, 569.
Gal, a missionary, his character and labours, iii. 112 ; erects a
Galatia, church of, i. 56; Paul's epistle to it, ib.; its just views
of the Gospel, 57 ; changes for the worse, 58 ; reproved by
the apostle, 59; probability of its improvement. 61.
Galdinus, Bp. of Milan, opposes the Cathari, iii. 387 ; his death
occasioned by his vehemence in opposing them, 388.
Galen, the physician, his testimony to the patience of the
Christians, i. 536.
Galerius, Maximus, made proconsul of Carthage, i. 451 ; con-
demns Cyprian, 452, 453.
— one of the Caesars under Dioclesian, instigates that emperor
against the Christians, ii. 2 ; his artifices, 4 ; succeeds Dio-
clesian in the eastern part of the empire, 19 ; smitten with
an incurable disease, 32 ; his dreadful sufferings, ib.; takes
off the persecution, and entreats the prayers of the Christians,
ib.; exceeded all the emperors in hostility to Christianity,
ib.; his death, 33.
Galilee, church of, i. 36.
Galle, Peter, defends the papal dogmas against Olaus Petri,
v. 134; engaged in a second disputation, 140.
Gallienus, emperor, befriends the Christians, i. 479; his cha-
racter, 480 ; death, 489.
Galiiu, the proconsul, his indifference to the progress of Chris-
tianity, i. 74.
Gallus, the emperor, succeeds Uecius, i. 377, 412 ; allows
peace to the church, 377 ; persecutes the church, 412 ; bis
Gamaliel, his advice respecting the apostles, i. 14.
Gausbtrt, a missionary, made a bishop in Sweden, iii. 238;
is banished, 239.
Gatasius, Bp. of Rome, his decretals, ii.512 ; his character, ib.;
his treatise against the Lupercalia, ib.; writes against Pela-
Genseric, King of the Vandals, desolates Africa, ii. 459; sur-
prises Carthage, 489; his cruelty, 489,491, 494; professes
Arianism, 489; persecutes the church in Sicily, 49a;
pillages Rome, 493; his Arian intolerance, 495; his
Gentiles, their partial mixture with Jews, i. 44; put on an equal
footing with Jews, 46.
George, an Arian bishop, cruelly persecutes the Trinitarians,
— Bp. of Alexandria, murdered by Pagans, ii. 131; exalted by
monkish ignorance into St. George of England, ib. note.
— Duke of Saxony, his opinion of Luther's doctrine, iv. 332 ;
Kpposes the Reformation, ib.; promotes a disputation be-
tween F.ckius and Carolstadt, 400 ; bis remark respecting
the Pope's supremacy, 411 ; accuses Luther to the elector,
433 ; his attachment to the papacy, 502 ; his honourable
declaration respecting Luther's safe conduct, 561; his cha-
racter, 567; v. 260, 391,488; persecutes the Lutherans,
51, note ; 83, 146; excites the popish bishops, 74; re-
monstutes with Duke John for tolerating the reformers, So ;
procures edict of Nuremberg, 81 ; remonstrates with Fre-
deric for supporting the Lutherans, ib.; his proclamation
against Luther's version, 85; his hypocritical conduct at
Nuremberg, 124; solicits Erasmus to oppose Luther, 259;
his answer to Henry the Eighth, 356; his answer to Lu-
ther's concessions, 361 ; his answers to the Landgrave of
Hesse, 376, 428 ; conducts a secret treaty against the elector
and landgrave, 439; presses the landgrave against the
Ref iriuatiou, 450; his acknowledgements in favour of
Luther, 488 ; mortally offended with Luther, 490 ; his ac-
count of the Anabaptists, 496.
— Marquis of Brandenburg, favours the Reformation, v. 143.
Gerard, Bp. of Toul, his labours, iii. 255.
Bp. of Cambray and Arras, holds a council to condemn the
disciples of Gundulphus, iii. 287; obtains a confession from them agreeable to his views, 288.
Bp. of Choriad, his labours, and success, iii. 292 ; persecuted,
ib.; murdered, 293.
a German, suffers severe persecution in England, iii. 433.
— Catelin, a Waldensian martyr, his constancy, iii. 498.
Gerbelius, a Lutheran, his letter to Luther upon the disappearance of the reformer, v. 1.
Germanicvs, his patience and courage, i. 213.
Germanius, an Arian, elected Bishop of Sirmium, ii. 85. Germanus, his skill and authority in opposing Pelagianism, ii. 387 ; his character, 483; elected bishop of Auxerre, ib.; visits Britain to oppose Pelagianism, 484; his zealous preaching, ib.; success, ib.; commands an army of Britons and gains a victory, 485; returns to the continent, ib.; again called to Britain, 492 ; his death, 493. — Bp. of Constantinople, supports image worship, iii. 155; deposed, 157.
Gerson,John, Chancellor of the uersity of Paris, his celebrity, iv. 225; maintains right of council of Constance to depose the Pope, ib.; his acrimony towards Huss and Jerom of Prague, 228; preaches concerning reform in the church, 254; his treatise on the trial of spirits, 255; his unjust conduct towards Jerom, 258; his treatise against communion in both kinds, 273; Cajetan's declaration respecting him, 319.
Geysa, chief prince of Hungary, converted, iii. 252; dissuaded from apostacy by Adalbert, 253.
Ghost, Holy, first effusion of at Jerusalem, i. 3; manner thereof, 5; termination thereof, 498; ii. 298 ; second effusion of, ib.; its solid effects, 370; no regular history of, 454; arguments for divinity of, iii. 5; controversy touching procession of, 311; effusion of in England, 109; effusion of among the Paulicians, 203.
Gibbon, Mr. the historian, strictures on his work, i. 472, 499.
ii. 9, 428, note; iii. 202, note; iv. 16. Giltias the Wise, preaches in Scotland and Ireland, iii. 27 ;
builds a monastery, ib.; his discourses on the ruin of Great
Giles, a Spanish cardinal, his expostulation with the Pope, iv. 52.
GiUebert de la Porree, Bp. of Poictiere, his controversy with Bernard, iii. 372; condemned by council of Rheinis, and recants, 373.
Gingis Kan, his conquests, iv. 30.
Gilbert, extract from his writings, iii. 278.
Gisla, Queen of Hungary, her piety and zeal, iii. 291.
Gistcbert, a monk, is instrumental in reviving learning at Cambridge, iii. 420.
Glapio, confessor of Charles the Fifth, attempts to compose is
religious differences at Worms, iv. 525, 625.
Gnostics, see Docetx.
Godeschalcus, Duke of the Vandals, revives Christianity amoc;
his subjects, iii. 293; his zeal and personal labours, lb.
Gondeband, King of the Burgundians, dismisses his captives;
the request of Epiphanius, ii. 511.
Gontamond, succeeds Huneric, ii. 509; stops the persecntioe a
■ the orthodox, ib.; increases his kindness to them, 515; b
Gooze, John, a Lollard, his martyrdom, iv. 197, 198.
Gordiun, Emperor, reigns six years and is murdered, i. 321.
Gormo III. King of Denmark, labours to extirpate the Gospel
iii. 256; compelled to desist, ib.
Gotebald, an English missionary, made bishop in Norway,iii.255.
Goths, drawn over to Arianisra, ii. 168, 241 ; their kincte
destroyed, iii. 143.
Gotteschaleus, a German monk, his partiality for Augustiw-
writings, iii. 221 ; his opinions, 222 ; offers to undergo tkt
ordeal of fire, ib.; spreads Augustine's doctrines in DaJniiffi
and Pannonia, ib.; holds a conference with Notingus re-
specting predestination, ib.; his opinions calumniated by
Kabanus, ib.-, defends himself, 223 ; condemned in a synod,
ib.; degraded, beaten, and imprisoned, ib.; reduced byte
sufferings, and burns his own book, 224; dies in prison, ib.;
denied Christian burial, ib.; his character, ib.; vindicated
by a council, 225.
Government, Church, what, in first century, i. 160; necessityoi.
513; forms of, different in early ages, ib.; still a general
outline prevalent, 514; three distinct orders demonstrated
by epistles of Ignatius, 515.
Gratian, Emperor, succeeds Valentinian, ii. 178; chooses ThW"
dosius as his colleague, ib.; his distinguished godliness, ib.;
his pious letter to Ambrose, 179; his death and charac-
— a monk, his collection of his canon laws, iii. 419.
Gravamina Centum, what, v. ill.
Gregory, Thaumaturgus, attends Origen's lectures during
father's exile, i. 320 ; attends council held on Paul of *
mosata, 488 ; was a great luminary, 490 ; accounts of
miracles not to be altogether rejected, 502; his birth and
idolatrous education, ib.; studies religion under Origen,5°3|
gives himself to prayer and retirement, ib.; ordained, Id-'
his creed, 504; his successful preaching, 505; probability
of his miracles, ib.; his flight from persecution, and return,
506; his canonical epistle, ib.; his death and cbartf-
— a Cappadocian, appointed Bishop of Alexandria upon the *|
position of Athanasius, ii. 78; his violent proceedings, 7P<
his death, 83.
Gregory, of Nazianzum, the elder, his conversion, ii. 99, 272; becomes bishop of that place, 100, 272; his piety and labours, 100; communicates with the Arians, 273; recovered from their snares by his son, ib.; dies at an advanced age, 274.
— of Nazianzum, remonstrates with his brother for practising physic at the court of Julian, ii. 127 ; apt to overstate matters, 130, note; exhorts Christians to meekness upon Julian's death, 147; appointed to see of Constantinople, 182,274; resigns in disgust, 184, 275; his intimacy with Basil, 265, 273; embraces a retired life, 267; joined with Basil in forming rules of monastic discipline, ib.; born about time of Nicene council, 271; his great learning, 272; his conversion, 273; his acquaintance with Julian, ib.; penetrates into bis character, ib.; recovers his father from Arian snares, ib.; offended at the offer of an obscure-bishopric, 274; assists his father in his pastoral labours, ib.; holds a conventicle, ib.; why unfit for bishopric of Constantinople, ib.; his great virtues, ib.; and eloquence, 275 ; his death and character, ib.; his sermons, 276; poems, 277. Bp. of Elvira, a Luciferian, his character, ii. 201. JS'yssen, persecuted under Valens, ii. 250; his writings, ib.;
visits Jerusalem, 251 ; his piety, ib. I. Bp. of Rome, his birth, iii. 31; assumes the monastic habit, ib.; his piety, ib.; his previous life, ib. note; sent on ecclesiastical affairs to Constantinople, 33; his intimacy with Leander of Seville, ib.; begins his commentary on Job, ib.; quashes the absurd fancies of Eutychius, ib.; his bodily afflictions, 34, 56, 57 ; chosen Bishop of Rome, 34 ; endeavours to avoid the appointment, ib.; his sermon on the plague, 35; appoints a litany, 36; conceals himself to avoid the bishopric, ib.; compelled to enter upou it, 37 ; his conduct in his see, 38; his notion of its supremacy, 38,54; review of his letters, 38, &seq.; his intimacy with Anastasius, 41; his success in drawing over the Lombards to orthodoxy, 42 ; his regular distribution of alms, 43; remedies the desolation of the churches, ib.; corrects abuses in Sicily, ib.; prevents the persecution of the Jews, 45, 46; orders a severe punishment to a person for deflowering a virgin, 49; his jealousy of the see of Constantinople, 54, 64; his notions of justification, 54; his expectation of the day of judgment, 55, 61, 81; his imprudent decision respecting images, 55,153 ; his conduct to the Emperors Mauritius and Phocas, ,59; his prejudices against Mauritius, 60; makes peace with Aigilulph, 61 ; censured by Mauritius, 62; bis answer, ib.; his causes of complaint against the emperor, 64 & seq.; receives the image of Phocas with respect, 67 ; congratulates him on his elevation, ib.; writes a second letter to Phocas, 68; his superstition, 65, 68,70; his conduct to Phocas vindicated, 69; his conduct regarding Britain, ib.; sends a mission thith«r, 71;
his care of the infant church there, 79; his conduct regard-
ing Britain vindicated, 83; his death and character, 85;
his works, 87, & seq.
Gregory, of Tours, his writings, iii. 95.
— II. the first Pope, why so called, iii. 156 ; his rebellions con-
duct towards the emperor, 158 ; exacts from Boniface as
oath of subjection, 175.
— III. Pope, his insolent letter to the Emperor, iii. 159; excom-
municates all who speak against images, 160; supports
a rebellious duke against the King of the Lombards, ib.; bit
proposals to Charles Martel, ib.; his death, ib.
•— Bp. of Utrecht, his labours and character, iii. 186.
— VI. Pope, deposed for simony, iii. 285, note.
■— VII. Pope, see Hildebrand.
— IX. Pope, his attempt to revive crusades, iv. 8; his anti-
christian bull, ib.
— XI. Pope, his bull to excommunicate Militzius, iv. 77-
— XII. Pope, or rather a claimant, iv. 213; pressed to resign,
223; deposed, 226; his character, ib.
— a Hussite, founder of the unity of the Hussites, iv. 280; his
endeavours to promote vital godliness, ib.; distinguished in
the Hussite persecution, 284; undergoes the rack, ib.
Grosseleste, Robert, Bp. of Lincoln, his birth and education,
iv. 41 ; suspected of magic on account of his learning, ib.;
associates with the Mendicant orders, 42; his indistinct
views of religion, ib. 46, 60, 62 ; elected bishop, 46; com-
mences a reform, ib.; favours the Mendicants, ib.; his
translations, 43,46; quarrels with convents, 44; excom-
municated by convent of Canterbury, ib.: treats the sentence
with contempt, ib.; prosecutes his attempts at reform, ib,;
his devotion to the Pope, 45 ; sees into the true character of
the friars, ib.; deceived by a pretended miracle, 46; obtains
letters for reform of the religious orders, ib.; appealed
against and obliged to go to Rome, 47 ; defeated there, ib.;
remonstrates with the Pope, ib.; inveighs against practices
of Home, ib.; his conduct in his diocese, 48 ; refuses obedi-
ence to the Pope, 49; suspended, ib.; his success in esta-
blishing vicarages, ib.; refuses to prefer the Pope's nephew,
50; his epistle on the occasion, ib.; excommunicated by
the Pope, 53 ; disregards the sentence, ib.; blames the
Mendicants on his death-bed, ib.; his character, ib. 56; his
dying conversation, 54; death, 55 ; his idea of the pastoral
office, 57; his sermons, 58; humility, 61; his notion of
divine grace, ib.
Guilhelmus, Bp. of Paris, his writings, iv. 40.
Gvndulphus, disciples of, condemned by council of Arras, iii. 287;
their doctrine, ib.; their confession, 288.
Guthebalt, a missionary, his eminence, iii. 260.
Gylas, an Hungarian chief, baptized, and encourages Christianity,
Waco, King of Norway, persecutes Christians, iii. 259; driven from his throne, ib.; becomes a patron of Christianity, ib.; his zeal, ib.
Hagen, King of Norway, supports Christianity, iii. 259. Hager, Conrade, opposes doctrine of the mass, iv. 74; condemned as a heretic, ib.
Halam, Robert, Bp. of Salisbury, distinguished at council of Constance, iv. 275.
Harold, King of Denmark, baptised, iii. 258 ; supports Chris* tianity, ib.; murdered, ib.; instructs Haco, and restores him to bis dominions, 259,
Harmonius, a noted heretic, composes heretical hymns, ii. 252 ; opposed by Ephraim the Syrian, ib.
Harold, King of Denmark, expelled from his dominions, iii. 235; receives baptism, ib.; is assigned a district in Friezeland, ib.
Hartmurth, a military knight, defends the Reformation, v. g8,
571 ; his character, ib. Havsman Nicholas, Luther's eulogium on him, v. 23 ; opposes
Haymo, a morik, made Bishop of Halberstadt, iii. 231 ; his preaching and writings, ib.; assists at condemnation of Gotteschaleus, ib.; his evangelical doctrines, 232; his superstition, 233.
Heathens, virtuous, question as to their salvation, iv. 525, 532.
Hedio, Caspar, a reformer, his celebrity, v. g6.
Heinricvs, Bp. of Mentz, his character, iii. 433 ; unjustly de-
Helena, mother of Constantine, her munificent support of
Christianity, ii. 45 ; her death, ibHeliogabalus, Emperor, his follies and vices not accompanied by
hostility to Christians, i. 316; his death, ib. Helvetic denomination, what, v. 154.
llenckell, John, chaplain to the Queen of Hungary, his character,
v. 462 ; favours Lutheranism, ib. Henry, (the fowler) Emperor, leads an army into Denmark,
and supports Christianity there, iii. 256.
— 111. Emperor, holds a general council at Sutri, iii. 285, note.
— II. Emperor, patronizes Unwan in bis endeavours to destroy
idolatry, iii. 293.
— III. of England, pretended miracles at his tomb, iii. 332.
— a heretic, iii. 375; his character, ib.; his heresy question
— II. of England, his ineffectual resistance to the Pope, iii.423;
his character, ib.; instance of his barbarity, ib.; holds the Pope's bridle, 480; persecutes the Albigenses, 482.
— Bp. of Upsal, his labours in Finland, iii. 430.
Henri/, of Gaunt, archdeacon of Tournay, called the famous
teacher, his ecclesiastical principles, iv. 18.
— IV. of England, usurps the crown, iv. 167; persecutes the
Lollards, ib. 169.
— V. of England, his conduct at the martyrdom of Badley,
iv. 168 ; persecutes the Lollards, 169 ; his conduct towards
LordCobham, 172,173,184,191; his character, 184, 196;
his jealousy of the Lollards, 186; attacks them in person,
187 ; his unjust war with France, 195; bis death, 196.
—- Duke of Brunswick, opposes Lutheranism, iv. 349 ; v. 87,427;
suspected of calumniating them, 438.
— VIII. of England, his character, iv. 504; v. 391 ; favours
the Reformation, iv. 504; answers Luther, v. 26 ; receives
title of Defender of the Faith, 27; solicits Erasmus to op-
pose Luther, 260 ; his theological pretensions, 263 ; com-
plains to the Saxon princes of Luther, 355; his answers to
Luther's concessions, 358; his treaties with the Pope, 434.
— Duke of Saxony, inclines to reformed doctrines, v. 23 ; com-
pelled to persecute the reformers, 146.
— of Zutphen, a disciple of Luther's, cast into prison, v. 187 ;
escapes and preaches at Bremen, ib.; murdered, 18S; his
trials and martyrdom, 578.
— a monk, sutlers martyrdom for marrying, v. 546.
Heradius, succeeds to the empire, iii. 117 ; sues for peace with
Chosroes, 119; rejects the conditions proposed, 120 ; van-
quishes him, ib.; adopts Menothelite heresy, 121 ; his inces-
tuous marriage, 122 ; his death and character, 124.
Heresy, in first century, i. 133; of Doceta? and Ebionites, 134;
of Cerinthus, 135; of Marcion, 211; respecting person of
Christ, quotation from Eusebius respecting it, 256 ; of Theo-
dosion, 258 ; of Montanus, 260; Irenxus's book of heresies,
271 ; of Praxeas, 281; Sabellian, 281, 482,487 ; of Noctus,
319; of Beryllus, 321 ; of 1'aul of Samosata, 488, 493 ; of
Manes, 497; Arian, ii. 51, 52; Macedonian, 156; Apolli-
narian, 164, 248 ; Macedonian, gives occasion to an explicit
representation of the Holy Ghost in council of Constanti-
nople, 184; of Priscillianists, 187; first attempt to punish
it with death, 188 ; Pelagian, 369,374, 376; insidiousnessof
heresy in general, 394; Nestorian, 525; iii. 120; Eutychian,
ii. 526; iii. 120; Monothelite, iii. 120; of Felix of Urgel,
192; of Rosaelin, 309; of Abelard, 340; of Gillebert de
la Porree, 372 ; of Tanchelin, Peter de Bruys, aud Henrv,
Heretics, controversy respecting their re-baptism, i. 443 ; then-
invariable wickedness, 546; their assemblies forbidden by
an edict, ii. 100.
Hcrigarius, governor of Birca, receives baptism, iii. 238; erects
a church, ib.; supports the Gospel in Sweden, 239.
Hennas, character of his epistle, i. 122.
Hermcnegildus, son of Levigildus, converted by his wife, iii. 30;
rebels against his father, ib.; takes refuge in a church, ib.; surrenders, ib.; banished, ib.; loaded with irons, ib.; his constancy, ib.; murdered, ib. 1Jesse, John, a friend of Luther's, preaches the reformed doctrines at Breslau, v. 145,575; holds a disputation against the papal errrors, 145; his character, 575.
JrJierocles, his virulence against the Gospel, ii. 17; promoted to the government of Alexandria, ib.; his affectation of candour, il).; his brutal persecution of the Christians, 20.
Hierutheus, a bishop, labours among the Hungarians, iii. 252.
JJilary, a deacon, scourged at council of Milan, ii. 86.
—— Bp. 6f Poictiers, opposes Arianism, ii. 169,170; his birth and education, 261; his conversion, ib.; his sentiments respecting the Trinity, 262; his addresses to the emperors, 264; though married, recommends celibacy, ib.; suffers persecution, ib.; his great service to the church, ib.; his death, reputation, and monument, 265; opposes Semi-Pelagianism, 388,411.
— Bp. of Aries, a Semi-Pelagian, ii. 541 ; happily inconsistent, ib.; his life of Honoratus, ib.; his piety and zeal, 542.
Hildebrand, Pope, his scheme to deprive the emperors of the power of choosing the Pope, iii. 285 ; his pious and friendly letter to Cyriacus, 286; his unchristian character, ib.
Hilderic, succeeds Thrasamond, and favours the orthodox, iii. 4; deposed, 22.
Hinckmar, Abp. of Rheims, his unfaithful representations of Gotteschalcus, iii. 223 ; his cruel treatment of him, ib.; his great secular influence, 225 ; his character, 226.
Hoffman, rector of Leipsic uersity, refuses to decide on the disputation of Eckius and Luther, iv. 411.
Hogostratus, a Dominican inquisitor, his virulent opposition of
Luther, iv. 360.
Holy Days, their number complained of in diet of Spires, v. 446.
Holy Land, how divided, i. 36; its populousness, 37.
Honurattts, Bp. of Aries, his character, ii. 541, 542.
— Bp. of Marseilles, famous as an extempore preacher, ii. 546. Honoring, Emperor, reigns in the West, ii. 279; banishes Pelagius,
383; his character and policy, 483.
— Bp. of Rome, drawn over to Monothelite heresy, iii. 122;
condemned by a council, 128.
Hormisdas, Bp. of Rome, his character, iii. 94.
Hosiusof Corduba, his faith and piety, ii. 56 ; endeavours to make up the breach caused by Arius, ib.; appointed by Nicene council to draw up creed, 60 ; presides at council of Sardica, 82 ; his great celebrity, 87 ; his spirited answer to Constantius, ib.; persecuted by that emperor, 88 ; is overcome by his sufferings, and signs Arian creed,gi ; retracts the extorted signature, 92; his death, ib.
Hotphian, Rodolph, his misrepresentation of Luther, v. 229; his prejudices against the Swiss divines, 419, note.
Hubmcier, Balthazar, an eloquent reformed preacher, Y. 498;
corrupted by Munzer, ib.; ibises disturbances, ib.; sutlers
martyrdom, ib.; calumniates Luther, ib.
Huglin, John, a reformer, his martyrdom, v. 467.
Hugo, the Burgundian, cardinal, his writings, iv. 39; invented
Hume, strictures on his History of England, iii. 298, 300, 310;
iv. 28, 142, 188, 467, 468, note; v. 31.
Huneric, son and successor of Genseric, tolerates the orthodox,
ii. 498 ; turns persecutor, ib.; his cruelty, ib. & seq.; his
edict, 501 ; his horrible death, 509.
IIuss, John, condemned as a heretic at Home, iv. 211, 214 ; sum-
moned to council of Constance, 211 ; attends under a safe
conduct, ib.; his talents and character, ib. 253; v.461;
sketch of his previous life, iv. 211; Luther's opinion of him,
212 ; his doctrinal knowledge defective, 213, 214, 217, 238,
271; preaches against the abuses of the church of Rome,
213; and against vices of the clergy, ib.; becomes obnoxious
to the archbishop of Prague, ib.; appeals from excommuni-
cation of the Pope, 214; forbidden to preach, 215; his
conduct on preparing to attend the council, ib.; his sermons
and opinions, 216; imprisoned, 219; suffers various vexations,
220, 237 ; writes tracts during his confinement, ib.; pressed,
but refuses to retract, 225 ; lodged in castle of Gottleben,
226; approves of administering communion in both kinds,
236; examined before the council, 238, & seq.; his con-
stancy, 239, & seq.; also 246, & seq.; his peculiar opinions,
242 ; his letter to his flock, 244; resolution of the council
in case he should retract, 246; his books burned, 248;
brought again before the council, 249; meets with most un-
just treatment, ib.; his admirable conduct under it, ib. 250;
his martyrdom, 251, 252; his condemnation protested
against by principal persons of Bohemia, 255; motives of
the council in his condemnation, 597.
Hussites, their origin, iii. 508; their agreement with the Wal-
denses, ib.; their expostulation with the Waldenses, ib.;
oppose the hierarchy by arms, iv. 269 ; their leading prin-
ciples, 270 ; their religious war, 279 ; form a church, 281;
character of their church, ib. 28t>; lenounce carnal weapons,
281; persecuted, 282, & seq.; their remarkable letter to
Rokysan, 282 ; receive the Waldenses into their communion,
JIutten, Ulric, an intemperate Lutheran, his controversy with
Erasmus, v. 267. ,
Hi/ptraspistes, a work of Erasmus, v. 306.
Hi/ppnlitus, a Novatian, called to martyrdom, i. 412; returns in
his last moments to the church, 413.
I & J.
Jacobel, a pastor of Prague, maintains right of laity to communion in both kinds, iv. 236; was the principal reviver of that doctrine, ib.; his character, ib.
Jacobins, iv. 4, note.
James, the son of Zebedee, an apostle, slain by Herod Agrippa, i. 23 ; remarkable occurrence at his martyrdom, 103.
— the Less, an apostle, the standing pastor at Jerusalem, i. 27;
his opinion at the council, ib.; persecuted, 33; his epistle, 34.; martyrdom, 103 ; why called The Just, 104.
— Dr. his apology for Wickliff, iv. 132, & seq.
— Bp. of Saltza, a Reformer, his character, v. 380.
: Jaremar, Prince of Rugen, receives the Gospel, iii. 429; instructs his people, ib.
Idolatry, spread of, among professors of the Gospel, iii. 144; supported by the papacy, 146 ; propensity to, accounted for, ib. —See also, Image worship. Jeffery, a Waldensian martyr, his constancy, iii. 500; its effect, ib. Jerom, his want of candour, ii. 371; writes against Pelagius, 373, 413; his controversy with Augustine, 444; his vain-glorious turn, 445; his quarrel with Ruffinus, 446; his birth and education, 470; the most learned of the Roman Fathers, 471; determines on profession of a monk, ib.; made a Presbyter, ib.; refuses farther elevation, ib.; his indefatigable application to study, ib.; his commentary on Obadiah, ib.; I , becomes intimate with illustrious ladies, ib.; induces them to adopt a monastic life, 472 ; his choleric temper, ib.; retires to Bethlehem, ib.; his death and character, ib.; his controversy with Ruffinus, 473; his writings superstitious, ib.;■ brief review of them, ib. & seq.; compared with Augustine, 476; his intemperate opposition to Jovinian, ib.; his weakness in argument, 479; opposes Vigilantius, 480 ; his love of allegory condemned, v. 383; apt to torture Scripture in controversy, 385.
— of Prague, sketch of his history, iv. 227 ; his talents, ib. 257, 258,265 ; adheres to John Huss, ib.; attempts to assist him at Constance, ib.; led in chains thither, 228; his examination before the council, ib.; suffers cruel persecution, 230; his constancy, 254 ; persuaded to retract, 257 ; remanded to prison, ib.; tried a second time, 258; his humiliation for retracting, 259 ; his speech to the council, ib.; his second examination on his second trial, 260 ; his eloquent speech, ib.; brought again before the council, 263; answers the sermon of the Bishop of Lodi, ib.; his martyrdom, 264 ; remarkable testimony to his behaviour before the council, 265 ; his knowledge of doctrine defective, 267, 271..
Jeron, an English missionary, preaches in Holland, iii. 243 ; suffers martyrdom, ib.
Jerusalem, first Christian church at, i. t; first council of, 25; account of church there, 180; its extinction, 181 ; called £Ha, but recovers its antient name, ii. 101 ; venenrrr
shown to it, ib.; taken by the Persians, iii. ngjrbvii* ■ Saracens, 123; by the Crusaders, 417. Jews, their spiritual condition at the introduction of the Gospt
i. 1.; excluded from Jerusalem, 180; their bigotry, 47.
join in persecuting the Christians in Persia, ii. 207. Ignatius, his character, i. 152 ; appears before Trajan, ib.; s
tenced to be destroyed by wild beasts, 153; his epahrr
155 ; his humility, 156 ; his thrist for martyrdom, 165; L<
martyrdom, 173. — founder of the Jesuits, his miracles pretended, iii. 332. Image worship, not insisted on in the way of adoration, in aix:
century, iii. 220; antient testimonies against it, iv. i59;iun
crease, 153; question of, divides the Christian world, it..
condemned by a council, 162 ; gains an ascendency in ifc
east, 165, 169; condemned by second council of Nice, 16;;
opposed by British and other churches, ib.; small resutue
to it accounted for, 197. Images, danger of them in churches, v. 384. Impanation, see Consubstantiation.
Independents, no solid foundation for their plan in Scripture M
antiquity, 1.518. Indulgences, sale of, iii. 418 ; doctrine of, iv. 307 ; contrcKW
respecting, 312, & seq.; style of, 316 ; farmed out, 317.
cargo of, taken by privateers, 318. Ingonda, the wife of Hermenegildus, brings over her husband to
the orthodox faith, iii. 30. Innocent, Bp. of Rome, expostulates with John of Jerusalem for
coning at Pelagian outrages, ii. 379; condemns Peh
gianism, 380; his reply to African council, 406; his
— III. Pope, his blasphemous bulls, iii. 426, 490; confirms
doctrine of transubstantiation in its grossest sense, ib.; hs influence in England, ib.; institutes the inquisition, 48,5; persecutes the Waldenses, 486, 487.
— IV. Pope, author of the non obstante clause, iv. 5; his
provisional bull to Henry III- of England, 12 ; his veuality, 47; intrudes foreigners on English benefices, 48, 49; disappointed in attempt to force his nephew into a canonry, ib. ; his rage and haughtiness on the occasion, 52 ; excommunicates Grossetsste, 53; his exultation on the death of that prelate, 55. Inquisition, instituted, iii. 485.
Investiture, of bishopricks, contest respecting, iii. 311. Joachim, abbot of Calabria, his learning and piety, iii. 425; his interview with Richard the First, ib.
— Elector of Brandenburg, enters into a confederacy against the
Lutherans, v. 427 ; his brutal persecution of his wife, 543Joannites, who, ii. 291; suffer persecution, ib. 39s ; termination of their schism, 293.
ti, the Apostle, imprisoned, i. 11 ; dismissed from prison, il>.! sent to Samaria, 40; returns to Jerusalem, 41 ; his ministry> 117; his horror of C-erintbus, ib.; his miraculous deliverance from a cauldron of boiling oil, 120 ; banished to Patmos, and favoured with tbe Apocalypse, ib.; his treatment of an apostate robber, ib.; bis constant sermon in the Christian assemblies, 121; his great age, ib.; his gospel directed against the Cerinthians and Ebionites, 138.
a Melelian bishop, contrives a plot to ruin Athanasius, ii. 70; confesses the fraud, ib.
Bp. of Jerusalem, one of the principal bishops at council of Diospolis, ii. 378; his prejudices, ib.; defends Peiagius, ib.
Bp. of Constantinople, assumes title of Uersal Bishop, iii. 53. 63.
Hp. of Rome, writes against Palagianism, iii. 105.
Bp. of Alexandria, the almoner, his liberality, iii. 117 ; his
character, 118; reforms the people from inattention to
preaching, 119; his death, ib. of Damascus, his great learning, iii. 190 ; one of the first to
mix the peripatetic philosophy with Christianity, ib.; his
great fame, ib.; supports Arminian notion of free will, ib.;
a great supporter of error, ib.; advocates prayers for the
dead and image worship, 191; compared with Bede, ib. King of England, his character, iv. 6; attainted and deprived
of his French provinces, 29 ; was a felon and a murderer, ib. heir to the Greek empire, his crown usurped by Michael
Palaeologus, 15 ; his eyes put out, ib. King of France, taken prisoner by Edward the Black Prince,
iv. 65; his crusade, ib.
XXIII. Pope, attends council of Constance, iv. 210-; opposed to the emperor Sigismund, ib; his character, ib. 226; his policy at the council, ib.; his conduct towards Huss, 216, 220, 223; alarmed at the council, 223; flies, 224; imprisoned, 226; deposed, ib.
Bp. of Misnia, opposes indulgences, iv. 347.
Duke of Saxony, the Constant, his reply to George Duke of Saxony, respecting the toleration of Lutberanism, v. 80; recals Carolstadt, 199; openly supports the Reformation, 368 &seq.; succeeds to the electorate, 369; his character, ib.; forms an association of several German states, 429; orders a written defence of the Reformation, 430; endangered l.y a secret treaty, 439, 440 ; engages in the treaty of Magdeburg, 441 ; his policy and conduct at the diet of Spires, 442 & seq.; his prudence, 453; consults Luther respecting lawfulness of resistance, ib.; institutes a theological lecture at VVittemberg, 465; causes a visitation of the churches, 490; agrees with the Landgrave of Hesse upon warlike measures, 493 ; procures a modification of this treaty, in compliance with Luther's arguments, 495 ; protests against the decree of the diet of Spires, 554; his scruples as to
resistance, 557 ; his preparations for the diet of Augsbc»
John, Frederic, son of the preceding, supports the ReformatT.
v. 370 ; his character, ib.; his remarks on the characteM
Duke George, 376; his extraordinary prudence instance
Jonas, Bp. of Orleans, writes against Claudius of Turin, iu. sic.
— Justus, a reformer, his fame, iv. 543 ; accompanies Luther:
Worms, ib.; his character, 627; appointed president of 01
college of Wittemberg, v. 8 ; assists Luther in translating^
Scriptures, 73 ; deeply affected by Luther's marriage, Sjs
his opinion of Erasmus, 352 ; his account of Luther's lenr-
tation, 480 ; attends the conferences at Marpurg, 521.
Jortin, his religious sentiments, v. 335 ; mistakes Luther's cha-
Josep/ius, hi3 History, shows the prevalence of wickedness at 'if
coming of Christ, i. 2; his testimony to the character *'
St. James, 105 ; and of Jesus, ib. note.
Jovian, succeeds Julian in the empire, ii. 143 ; superior to all tie
former emperors in religion, 144; his character, ib. 154;
concludes a disadvantageous peace with Sapor, 145; h»
fidelity to the engagement, 146 ; replaces the standard of the
cross, and restores the churches and their privileges to tie
Christians, 150; his letter to Athanasius, 151, 152; las
answers to the Arians, 153 ; tortures them for attempting It
corrupt the eunuchs of his court, 154; his death, ib.
Jovinian, a monk, opposes growing superstitions, ii. 476 ; opposed
by .Terom and others, ib.; condemned by a council tod
banished, ib. note ; his opinions, 477 ; his four propositions,
Ireland, receives Christianity, ii. 487 ; church of, its evangelical
purity, Hi. 107; reduced to the Romish communion, ib.;
filled with saints in seventh century, 109; its schools re-
nowned, ib.; the prime seat of learning in the age of Charle-
magne, 144, note; called Scotia, ib.
Iretucus, succeeds Potbinus in see of Lyons, i. 240; rebukes
Victor Bishop of Rome, 259; some account of his life, 269;
difficulties of his situation as bishop, ib.; his distinguished
qualities, ib.; his martyrdom, 270; his book of heresies,
271 ; his theological views, ib.; his epistle to Florinus, 275.
Irene, wife of the Emperor Leo IV. assumes the government and
supports idolatry, iii. 165 ; her correspondence with Adrian
on image worship, 166 ; holds a council at Nice, 167; de-
thrones and puts out her son's eyes, 169, note; deposed and
Irish, excel in divinity, iii. 169.
Isdegerdes, King of Persia, favours the Christians, ii. 520; be-
comes a persecutor, ib.
Isidore, ofPelusium, lives a monastic life, ii. 532: character of
his life and writings, 533.
tsidort, Bp. of Seville, his writings, iii. 130.
— of Madrid, a labourer, is canonized, iii. 435 ; his character,
Ithacius, Bp. of Sossuba, opposes the Priscillianists, ii. 188.
Judx, Leo, his work, v. 238, 239.
Judas, his repentance, wherein deficient, iii. 8.
Judea, churches of, i. 36.
Julian, the apostate, escapes from the massacre of the relations of
Constantine, ii. 75 ; placed among the clergy, ib.; his cha-
racter and talents, 113; origin of his apostacy, 114; affects
a zeal for Christianity, ib.; his profound dissimulation, ib.;
succeeds to the empire, 115 ; patronizes Paganism, ib.; his
political measures to suppress Christianity, ib. & seq.;
encourages the Jews, 121 ; proposes re-building of the tem-
ple, ib.; disappointment of his scheme, ib.; his letter to
Photinus the heretic, 126; protects the Donatists, ib.;
persecutes in various ways, 128 & seq.; his address to the
senate of Antioch for neglecting to provide pagan sacrifices,
130 ; banishes Athanasius, 135 ; his letters to the people of
Alexandria, ib.; his expensive sacrifices, 137; makes a
progress in cruelty, 138; his death, 139.
— a Pelagian writer, challenges Augustine, ii. 384.
Julius, Bp. of Rome, protects Athanasius in his exile, ii. 80;
justifies him in a council, 81; his public letter, ib.
— II. Pope, remarkable for military ferocity, iv. 304.
— rfe Medicis, see Cl'.ment VII.
Justification, doctrine of, its importance and fruits in the Jewish
church, i. 32; asserted by Clement of Rome, 130; by
Origen, 467 ; commonly confounded with sanctification by
the fathers of the fourth century, ii. 238 ; Augustine's views
of it, 462 ; its important influence on practice, iii. 166; its
importance in the Reformation, iv. 7, 372; asserted by
Luther, 510 ; v. 386 & aliter.
Justin, Martyr, his first apology, i. 181, 190 ; his birth, learning,
and conversion, 187; his confutation of heretics, 189; his
dialogue with Trypho the Jew, 191; his contests with Cres-
cens the philosopher, ib.; his second apology, ib.; impri-
soned, 193; his conduct before the Roman prefect, 194;
beheaded, 195 ; his character, ib.; his theological views, 197.
— the Emperor, agreeable aspect of Christianity under him,
— succeeds his uncle Justinian in the empire, iii. 25 ; recals the
banished bishops, ib.
Justina, mother of Valentinian II. her predilection for Arianism
and hostility to Ambrose, ii. 181, 182; instils Arian doctrines
into her son, 193; her artifices, 194; procures a law in
favour of the Arians, 195.
Justinian, the Emperor, his character, iii. 15; his laws relating
to bishops, 18 ; recovers Africa, 22 ; his inconsistent conduct
regarding Silverius and Vigilantius, 23.; meddles in
Vol. v. Uu
controversy, ib.; condemns the errors of Origen, ib-; compels
Vigilius to consent to decrees of a council, ib.; banishes
several bishops for refusing to condemn the three chapters,
24; his edict respecting Christ's body, ib.; his death, 25;
bis pandects discovered, 419.
Justus, Bp. of Rochester, co-operates with Laurentius and Me-
litus, in an attempt to reduce ihe Scots to a conformity with
the English Church, iii. 97; retires into France, 99;
recalled and reinstated, 100; succeeds to see of Canter-
— a Paulician, stones the founder of that sect, iii. 206; betrays
his brethren, ib.
Kempis, Thomas d, his book de lniitatione Christi, iv. 290.
Kentigcrn, Bp. founds a monastery and a bishopric in Wales,
Kilian, an Irish missionary, his success at Wertzbourg, iii. 11s;
remonstrates with the duke on his incest, ib.; murdered,
Kortholt, Dr. an eminent divine, his character, v. 133.
Ladislaus, King of Poland, his Christian spirit, iv. 234 ; conquers
the Teutonic knights, ib.
Latus, a learned bishop, burned by order of Huneric, ii. 502.
Lambert, Bp. of Maestricht, murdered, iii. 142 ; his character, ib-
— a reformed monk, see Thorn.
— Francis, a French divine, his character, v. 451,452 ; assists
the Landgrave of Hesse in the Reformation, 451 : hi* pub-
lications, 452 ; made professor at Marpurg, 453; his
Lancaster, John of Gaunt, Duke of, befriends Wicklitf, iv. ill,
114; his treatment of the Bishop of London, 114; his violent
character, 115; discountenances WicklifTs opinions respect-
ing transubstantiation, 120 ; patronizes the Lollards, 164.
Lanfranc, Abp. of Canterbury, supports the papal power, iii. 304.
Langham, Abp. of Canterbury, ejects VVickliff, iv. 109.
langland, Bp. of Lincoln, persecutes the Lollards, iv. 198.
Laodieea, Church of, i. 96.
Lapsed, bow treated by church of Rome during Decian perse-
cution, i. 340 ; re-admitted at Carthage, without sufficient
tokens of repentance, 349; receive recommendatory letters
from martyrs, ib.; Cyprian's assertion of episcopal authority
with respect to them, 350; his direction respecting tbose
whose lives were in danger, 352; their eagerness for re-
admission reprehended, 360; their case determined in a
council, 376; anciently capable of restoration but once, 519.
Lardner, Dr. his predilection for Socinianism, i. 138; his par-
tiality to Julian, ii. 130, note.
T^atonrus, Jamts, his controversy with Luther, v. 7.
Lavrentius, a Roman deacon, his great affection for his bishop,
i. 470; his extraordinary answer to the prefect's demand
for the richesof the church, ib.; suffers dreadful tortures with
magnanimity, and is martyred, 471.
— succeeds Augustine in see of Canterbury, iii. 9(1; his pastoral
labours, ib.; labours to bring the Welsh and Irish to con-
formity to the church of Rome, 97 ; remarkable success of
1 his prayers, 99.
— a disciple of Luther, instructs Gustavus Vasa, v. 133; studies
at Wittemberg, 574.
Lazi, embrace Christianity, and become vassals of the empire,
League, Suabian, what, v. 124.
Leander, Bp. of Seville, assists Ingonda in bringing over her
husband to the faith, iii. 30; appointed to educate Recaredus,
ib.; his intimacy with Gregory the First, 33.
Leicester, Earl of, his rebellion, iv. 29 ; slain by Prince Edward, ib.
L'Enfant, strictures on his history of the council of Constance,
iv. 205, note, 274.
Leo, Bp. of Rome, his embassy to Attila, ii. 493 ; his success,
ib.; moderates cruelty of Genseric, ib.; his writings com-
mended, 526 ; sketch of his life, writings and character,
539 ; his decrees, 540.
— Emperor, succeeds Marcian, ii. 527 ; his laws against sabbath
breaking and simony, ib.
— the Isaurian, the Greek emperor, condemns the worship of
images, iii. 154; meets with great opposition, ib. & seq.;
his character, 157 ; rejects relics and intercession of saints,
ib.; publishes an edict against image worship, ib.; deposes
Germanus, ib.; his breach with the see of Rome, 160 ; his
— IV. Emperor, opposes image worship, iii. 165 ; his death, ib.;
— X. Pope, his uersal offers of pardon for money, iv. 309;
patronises letters, 312; his premature promotion, ib. note;
his character, 313, 359,468, 477, 502 ; v. 30, 568; opposes
the Reformation, iv. 313; raises money by indulgences,
314; his indifference to the proceedings of Luther, 359;
roused to violence against him, 361 ; his artful letter to
Frederic the Wise, 362 ; his inconsistent conduct in con-
demning Luther, 363 ; his bull confirming indulgences, 386;
Luther'3 testimony to his reputation, 446 ; his extraordinary
reply to Frederic the Wise, 462; issues his bull against Lu-
ther, 474; his imprudence in this step, 479 ; confers title of
Defender of the Faith on the King of England, v. 27 ; his
I.tonidas, the father of Origen, suffers martyrdom, i. 295.
Lcontius, Bp. of Antioch, supports Arianism, ii. 83; his charac-
Leporius, a monk, boasts of his own purity, ii. 387 ; his notions
corrected by Augustine, ib.
Lnigildm, King of the Visigoths in Spain, persecutes the ortho-
dox, iii. 30 ; his cruel treatment of his son, ib.; orders him
to be dispatched, ib.; repents of the murder, ib.; orders his
second son to be educated in the orthodox faith, ib.
Lewis the Meek, Emperor, rebuked by a bishop for incest, iii. 231;
persuades Harold, King of Denmark, to receive baptism;
235 ; assigns him a district in Friezeland, ib.; provides him
a Christian teacher, 236.
— VII. of France, his disastrous crusade, iii. 339 ; holds the
Pope's bridle, 480 ; persecutes the Albigenses, 482. .
— XII. of France, his testimony to the character of the Waldenses,
iii. 454; favours them, 498; his character, 505.
— IX. of France, (Saint) his pious education, iv. 26; his devo-
tional turn, ib.; purity of his court, ib.; his love of justice,
27 ; punishes blasphemy, ib.; his fame for uprightness, 28 ;
Hume's encomium upon his character; his superstition, ib.;
his moderation regarding English affairs, 29; chosen arbiter
of the English disputes, 30; his equitable decision, ib.; his re-
marks 011 the approach of Ginghis Khan, ib.; enters upon a
crusade, ib.; his virtues in a military situation, ib.; taken
prisoner, 31 ; his conduct in that situation, ib.; ransomed, and
returns to Europe, ib.; his religious conduct on the voyage,
ib.; his pious observation to the King of England, ib.; at-
tempts to convert the Saracens and Tartars, ib; resists
papal exactions, ib.; his second crusade and death, 32 ; his
dying advice to his son, ib.
— Emperor, excommunicated by the Pope, iv. 73; obliged to
— Elector Palatine, his honourable conduct at Worms, iv. 565.
— King of Hungary, opposes the Reformation, v. 143, 146.
— II. King of Hungary, defeated by the Turks, v. 456; drowned
in his flight, 457.
Libanius, the friend of Julian, his funeral oration on that emperor,
ii. 6 ; bis oration in favour of Paganism, 205.
Libel/atici, what, i. 362.
Libentius, Abp. of Hamburg, his labours and character, iii. 273.
Liberiiu of Rome, persecuted by Constantine, ii. 87 ; prevailed
upon to sign Arian creed, and condemnation of Atbanasius.
92 ; his death, 170.
Licinius, nominated Augustus, and possesses himself of Asia
Minor, ii. 33 ; put to death the wife and daughter of Diocle-
sian, 37; befriends the Christians, 38 ; his war with Maxi-
min, and supernatural dream, ib.; publishes uersal tolera-
tion, 39 ; begins to persecute, 43 ; his war with Constantine,
44 ; loses his empire and life in the contest, ib. 1
Ltvfuvyn> an English missionary, his intrepid conduct, iii. 186.
Litanies, remarkable one upon account of a plague, iii. 36; origin
of their use on Wednesdays and Fridays, 47, note; when
used, 87 ; present one when compiled, ib.
Liturgy, when written, iii. 88 ; more ancient than the Missal, ib.;
settlement thereof in England, 304, note.
Lollard, Reynard, an enemy of the Waldenses, converted by them,
iii. 509; suffers martyrdom, ib.; iv. 64; instructed Wick-
Lollards, to whom the term applied, iii. 509; iv. 63,164; persecuted,
ib.; 195 & seq. 595; their character, 166, 202; forbidden
to assemble, 186; surprised and routed by King Henry the
Fifth, 187 ; falsely accused of treason, 188.
Lombard, feter, master of the sentences and Bishop of Paris, his
fame, iii. 309 ; introduces degrees in divinity, 419; founds
theology of schoolmen, 420 ; his character, 435 ; why called
master of the sentences, 108, note; the doctrine of transub-
stantiation traced to him, v. 402.
Lombards settle in Italy, iii. 29 ; profess Arianism, and persecute
the church, ib.; brought over to orthodoxy, 50.
Longinus, his religious principles, i. 263 ; commends the writings
of Moses, 538; and of St. Paul, ib.
Lothaire, King of France, dissuaded by Ado from divorcing his
queen, iii. 199.
Love, disquisition concerning, iii. 394.
Lucian, a confessor, his injudicious conduct respecting the lapsed,
i. 353 ; his character and. sufferings, 355 ; assumes loo much
authority, 356 ; complained of by Cyprian, 357.
Lucifer of Cagliare, his constancy at council of Milan, ii. 86 ;
banished, 87; returns 126; becomes a schismatic, 133; his
character, ib. note.
Luci/'erians, a sect, ii. 133; their character, 172,201; petition
Theodosius for liberty of conscience, 201.
Lucilla, a rich lady, supports the Donatist3, ii. 47.
Lucius, Bp. of Rome, succeeds Cornelius, i. 419 ; banished, ib.;
returns, ib.; suffers martyrdom, ib.
— an Arian competitor for see of Constantinople, his bad cha-
racter, ii. 152; disappointed in an attempt to supplant
Athanasius, 153 ; forcibly introduced into see of Alexandria,
164 ; driven from thence, 167.
Luitprand, King of the Lombards, adds to the patrimony of the
church of Rome, iii. 161.
Lullus, invited by Boniface archbishop of Mentz, from England,
iii. 178; appointed his successor, 180.
Lupus, accompanies Germanus on a mission against the Pela-
gians, in Britain, ii. 484; his character, ib.
Luther, Martin, his testimony to the writings of Huss, iv. 212,
253 ; his preface to a work of Wesselus, 295; rather the
instrument than agent of the Reformation, 304 ; v. 564 ; his
character, iv. 311, 334 & seq. 622; v. 88, 189, 247,
381, 382, 485; his rise, iv. 314, 319; patronized by F»e-
deric the Wise, 319; begins to question the propriety of in-
dulgences, ib. 320; bis modest and cautious proceedings.
320, 321 ; v. 459 ; publishes his Theses, iv. 321; parity of
his motives, ib. note; 324, 333; sketch of his former- life
and character, 322 4c seq.; his talents and celebrity, 325,
334, 366, 458 & passim; sent to Rome on business, 326;
compelled to take degree of D. D. ib.; made subaltern vicar,
329; his opinion of Frederic, ib.; of Erasmus, ib. it seq.
494; preaches before Duke George, 331; his former spiritual
bondage, 333; his character by popish authors, 337 & seq.
509; his Theses burned by Telzel, 347 ; preaches and writes
against indulgences, 349; vindicated from charge of acting
at the instigation of others, ib. 353 ; risks himself at Heidel-
berg, and is courteously received by Wolfgang, 350; pro-
vokes a disputation upon doctrinal points, ib.; engaged in a
controversy with Eckius and Prierias, 351; writes to his
diocesan and vicar general, ib.; his writings in year 1518,
353 ; writes to the Pope, 354; his remarkable account of
his own feebngs in the contest, 356; observation of Leo X.
concerning him, 359; attacked by Prierias and Hogastratus,
360 ; cited to appear at Rome, 361; his prudent conduct on
the occasion, i\u; his case referred to Cardinal Cajetan, 362;
condemned previously at Rome, 3G3 ; appears under a safe
conduct at Augsburg, 365 ; his conversation with an emis-
sary of Cajetan, ib.; his odiousness to the hierarchy, 366;
his intrepidity and generosity, ib. 383, 397, 436, 463, 533,
542, 544, 546; v. 17, 51, 121, 122, 149 & passim; ap-
pears before the cardinal, iv. 368 ; proceedings of the trial,
ib. & seq.; his two letters to Cajetan, 373 ; his appeal, 374 ;
quits Augsburg, 375 ; his two letters to Staupitius, 379,380;
discharges the office of pastor at Wittemberg, 385; appeals
to a general council, ib. ; his conference with Mil tit*, 389 &
seq.; his submissive letter to the Pope vindicated, 390; his
respect for his superiors, 392, 409, 456; his generous letter
to Tetzel, 394 ; his reply to Eckius, 399 ; accepts his chal-
lenge to a disputation, 40J ; his opinion respecting the Pope's
supremacy, 405 & seq.; is condemned by two uersities,
414; his notions regarding purgatory, ib.; his acuteness as
a disputant, 416; his indisposition to controversy, ib.;
v. 068, 36a ; publishes his conclusions, iv. 417 ; his honest
account of his religious experience, 418 ; doubts the authen-
ticity of St. James's epistle, 423 ; his modest opinion of bis
own style, ib.; v. 272 ; prodigious circulation of his writings,
iv. 424 ; composes a tract for the elector in his illness, 426;
his further negotiations with Miltitz, 431, 442 ; bis firmness
and consistency, 432, 438 ; preaches on the propriety of ad-
ministering the communion in both kinds, 433 ; accused to
the elector by the Duke of Saxony, ib.; defends his opinions
435! writes to Charles the Filth, 437; his reply, to the two
uersities, 439 ; his protestation, 440 ; bis letters to the
Archbishop of Mentz and Bishop of Mersburg, 441; his letter
to Leo X. and treatise on Christian liberty, 442 & seq.; en-
couraged by offers of protection from German noblemen, 465;
his letter to Spalatinus, on the occasion, ib.; another letter
previous to the offer of protection, 466; his tract against the
popedom, 470; his tract on the Babylonish captivity, 471;
repents his concessions respecting indulgences, ib.; the Pope's
damnatory bull against him, 474; his letter on the occasion,
475; publishes a private letter of Eckius, 479; his books
burned by Aleander, 484; extraordinary testimony to his
probity, 485; occasional testimonies in his favour, 488,489;
appeals to a general council, 489; his tracts against the
bull, 490, 491 ; his apology for his harshness, 493 ; v. 355,
365 ; burns the bull and other pontifical works, iv. 497 ; his
defence of this step, 499; his second bull against him, 502 ;
his opinion of general councils, 505, note ; 554, 557, 560;
publishes a variety of sermons and tracts, ,509; his commen-
tary on Galatians, ib.; accused by Aleander at the diet of
Worms, 526; his intrepid letter to Spalatinus, respecting
his resolution to appear at Worms, 533 ; his letter to the
elector, 534; receives a safe conduct, 539 ; his letter to
Spalatinus on the occasion, 542 ; his journey to Worms,
543 ; his hilarity vindicated, 544; his memorable answer to
the attempts to dissuade him from venturing at Worms, 546 ;
his appearance and conduct at Worms, ib. & seq.; experiences
great honours there, ib.; his speech before the diet, 549 ; at-
tempts made to induce him to retract, 556 & 3eq.; ordered
to leave Worms, 560 ; seized and conveyed for protection to
Wartburg, 563 ; condemned by edict of Worms, 565 ; his
own opinion of his conduct at Worms, 575; Melancthon's
life of him, 604 & seq.; his practical devotion, 613; his
determination to the monastic life, 614; his advice to Spa-
latinus respecting the study of divinity, 616; his corres-
pondence with Spalatinus, 618; his writings, 624; effects
of his confinement upon his habits, v. 3; bis employments,
ib.; his tract on confession, 4; his treatise concerning the
abrogation of private masses, 5 ; his book on monastic vows,
6, 248 ; his controversy with Latomus, 7 ; begins to trans-
late the Scriptures, 16; his disguise at Wartburg, 18; his
remarks on hunting, ib.; exhorts his party to bold measures,
20 ; reproves the riotous conduct of the people of Erfurt, ib.;
composes expositions of Scripture and promotes lectures, 22;
external means employed by him, 23 ; success thereof, ib.;
pays a clandestine visit to Wittemberg, 24; condemned by
uersity of Paris, 26 ; hh controversy with Henry VIII.
of England, ib. & seq.; 355; returns to Wittemberg, 32;
his letter to Erederic respecting disturbances of Carolstadt,
40 ; his petitions to Frederic, 43 ; his advice respecting the
fanatics, 47; his letter to Erederic on quitting his Patmas, 50;
his answer to Frederic's communication by Scharff, 55;
resumes his preaching at Wittemberg, 62 ; extracts from his
sermons, ib. & seq.; vindicated from charge of ambition,
68, note; his account of his differences with Carolstadt, 69;
his conference with Stubner, 70: his danger at Wittemberg,
72 ; publishes his version of the New Testament, and sub-
sequently of the Old, 73; his tract respecting alteration
of external matters in the churches, 76; his tract styled
Common Treasury, 79; character and celebrity of his ver-
sion, 84; his remarks on Esmer's translation, 86; bis
publications in year 1522, 89; publishes a translation of
Adrian's mandates with notes, 105; his address to the
princes and nobles upon the edict of Nuremberg, 106 ; his
answers to Frederic's questions respecting lawfulness of de-
fending his subjects by force, 126; preaches before Chris-
tian II. of Sweden, 130; his letter to John Thurzo, 144;
his letter to the congregation of Miltenberg, 147, 576 ; ob-
jects to the term Lutherans, 147; composes a Latin hymn to
the memory of three martyrs, 149; his letter to Lambert
Thorn, 150; to John Hesse, 152 ; his letter to the Dnke of
Savoy, 157 ; his remarks on the decree of the diet of Nu-
remberg, 171; his letter to the bishop of Samland, 179;
his exposition of Deuteronomy, ib. 383 & seq.; his account
of Henry of Zutphen, 187 ; his conduct and writings in the
sacramentary contest, 191 & seq.; particularly 200, 201;
also 226, 396, 476, 501, 519 & seq.; receives abusive
treatment at Orlamuud, 193 ; intercedes for Carolstadt, 196,
198; his loyalty, 203, 216, 455; his account of Munzer,
204; his remonstrance against the lenity shown to that
fanatic, 206, & seq.; admonishes the magistrates of Mul-
hausen not to receive him, 211 ; his treatise against the ce-
lestial prophets and Carolstadt, ib.; his address to the
people against sedition, 216 & seq.; his advice to the
rulers in conseqnence of the Rustic war, 219 & seq.; his
tract against the robbers and murderers, 223 ; his conduct
compared with that of Carolstadt, 226 & seq.; his conces-
sions in the sacramentary contest, 236 & seq.; objects to
a tax on beer, 242, note ; preaches Frederic's funeral sermon,
244; resigns the title of an Augustine monk, 247; mar-
ries, 249; calumniated on the occasion, ib.; how affected
by the change, 250 ; his remarks on the step, 251 & seq.;
his marriage vindicated, 254 & seq.; his controversy with
Erasmus, 258 & seq.; vindicated from charge of incon-
sistency, 328 ; his concessions to Henry VIII. of England,
354 & seq.; 391 ; his opinion of Wolsey, 357 ; his conces-
sions to Duke George, 358 & seq. 391 ; complains of
opposition from among the reformers, 362, 365 ; his reply
to Henry VIII. of England, 363; institutes new ecclesias-
tical regulations at Wittemberg, 371 & seq.;' a curious
letter of his respecting some celestial prodigies, 375, note;
Iris letter respecting the invitation of Pomeranus to Dantzic
378 ; his industry, knowledge, and prudence, 381 ; his dis-
like of enthusiasm, 386, 485 ; order and perspicuity of his
writings, 388; his sermons, 389, 464; character of his
style, 391 ; his book of hymns, 392 ; his letter to reformed
pastors and congregations, 393 ; attempt upon his life by
poison, 395 ; intercedes for the accused person, ib.; his
asperity allowed to be excessive, 416, 474, 476, 489 &
aliter ; his treatise upon tbe secret treaty against the elector
and landgrave, 439; his account of Lambert, 451; bis po-
verty, 452, 483 ; his sentiments respecting resistance, 453;
& seq. 557; his advice respecting the clergy, 455; his
opinion respecting the war with the Turks, 456 & seq.;
makes various ecclesiastical regulations, 459 ; dedicates his
exposition of certain psalms to the Queen of Hungary, 460;
writes to the elector respecting smallness of Melancthon's
salary, 466 ; intercedes for certain friars, ib.; his desire of
martyrdom, 470 ; his temptations, 471 & seq.; confesses with
tears the intemperance of his language, 482 ; offends Duke
George, 490 ; his preface to the Directory for the clergy,
ib.; exhorts to pacific measures towards the papists, 493 ;
defends himself from the calumny of Hubmeier, 498 ; his
tolerant sentiments, ib. 500; his reasons for separating from
the papacy, 499, 502; his sentiments on predestination,
514 & seq.; attends conferences at Marpurg, 518 & seq.;
compared with Zuingle, 527 & seq.; his opinion respecting
the salvation of the heathens, 532 ; presents the articles of
Torgau to the elector, 561; publishes his catechism, 563 ;
his eulogium on Melancthon, 564; his uninterrupted friend-
ship with that reformer, ib.; his firm and pious conduct
after the diet of Augsburg, ib.; his prayers, 565, note ; his
letter to Gabriel, 570; his letter to Hartmurth, 571; his
intimacy and correspondence with Hesse, 575.
Lutheran denomination, what, v. 154 ; depart from the doctrines
of Luther, 335, note; 515.
Lutheranism, study of its history recommended, iv. 304 ; its pro-
Lydia, her conversion, i. 62.
Lyons, martyrs of, i. 223, & seq.
Hacarius, author of celebrated homilies, ii. 244.
Macedonians, their heresy, ii. 156.
Macedonius, his character, ii. 77 ; proposed by Arian paity as
Bishop of Constantinople without success, 78 ; takes pos-
session of that see by force, 85; persecutes the orthodox,
91 ; deprived of the see, 93 ; forms a sect, ib.
Maclanc, the translator of Mosheim, his prejudices against Luther,
v. 198, note; aoi, note; 230, 232, note; 233,514/528,
Macriamu, the favourite of Valerian, persuades that emperor to
persecute, i. 445 ; his magical practices, ib.
Macrinus, Emperor, succeeds Caracal I a, i. 315.
Magdeburg, treaty of, v. 441.
Magi, instrumental in persecuting the Christians, ii. 107.
Magic, forbidden by Constamine, ii. ill ; by Constantius, 112.
Magnus, a Pagan, his cruel treatment of the Athanasians, ii. 164.
— King of Norway, last invader of England, iii. 298; re-
Mahomet, declares himself a prophet, iii. 122; his doctrines and
rites, ib.; his conquests and death, 123 ; success of his sys-
tem, ib. 130.
Monometallism, success of, iii. 123, 130 ; its fatal influence, 284.
Mahometans, put an end to the kingdom of the Goths, iii. 143 ;
their pretensions to uersal empire, 333.
Maimbourg, his history of Lutheranism, iv. 337; v. 84; bis
prejudices against Luther, iv. 337, 351, 456 ; v. 566, note.
Majorinus, Bp. of Carthage, ordained in opposition to Csecilian,
Malchion, a presbyter, his successful disputation against Paul of
Samosata, i. 490.
Malcolm III. of Scotland, protects Edgar and Margaret, iii. 306 ;
recovered throne of Scotland from Macbeth, ib.; marries
Margaret, ib.; his ferosity softened, ib.; slain, ib.
Malo, St. flies to France to escape being made Bishop of Win-
chester, iii. 27 ; becomes bishop at St. Malo's, ib.
Mammxa, Julia, mother of Alexander Severns, her character,
i. 316 ; sends for Origen, 318 ; is murdered, 321.
Manasscs, Abp. of Cologne, deposed for simony, iii. 326, note.
Manet, his heresy, i. 497.
Manichees, their absurd notions, ii. 314, note; 315, and note;
320; distinction among them of auditors and elect, 325;
their sect nearly eradicated by Augustine, 424.
Manzius, an Anabaptist, holds a public conference with Zuingie,
v. 506 ; his fanaticism and martyrdom, 507.
Maovia, Queen of the Saracens, makes peace with Valens, iL 239.
Marcellus, a centurion, refuses to serve in the army, and is be-
headed, i. 500.
— Bp. of Ancyra, having been deposed by the Arians is restored,
ii. 76; charged with Sabellianism, and justified by Julius,
Bishop of Rome, 81 ; his orthodoxy questionable, ib.; re-
stored to his see, 84.
Marcia, concubine of Commodus, exerts her interest for the
Christians, i. 241.
Marcian, Bp. of Arelate, joins the Novatians, i. 438.
— a Novatian presbyter, and tutor to the daughters of Valens,
his character, ii. 156; obtains toleration of his 6ect, ib.;
made bishop among the Novatians, 242 ; ordains Sabbatus,
a Jew, but shortly after obliged to check his ambition, ib.
Marcian, chosen by Pulcheria, the empress, for her husband, and
made emperor, ii. 526 ; his character, ib.
Marcion, ejected from the church, and turns heretic, i. 189; dis-
owned by Polycarp, 210; his heresy, 311.
Mare, Thomas de la, abbot of St. Albans, his fame for piety,
Margaret, Queen of Scotland, her exemplary piety, iii. 305 ;
protected by Malcolm upon the conquest of England, 306 ;
marries that monarch, ib.; greatly reforms the king and
people, ib.; her care of her children's education, ib.; her
— Governess of the Netherlands, her reply to an attack upon
Luther, iv. 489.
— of Navarre, sister to Francis I. of France, protects the re-
formers, v. 153; sends Faber and Roussel to confer'with
Strasburg divines, 186.
Marinas, appointed a centurion, i. 481 ; objected to as a Christian,
and confesses, ib.; beheaded, 482.
Mark, John, deserts Paul and Barnabas, i. 50; sails with Bar-
nabas to Cyprus, 56; further account of him, 115; founds
church at Alexandria, 116.
— Bp. of Arethusa, ordered to pay expense of rebuilding an
idolatrous temple, ii. 130 ; tortured, ib.; his constancy, ib.;
had saved the life of Julian, 131 ; his character ib.; proba-
bility of his return from Arianism, ib.
— the hermit, his writings, ii. 528.
Maronites, iii. 127.
Marpurg, uersity of, founded, v. 453; conferences at, 518
Marsilius of Padua, writes against the papal encroachments, iv. 73 ;
his opinions and character, ib.
Martial, a Spanish bishop, degraded, i. 438.
Martin, Bp. of Tours, resists the first attempt to punish heresy
with death, ii. 188; his piety and reputation, 189; his
early life, 190; reforms a robber, 191 ; his monastic ten-
dency, ib.; declines friendship of Maximus, 192; his cha-
— Bp. of Rome, assembles council of Lateran, iii. 124; anathe-
matises Monothelites, 125; his haughtiness, ib.; suffers
persecution, ib.; his firmness, ib.; his writings, 131.
— V. Pope, appointed by Council of Constance, iv. 206, 274 ;
eludes the demand for a reformation, 274, 276, 278; his
impious absolution of the members of the council of Con-
stance, 277 ; persecutes the Hussites, 278; and the Jaco-
1— a missionary among the Danes, his labours, v. 129.
Martyrs, superstitious veneration paid to them, i. 353 j extrava-
gant power attributed to them, 355 ; their great number
proved, ii. 33.
Maruthus, Bp. of Mesopotamia, his influence over Isdegerdes,
Mary, Queen of Hungary, apparently inclines to the Reforma-
tion, v. 461; her admonition to Charles the Fifth, ib.; go-
verns the Low Countries, ib.; relapses to popery, ib.; ber
character, ib.; called to Spain, 462.
Maryns, John, Abbot of St. Albans, his dying prayer to St. Alban,
Masses, private, abolished, v. 23, 34 & seq. 78 ; their corrup-
Matthias, the Apostle, substituted in the place of Judas Iscariot,
— a curate of Prague, maintains right of the laity to communion
in both kinds, iv. 235 ; obliged to retract, ib.; his charac-
Maturus, distinguished in the persecution at Vienne, i. 227 ; his
Maurice, Bp. of Ermland, denounces Luther, v. 178.
Mauritius, succeeds to the empire, iii. 34; confirms election of
Gregory I. 35; his law respecting civil and ecclesiastical
offices and monaslicism, 60; severely condemns Gregory's
conduct, 62 ; his character, 66; murdered, ib.; his resigna-
tion under his misfortunes, 67.
Maxentius, son of the Emperor Maximian, retains Rome and
Italy against Constantine, ii. 31 ; attempts the chastity of a
Christian matron, ib.; dispossessed by Constantine, 32.
— John, a Scythian monk, his v/ritings, iii. 94; suffers persecu-
Maximian, the associate of Dioclesian in the empire, his tyrannical
character, ii. 2 ; joins his efforts in the Dioclesian persecu-
tion, 4 ; resigns the empire, 19 ; put to death by Constan-
Maximilian, Emperor, sentences Tetzel to death for adultery,
3*7 ; complains to the Pope against Luther, 361.
Maximin, Emperor, murders Alexander, whom he succeeds,
i.321; persecutes the Christians, ib.; his character, ib.
— nephew of Galerius, appointed Cxsar, ii. 19 ; his savage dis-
position, ib.; persecutes the Christians, ib.; remarkable
instance of his injustice, 22 ; his edicts, 24 ; exceeds Galerius
in persecution, 32 ; suppresses that emperor's edict of tolera-
tion, 33 ; his struggle for empire, ib.; renews the persecu-
tion, ib.; appoints persons of quality as idolatrous priests, 34;
his artifices and cruelties in persecution, ib.; bis war with
Licinius, and vow to Jupiter, 38; conquered, and forbids
molestation of Christians, ib.; slays his own priests, 39;
publishes an edict of full toleration, ib ; his dreadful and
uncommon end, ib.
JMaximus, a Roman presbyter and confessor, imprisoned along
with Moyses, i. 337 ; see Moyses; joins Novatian, 37a;
repents and returns to the church, 381.
-— a presbyter, elected counter bishop by the Novatians, i. 374.
a merchant, his confession and martyrdom, i. 409.
a presbyter under Dionysius of Alexandria, banished along
with that bishop, i. 475 ; succeeds him, 478. Bishop of Naples, tortured at council of Milan, ii. 86 ; dies in
usurper of the empire, takes upon him to decide the case ol
the Priscillianists, ii. 188 ; courts the friendship of Martin,
192 ; his death, 200.
— Secretary to the Emperor Ileraclius, his learning, iii. 124;
enters a monastery, and made abbot, ib.; opposes Menothe-
lite heresy, ib.; examined at Constantinople, 125; solidity
of his answers, ib.; suffers persecution, 127 his writings,
Mayons, John de Beles, Abp. of Lyons, threatens Peter Walde,
JSIedici, family of, raised up to patronise science, iv. 288.
Meginher, Abp. of Treeves, provokes his clergy by his admoni-
tions, i'.i. 432; suffers from their treachery, and dies in
Melancihun, his opinion of Wickliffe, iv. 130 ; his character, 366 ;
428 ; v. 310, 322, 345, 353; made Greek professor at Wit-
temberg, iv. 366; his celebrity, ib.; v. 322 ; assists Carol-
stadtin his disputation, iv. 427 ; renders powerful assistance
to Luther in the Reformation, 428,459; his controversy
with Eckius, 430 ; hi3 timidity, v. 19, 310 ; defends Luther
against Parisian divines, 29; his account of and conduct re-
specting Stork and other fanatics, 44 & seq.; assists Luther
in translating the Scriptures, 73 ; his opinion as to resistance,
126, 557 ; his character of Carolstadt, 231; makes a Latin
oration on the death of Frederic, 244; defends Bernard's
marriage, 248; his sentiments on Luther's marriage, 250,
•55 ; his marriage, 257 ; his correspondence with Erasmus,
ib. and seq.; his theological tracts; 323, 330 & seq.; his
letter to Calvin, 332 ; his opinion of Erasmus, 345; his de-
fence of the Reformers, 430 ; attempts to moderate the zeal
of the Landgravp of Hesse, 450 ; his conscientiousness in-
stanced, 466; composes a directory for the clergy, 490 ;
writes in favour of pacific measures, 493; attends conferences
at Marpurg, 518, and seq.; his account of the conferences,
521 ; bis sentiments on Zuingle's confession, 522 ; draws up
the confession of Augsburg, 561 ; his deep melancholy, in
consequence of the decree of Augsburg, 562 ; Luther's eu-
logium, on his work, 564; his uninterrupted friendship with
Meletians, their schism, ii. 50; their controversy settled, 62;
return in numbers to the church, but sect still continues, 65.
Meletians, a party attached to Meletius of Antioch, ii. 132 ; per.
Meletius, an Egyptian bishop, lapses, ii. 49; deposed, ib.; sepa-
rates, and raises a schism, 50 ; allowed by Nicene couoci
to retain title of bishop without authority, 62.
— Bp. of Antioch, ordered to preach before Constantius, ii. 94;
banished for his doctrine, ib.; restored to his see, 126; con-
sidered head of a party, 132 ; presides at council of Antiock,
160; banished, ib.; restored, 182; attends council of Cos-
stantinople, and dies there, 183 ; his character, ib.
Melito, Bp. of Sardis, his apology, i. 207; his other writings,
251; becomes an eunuch, ib.
Mellitus, Bp. of London, co-operates with Laurentius a»j
Juttus, iii. 97 ; refuses the sacrament to three princes, 98,
expelled, 99 ; retires to France, ib; recalled, 100 ; made
Archbishop of Canterbury, ib.; his death and character, ib.
Mendicant orders, see Dominicans and Franciscans ; their prac-
tices, 20, 22, 42, 45, 53, 55, 75, 109, 133, 148 ; attacked
by WicklifF, 109, 112, 126; Luther's objections to them,
v. 384; their practices complained of in diet of Spires,
Methodius, a missionary, his piety and labours, iii. 227, 228;
made bishop of Moravia, 229.
Metros, a martyr, i. 390.
Metrodorus, a Marcionite, his martyrdom, i. 222, 408.
Meyer, Sebastian, a celebrated preacher at Strasburg, recants
popish errors, v. 186; publishes a confutation of them,
Michael, III. Emperor, succeeds his mother, iii. 208.
— Palabgus, usurps Greek empire, iv. 15; recovers Constan-
tinople, ib.; puts out the eyes of Prince John, ib.; excom-
municated by Arsenius, ib.; affects repentance, 16 ; his base
treatment of Arsenius, ib.
Micislaus, King or Duke of Poland, divorces his seven wives,
embraces Christianity, and marries Dambrouca, iii. 262.
Militxius, his successful preaching, iv. 76 ; silenced and impri-
soned by the Pope, 77.
Miltiadcs, detects false pretences to inspiration, i. 253.
Miltitz, Charles, a Saxon knight, employed to settle the ruptnre
between Luther and the Roman see, iv. 3B8 ; rebuke*
Tetzel, 389; his conferences with Luther, ib. & seq.; also
Minucius, Felix, his very eloquent Latin work, i. 315 ; his testi-
mony to continuance of miraculous gifts, 329.
Miracles, continuance thereof in third century, i. 329, 442, 470;
probability of, by Gregory Thaumaturgus, 505 ; in Augus-
tine's time, ii. 423; remarkable one in speech of persons
deprived of their tongues, 506.
Missions for propagating the Gospel, encouraged by Bishop of
Rome, iii. 156; apology for, 265. -
jytoiban, Ambrose, a reformer, v. 145.
Alonasteries, abuse of, iii. 140; deserted in Germany, v. 374,
Alonica, the mother of Augustine, renowned for piety, ii. 299;
note; remonstrates with her son on his views, 309; her
remarkable dream, 315; perseveres nine yeans in prayer for
him, 316 ; her remarkable conversation with a bishop re-
specting him, ib.; further proofs of her maternal attach-
ment, 323, 325, 328 ; her death, 357 ; her education, 358 ;
her exemplary conduct as a wife, ib.; her conversations be-
fore her death, 359 and seq.
Monks, their communities founded by Anthony, i. 524; evil
effects thereof, 525 ; ancient character of, ii. 95; two sorts
of, 97; support Nicene faith, ib.; those of Egypt courted
by the Arians, 165 ; their steadfastness, ib.; growth of mo-
nastic spirit, 234, 243 ; rules of their discipline formed, 267 ;
flower of Christ's flock in fourth century, ib.; instance of
their active charity, 281; difference between ancient and
modern idea of, 471 ; rules of Benedict established, iii. 21;
excessive multiplication of, 140, 166; their attempt at an
independent dominion, 246; contribute to revival of learn-
ing, 283; conduct of many at the Reformation, v. 71 > 87,
147; of Wittemberg desert the monastery, 247.
Monothelite, heresy, iii. 120; its success, 122; anathematized,
Mgntanus, his heresy, i. 260.
Montesquieu, accused of sophistry, ii. 416.
Montfort, earl Simon of, his infamous treatment of the Wal-
denses, iii. 4g2 ; his successful career, 493 ; slain, ib.; his
piety commended by Butler, iv. 24.
— Amalric of, resigns to the French king his claims to the
country of the Albigenses, iii. 494; appointed Constable of
Moors, extension of Christianity among them, iii. 02.
Moranus, Peter, an Albigensian, suffers persecution, iii. 483.
Moreri, his character of Luther, iv. 339.
Moses, a monk, appointed bishop of the Saracens, ii. 239; refused
to be ordained by Lucius, ib.; ordained by the exiled bishops,
240; his success among the Saracens, ib.
Mosheim, a judicious secular historian, but not to be trusted in
accounts of men of real holiness, i. 457 ; his unjust repre-
sentations of Cyprian, ib.; and of Origen, 459 ; mistaken in
depreciating the genius of Julian, ii. 113 ; his treatment of
Pelagian disputes indefensible, 389; his misrepresentation of
Augustine, 463; instance of his positiveness, 477 ; his par-
tiality, ib.; his inconsiderate aspersions, iii. 116; his ill
humour and want of discernment, 141; instance of his pre-
judice and inconsistency, 184; instance of his candour, 242 ;
his mistake respecting character of tenth century, 263;
instance of his uncharftablehess and self-sufficiency, 37 f ;
his account of the Waldenses erroneous, 444, note.
May us, a Roman presbyter and confessor, imprisoned, i. 337 ;
written to by Cyprian on that occasion, ib.; Cyprian's second
letter to him and Maximus, 358 ; his friendship with Nova-
tion, 371; renounces intercourse with that schismatic, ib. ;
dies in prison, ib.; bis character commended, ib.
Muller, Henry, a reformed preacher, burned, v. 132; see oho
Henry of Zutphen.
ilunzer, a German fanatic, v. 44 ; Luther's account of him, 504;
his fanatical opinions, ib.; forms a desperate association,
205 ; banished, ib.; expelled by the inhabitants from Nu-
remberg, ib.; exercises his ministry at Mulbausen, 206;
his violent proceedings there, ib.; heads the peasants in the
Rustic war, 215.
Myconius, Frederic, a reformer, his account of the state of reli-
gion before the Reformation, iv. 305; brief sketch of his
history, v. 567.
Narcissus, prime minister of Claudius, his family Christians,
i. 79; his character, 80.
Nassau, Count, his testimony to Luther, iv. 4S8.
Natalis, Bp. of Salonae, his correspondence with Gregory the
First, iii. 47. .
Nebridius, leaves hiB paternal estate to accompany Augustine,
»• 336; recovered from a heretical error, 356.
Nectarius, Bp. of Constantinople, ii. 185; his negligent adminis-
— a Pagan, his correspondence with Augustine, ii. 453.
Negrin, Stephen, a Waldensian, sent as pastor to Calabria, iii.
503; starved to death, 504.
Nemes, a Greek father, his testimony concerning divine faith,
Nero, Emperor, persecutes the Christians, i. 98 ; his death, 100.
Nerva, Emperor, his lenity to the Christians, i. 102.
Nestorians, their heresy, ii. 125; iii. 120 ; endeavour to propa-
gate Christianity, 129; increase their numbers, ib.
Nestorius, hi3 heresy, ii.525.
Nicanor, one of the seven deacons, i. 16.
Niccphorus, remarkable story of him and Sapricius, i. 473.
Nicholas, one of the seven deacons, i. 16.
Nicolaitans, i. 89.
Nicolas, Pope, commends the cruelties of Theodora, iii. 208.
Nicolaus, a zealous youth among the reformers, suffers martyr-
dom, v. 190.
Nicostratus, a Roman deacon, seduced by Novatian, i. 373.
Nile, superstitious veneration of, given up, ii. 205.
XTiZus, his sanctity, iii. 280; retires to a convent, ib.; his con-
ference with certain priests who came to try his skill, ib.;
ill-treated by Euphraxus, 281 ; his visit to his death-bed, ib.
refuses a bishopric, 282; driven from his convent on the
Saracen invasion, ib.; offers made to him by Otho the
Third, ib.; his sole request of that Emperor, ib.
Jcvoc/im of Smyrna, propagates Praxean heresy, i. 319; ejected
from the church, ib.; his affectation, 320.
N"ovatian, a Roman priest, persuaded by Novatus to separate
from the church, i. 371; had been a Stoic, ib.; his senti-
ments respecting the lapsed, ib. 374; irregularly elected
Bishop of Rome, 372; his doctrine sound, 373 ; charges
laid against him by Cornelius, ib.; condemns second mar-
riages, ib.; rejected by African Synod, 375 ; his moral cha-
racter correct, 398 ; his early history and character, 399 ;
his treatise on the Trirwty, 400 ; suffered martyrdom, 401.
Novatians, the first body of dissenters, i. 373 ; elect a counter bi-
shop, 374 ; their character, ib.376, 398 ; ii. 48, 65,91,172,
243; complain against Cornelius at Carthage, but are re-
fused audience, i. 377 ; strive to make a party, ib.; animad-
version on them by council of Carthage, ib.; no trace of the
Holy Spirit's influence among them, 398; their schism
spreads in Gaul, 438 ; only differ from the church in disci-
pline, 54.6; real spirituality among them, ii. 48; allowed
to return to the church, 64; suffer persecution from the
Arians, 91; instances of their zeal and bigotry, ib.; included
in an edict against heretics, 100; suffer persecution under
Valens, 156; tolerated, ib. 185; flourish in Phrygia and
Paphlagonia, 241 ; appoint in a synod the time of celebrating
Easter, ib.; schism among them, 242; consequences of
their narrow bigotry, 243; find fault with Chrysostom's
expressions regarding repentance, 285.
Novatus, a presbyter of Carthage, his infamous character, i.370,
382; supports schism of Felicissimus, ib.; goes to Rome,
371 ; seduces Novatian from the church, ib.; liia inconsis-
tency, 372 ; returns to Africa, 373; Cyprian's testimony
respecting his character, 382.
Noviomagus, Gerard, his controversy with Erasmus, v. 339.
Numidicus, a presbyter, his sufferings and recovery, i. 365.
Nuremberg, edict of, v. 81, 116; diet of, Ioi & seq.; another
diet of 160 & seq.
Ochham, William, iv. 67.
Odoacer, King of the Heruli, conquers Rome and puts an end to
the Roman empire, ii. 496; overcome by Theodoric, ib,
(Ecolampadius, see Ecolampadius.
Offices in the church, rise of the lower ones, i. 515.
VOL. V. X X
Olaus, King of-Sweden, patronizes Christians, iii. 257.
I— King of Norway, professes conversion but retains idolitrce
practices, iii. 259.
— King of Norway, the most successful of all the Nomefas
kings in recommending Christianity, iii. s6c>.
— King of Norway, assists the Danes against Etheldred of EE-
land, iii. 296; carries over several priests, ib.; his ratios
labours, ib. ;. slain, ib.
-— Petri, instructs Gustavus V'asa, .v. 133; holds a disputaca
in support of Lutheranism against Peter Galle, in.; mxt
secretary to Gustavus Vasa, 136; engaged in a second im-
putation against Peter Galle, 140; publishes an explanatka
of justification by faith, 141, 574; and a ritual, 141; sfcesd
of his history, 574.
Olga, Queen of the Russians, receives baptism, iii. 263.
Olympics, an opulent lady, her liberijity to Chrysoston>, ii. 991,
. banished, to Nicomedia, ib. -
Omcr, Bp. of Tarvanue, his successful labours, iii. 111,
Ouesimus, a slave, and afterwards a Christian convert, i. 83;
Bishop of Ephesus, commended by Ignatius, 155.
Optatus, Bp. of Melevi, his treatise against the Donatists, ii.247.
Oracle of Apollo, its answer concerning Christianity, ii. no.
Ordination, ideas of it strict in early times, i. 364 ; recommended
., to be performed publicly, why, 439 ; power of confined to
. ■ bishops, 514.
Origen, his early passion for martyrdom, i. 295; his education
and spirit of inquiry, ib.; catechises at Alexandria, 397;
distinguishes himself by his attachment t,o martyrs, ib.; his
great industry and self-denial, 298 ; becomes a voluntary
eunuch, 301 ; ordained a presbyter, ib.; comes to Rome but
; soon returns, 311; publishes his Hexapla, ib.; confutes
Ambrose, a Valentinian, 312 ; his lectures attended by he-
retics and philosophers, ib.; his opinion of the necessity 'of
secular and philosophical learning, ib.; his habit of allego-
rizing Scripture, 314 ; sent for to instruct the governor of
Aralica, 315 ; sent for by Mammaea, the emperor's mother,
318 ; sent for to Athens , to assist the churches, 320; goes
to Palestine, ib.; ejected from the church, and banished
from Egypt, ib.; retires to Palestine, and is still followed,
ib.; his letter to Gregory Tbauniaturjius, 321, 503; re-
claims Beryllus, 322 ; his epistle to the Emperor Philip, ib.;
confutes the error of those who denied the intermediate state
of souls, 323 ; extreme tortures suffered by him under De-
cian persecution, 388 ; dies, 389. Compared with Cyprian.
455 ; his opinion of Christ, 465; ii. 45 ; of justification, 467;
injurious effects of his writings, 469; supposed to be deficient
in orthodoxy, 545; vindicated, ib.; difficulty to clear him
of depreciating divinity of. Christ, ii. 45 ; censured by Au-
gustine, 418; his love of allegorizing condemned by Luthe/,
Orthodoxy, its fruits contrasted with those of Arianism, ii. 163,.
I 183; its practical fruits, 384; its openness of character,
Osiander, a reformed, heads the reformed party in a conference at
Nuremberg, y. 377 ; his character, 578"; his treatment of
Melanctbon, ib.; raises disturbances among the Lutherans,
ib.; his death, ib.
Osmund, Bp. of Salisbury, his judicious correction of the Liturgy,
iii. 304, note.
Gsuald, King of Northumbria, attempts to evangelize his people,
iii. 106; his zeal in the cause, 107; bis character, 108;
Othingcr, a Danish bishop, extends Christianity in Denmark,
Othman, Sultan, founds a new empire in the east, iv. 13.
— empire, founded, iv. 13.
Otko, Emperor of Germany, represses papal disorders at Rome,
iii. 249. establishes right of choosing the Pope, ib.; his
character, 2,50 ; fixes the imperial crown in Germany, ib.;
represses the Turks, ib.; his laudable efforts in the cause of
Bp. of Bamberg, his labours in Pomerania, iii. 427.
Oxford, uersity of, founded, iii. 419; oppressed by the Danes,
ib.; its celebrity and impiety, in twelfth century, ib.
pacianus, Bp. of Barcelona, renowned for piety and eloquence,
ii. 246 ; his writings, 247.
Paganism, its decline, ii. 108.
Paletz, professor of divinity at Prague, persecutes Huss, iv. 219,
220, 223, 237 ; endeavours to induce him to retract, 244.
Paladius, first Bishop of Scotland, ii. 485.
Pallavieini, a popish advocate, his confession respecting the mea-
sures against Luther, iv. 479 ; his prejudices, 567 ; his cha-
racter of Adrian the Sixth, v. 105, note.
Tamphilwi, the friend of Eusebius, his character, ii. 26; his
confession and martyrdom, ib.
Pantamts, master of the school at Alexandria, i. 287 ; combines
Stoicism with Christianity, ib.; preaches among the Indians,
Papacy, its discriminating marks, iii. 86; its corruption testified
by papists, 275.
Taphnutius, Bp. of Thebais, successfully contends in Nicene
council against prohibiting the clergy from cohabiting with
their wives, ii. 63 ; his honest secession from the council of
Papias, Bp. of Hierapolis, a disciple of St. John, his character,
C i. 69.
Paris, Uersity of, celebrated as a divinity seminary, 111.410:
its renown, iv. 313, 369; v. 26; appeals from council d
Lateran, 369; condemns Luther, v. 26 ; censures Erasnra
Paris, Matthew, a valuable monkish historian, iii. 447 ; calos.-
niates the Waldenses, ib.; his history, iv. 6, 7 ; his cha-
Parishes not known in third century, i. 516.
Paschal II. Pope, silences the Bishop of Florence, iii. 422.
, a Waldensian, sent as pastor into Calabria, iii. 503 ; bona*
505 ; his constancy, ib.
Patiens, Bp. of Lyons, his great charity, ii. 497 ; his pastori
Patricius, father of Augustine, his character and converske,
ii- 358, 359-
Patrick, the apostle of Ireland, born in Scotland, ii. 486; carriri
captive into Ireland, 487 ; conveyed into Gaul, ib.; reams
to convert the natives, ib.; his ill success, ib.; returns a
Gaul, ib.; encouraged by Germanu* and Ccelestine, retina
to Ireland, ib.; his great success, ib.; teaches the Irish tbe
use of letters, ib.; his death, ib.
Patronage, church, origin of, iii. 23.
Potto, a Scotch abbot, made bishop of Verden, iii. 243; his
character, ib.; suffers martyrdom, ib.
Paul the apostle, see Saul; his conversion, i. 18 ; goes to Jeru-
salem, 21, sent by the apostles to Tarsus, 22 ; no favoria
in the church at Jerusalem, 23; goes along with Barnabas
to bring alms to Jerusalem, ib.; returns to minister to the
Gentiles, ib.; supports Pettr's opinion at the council, 27; his
prudence regarding the Jewish converts, 29; his conduct
touching communion vindicated, ib.; rebukes Peter's dissi-
mulation, 30; his third and fourth visits to Jerusalem, ib.;
joins in a Nazarite vow, 31; suffers outrages, undergoes
various other trials, and arrives in Rome, 33 ; his epistle tt
the Hebrews, 34; brought from Tarsus to Antioch by
Barnabas, 49 ; sent by the Holy Ghost into other countries,
50; his travels, ib.; his separation from Barnabas, 55;
takes Silas as his companion, 56; their progress, ib. 61;
ejects the spirit of Python, 63 ; scourged and imprisoned,
ib.; delivered from prison, ib.; his visit to Athens, 70;
works at Corinth as a tent-maker, 73 ; sent to Rome, 80;
how employed there, ib.; his dangers and distress at Ephesns,
86; further account of his labours, epistles, and persecu-
tions, 106; his martyrdom and character, 110; what time
he speaks of in ch. vii. of Romans, ii. 957.
— the first hermit, his early life, i. 410; lives a hermit ninety
years, ib.; his piety, ib.; his retirement vindicated, ib.
— of Samosata, his heresy, i. 488; his character, ib.; recant*
before a council, 489; his conduct examined before a second
council, ib.; deposed, ib.; letter from the council respecting
him, 492 ; favoured by Zenobia, 496; keeps possession of
his church, but finally expelled, ib.
Paul, a martyr, his charitable prayers before he suffered, ii. 24. Bp. of Constantinople, recommended to that see by Alexander
on his death bed, ii. 77; his character, ib.; elected, 78 ;
dispossessed, ib.; re-elected, 81; banished, ib.; murdered, 85.
a Novatian bishop, his great reputation for holiness, ii. 524.
Pope, cultivates the friendship of Pepin, iii. 164.
Paula, an illustrious Roman lady, becomes intimate with Jerom,
ii. 471 ; adopts a monastic life, 472 ; erects four monasteries,
ib.; her death, ib.
Paulianists, re-baptism in their case required by the church, and
why, ii. 64.
Politicians, their sect, iii. 20I ; origin of their name, 203 ; con-
founded with Manichees, ib.; effusion'of the spirit amopg
them, ib.; calumnies against them, ib.; their growing im-
portance, 205 ; persecuted, ib.; their exemplary conduct
under persecution, 206; alteration of their character, 207,
5209 ; probability of true church being among them in twelfth
Pauliitus, lip. of Antiocb, ii. 132; ordained by Lucifer, which
causes a schism, ib.; his character, 133 ; proposal of Gre-
gory to confirm him rejected, 184.
— of Nola, his prayer, ii. 415, 530; his death and character,
485, 532 ; his writings, 528 ; marries a rich lady, 529 ; re-
tires from the world, ib.; obliged by the people to receive
orders, ib.; his remarkable humility, ib.; ordained bishop,
530; disturbed by the Goths, ib.; his friendship with Augus-
tine, ib.; his letters to Amandus and others, ib. & seq.; his
intimacy with Sulpitius Severus, ib.; refuses his picture to
Severus, but gives picture of his heart, 531 ; has the walls of
a temple painted with Scripture stories, iii. 153.
— consecrated bishop of the north of England, iii. 101 ; attends
Ethelberg into Northumberland, ib.; labours to convert the
Pagans, ib.; his success, ib. 104; preaches in Lincolnshire,
with success, 105; made Bishop of Rochester, ib.
— Bp. of Aquileia, takes a part in council of Frankfort, iii. 169 ;
his writings and character, 193 ; opposes the Pope, and the
second council of Nice, ib.; enjoys favour of Charlemagne,
>95 5 preaches to the Pagans, ib.
Paulus Sergius, his conversion, i. 50.
Pavan, James, a reformer, persecuted, and recants, v. 380; re-
sumes his profession, and suffers martyrdom, ib.
Feasants, war of, v. 203 & seq.; cause thereof, 242.
Pelagian papers, ii. 390.
l'elagians, guilty of burnings and plunderings, ii. 379 ; banished
from Rome, 383; their party indefatigable, 384; their sect
nearly eradicated by Augustine, 424.
Ptkgianism, ii. 369, 374, 376 ; history of, by Augustine, 379 ;
compared to Socinianism, 386; pure, lost for many ages» 387'
Semi, its rise and continuance, 388, 395 & seq.; opposed in
Britain by Germanus and Lupus, and suppressed, 484;
Semi, supported by Cassian, 487 ; and checked by Prosper
and others, 4.88 ; prevalence of in the eastern church, 533:
again spread in Britain, 492 ; put down by Germanus, ib.
characteristic thereof, v. 265, note.
Pelagius, a British monk, ii. 370; his morals decent, 371 ; bis
reputation for piety, ib.; his genius, ib.; his heresy, ib.-;
his duplicity and deceit, 372 ; settles at Rome, and gives of-
fence to the church, ib.; flies to Africa upon taking of Rome,
ib.; passes into Palestine, and excites notice of Jerom, 373 ;
writes respectfully to Augustine, 375; his letter to Deme-
trius, 376; his letter to a widow, ib.; his heretical book, ib.;
summoned before council of Diospolis, 377 ; denies his letter
to the widow, 378 ; acquitted, ib.; improves his acquittal to
heretical purposes, 379 ; his opinions condemned in council
of Carthage, ib.; and in council of Milevum, 380 ; his letter
to Innocent, 381; condemned by Zozimus, 383; complains
of his treatment, and imposes on respectable persons, 384 ;
reduced to obscurity, 387; his insidiousness, 394; his
writings, ib. I
— a Goth, chosen king, by a remnant of that nation, iii. 143 ;
his pious trust in God, 144; his success against the Ara-
J'elican, Conrad, a Swiss divine, his controversy with Erasmus,
»v. 239,32°. not«-
Penance, its influence in withdrawing sinners from Christ, i v. 9.
Penda, King of Mercia, a Pagan, defeats Edwin, iii. 105; and
Oswald, 108 ; slain, 109.
— son of the former, embraces and propagates Christianity,
Pepin, son of Charles Martel, usurps the crown of France, iii. 161;
supports the Pope, 163; gains great advantages, from the
Lombards, and bestows them on the Pope, ib.; his death,
Peregrinns, Lucian's account of him, i. 244 & seq.; commits
suicide, 533 ; a statue erected to him, ib. —
Pergamiu, church of, i. 69.
Perpetua, a lady of quality, her constancy, i. 305 ; exposed to a
wild cow, 308 ; her extraordinary fortitude, ib.; her mar-
tyrdom, 309 ; her visions doubtful, ib.
Peter, the apostle, his discourse on the effusion of the Spirit, i. 6;
miraculous cure by him and John, 10 ; imprisoned, 11; dis-
missed, ib.; imprisoued by Herod Agrippa, 23 ; delivered
by an angel, 24 ; opens the debate of the council at Jerusat
lem, 27; dissembles his opinion respecting the Gentiles, 30;
his activity in establishing the churches, 38 ; raises Tabitha
from the dead, ib.; is sent to Samaria, 40 ; returns to Jeru-
salem, 41 • his visit to Cornelius, 45; his Jabours and
mariyrdom, 113; bis wife's martyrdom, 114, bis charac-
ter, ib. •
Peter, one of Diociesian's household, his mariyrdom, ii. 7.
< ■ . the monk, tuffers martyrdom, ii. 25.
Bp. of Alexandria, a martyr, deposes Meletius, ii,49; his
patience, how tried, 50 ; his character, ib.
— named by Athanasius as his successor, ii. 161 ; his electiou
approved by the church, 164; opposition raised by Euzoius
to him, ib. ; banished, 165; recovers his see, 168.
Bp. of Terraco, consents to a species of persecution against the
Jews, iii. 45.
— King of Hungary, persecutes Gerard Bishop of Choriad,
iii. 292; expelled, ib.; recalled, ib.; banished, 293.
— Abbot of Cluney, his ill founded celebrity, iii. 435 ; his kind-
ness to Abelard and Eloisa, ib.; his character, ib.
— the Hermit, famous for promoting the first crusades, iv. 25 ;
his instructions respecting crusades, ib.
Petit, John, a friar, vindicates an assassination, iv. 209 ; accused
before council of Constance, but not condemned, ib.
Petrarch, a great reviver of polite literature, iv. 67.
Philadelphia, church of, i. 95.
Phileas, a lip. and man of eminence, suffers martyrdom, ii. 8;
his epistle to church of Thmuitx, 9.
Philemon, Paul's epistle to, i. 83.
Philip, one of seven deacons, i. 16; preaches at Samaria, 40;
baptizes the Ethiopian eunuch, 43 ; settles at Caesarea, 44 ;
♦ntertains St. Paul, ib.
— the Arabian emperor, murders and succeeds Gordian, i. 321 ;
professes Christianity, 332 ; not a cordial friend to the Gos-
pel, ib.; slain, 323.
— Augustus, King of France, his sagacity, iii. 443 ; and worldli-
ness, ib.; persecutes the Waldenses, ib.
,— Duke of Savoy, protects the Waldenses, iii. 499.
— Landgrave of Hesse, promotes the Reformation, v. 275 ; at-
tempts to gain over Duke George, 376; foiled in a second
conciliatory attempt, 428 ; proposes an association of several
German states, 429; his magnanimous declaration, in a
crisis of danger, 439 ; endangered by a secret treaty, ib. 440;
engages in the treaty of Magdeburg, 441 ; his policy and
conduct at the diet of Spires, 442 & seq.; his proposal for
domestic reform to the Elector of Saxony, 449 ; his character,
450; calls a synod to determine the reformed doctrines,
451 ; his measures of reform in Hesse, 453 ; founds the
uersity of Marpurg, ib.; disposed to offensive measures in
the cause of the Reformation, ib.; induces the elector to
adopt warlike measures, 493; bis ardour in the cause,
495 ; endeavours to reconcile the Lutherans and Zuingliahs,
— Count of Hanover, forwards the Reformation, v. 562. -
Pkilippi, church of, i. 6x ; why called the first city of Macedonia,
62 ; description thereof, ib.; liberality of the church of, 6;;
epistle to it, ib.
Philosophers, extraordinary story of the conversion of one, ii. 57-
Phocas, a centurion, raised to the empire, iii. 66; his character,
C7, 117 ; deposed and put to death, 117.
Phutinus, Bp. of Sirmium, deposed as a Sabellian, ii. 85.
Photius, Bp. of Constantinople, his character, iii. 298, note; h»
opposition to Ignatius, 226 ; reproved by Cyril, 227.
Pilgrimages, bad effects of them, iii. 219.
Pionius, a presbyter, of Smyrna, his admirable address to tix
people, i 403; imprisoned, 406; forced to an idol tempk
407 ; his bold confession, ib.; silences Ruffinus by an appro-
priate answer, ib.; suffers martyrdom, 40K.
Pius IV. Pope, persecutes the VValdenses, iii. 503.
Planitz, John, a German nobleman, represents Frederic of Sasor?
at diet of Nuremberg, v. 114; his attachment to Prota-
tantism, ib.; his prudent conduct at Nuremberg, ib. 124.
Plato, how distinguished from other philosophers, ii. 346.
Platonics, new, rise of, ii. 108.
Pliny, his letter to Trajan, i. 145.
Plotinus, a Platonist, his great reputation, i. 536.
Ploughman's Complaint, a tract, its celebrity, iv. 74.
Pluralities, question of, care of the church upon it, iv. 40.
Podiebrad, King of Poland, persecutes the Hussites, iv. 282.
Poggius,secretary to Pope John XXIII. his ingenuous testimony
. . , to the behaviour and eloquence of Jerom of Prague, iv. 265.
Polentz, George de. Bp. of Samland, styled father of the Refor-
mation in Prussia, v. 178.
Poliaco, John, de, opposes the Mendicant orders, iv. 21 ; con-
demned by papal authority, ib.
Poliander, John, the amanuensis of Eckius, embraces and warmly
supports the reformed doctrines, v. 178.
Polychius, Martin, his extraordinary prognostic respecting Luther,
iv. 325 ; his fame, ib.
Politian, a devout soldier at court, visits Augustine, ii. 351.
Poli/carp, his epistle to the Philippians, i. 173.; succeeds to the
bishopric of Smyrna, 209 ; was familiar with the apostles,
ib.; supposed to have been the angel of the church of
Smyrna, in the Revelations, 210; his conference with
Anicetus, respecting Blaster, ib.; his reply to Marcion, ib.;
particulars of his martyrdom, 212.
Pomeranus, see Bugenhagius.
Pomerius, Julian, his writings, ii. 548.
Ponticus, a youth, suffers martyrdom, i. 235.
Pontius, a deacon, his life of Cyprian, i. 324 ; his extraordinary
affection for that bishop, 455.
Pope becomes a secular prince, iii. 151; becomes master of
Ravenna and other cities, 163; assumes infallibility, 164;
obtains Ferrara and other fortresses, ib.; obtains other
grants from Charlemagne, 165; those of tenth century,
their atrocious wickedness, 246; his authority opposed,
by kings and councils, 247; right of emperor to choose
him, 849; effect of this regulation on the morals of Popes,
ib.; right of election transferred to cardinals, 285; his in-
feriority to councils, iv. 206; his supremacy controverted
by Luther, 403.
Popedom, commencement of, iii. 146; its identity with Anti-
christ, 157 ; its despotism not acknowledged in eighth century,
193; growth of its influence, 197 ; its power strongly fixed by
Charlemagne, 201; domination of, 285 ; its power extended
-* in England, 304; instances of its tyranny, oppression and
corruptions, 426, 480, 485, 486, 487, 490; iv. 5, 6, 8;
schism in it, 66; its decline, v. 112.
Popery, opposition to, in ninth century, iii. 211 & seq.; in eleventh
century, 286 & seq.; its essential difference from Protes-
tantism, 485 ; iv. 307; its corruptions, 413, 568, note; v. 91,
104, 112, 131, 185.
Porphyry, studies under Plotmus, i- 539; ii. 108; his learning
and talents, i. 539 ; in early life a Christian, ii. 109; cause
of his apostacy, ib.; his books replete with malignity and
talent, ib.; his philosophy of oracles, ib. ;
Possidonius, Bp. of Calama, his life of Augustine, ii. 299, note;
Potamuena, her beauty, firmness and martyrdom, i. 299; alleged
to have appeared to Basilides, 300.
Potamo, Bp. of Heraclea, insults Lusebius at council of Tyre,
ii. 68 ; receives cruel treatment from the Arians, 79.
Pothinus, Bp. of Lyons, his martyrdom, i. 230.
Praxeas, his heresy, i. 281; retracts, 282.
Prayer, Lord's, daily used in the churches, ii. 423 ; Augustine's
exposition of, 480.
Prayers for the dead, origin of, iii. 156, note.
Preaching, its importance, iv. 6y.
Predestination, doctrine of, misunderstood by Ambrose, ii. 238 ;
Augustine's opinion thereon, 465; other opinions thereon,
Presbyterian system, scriptural and primitive in a degree, but
defective, i. 518.
Presbyters, distinct all along from bishops, i. 514 ; in some in-
stances elected by the people, ib.; why chosen by people,
517 ; how different at Alexandria from rest of the church,
Pride, spiritual, its nature, v. 472.
Prierias, a Dominican, writes against the Theses of Luther,
iv. 351 ; silenced by the Pope, 360.
Primatius, an African bishop, character of his writings, ii. 545.
Printing invented, iv. 288.
PrisciUa, see Aquila.
Priscillian, a heretic, his character, ii. 187 ; put to death, 189;
honoured as a martyr, ib.
Priscillmnists, their heresy, ii. 187; capitally punishej, 1-.
Prison, the name of a monastery, its peculiar plan, in- 2<t
Privalus, an impostor, detected, i. 361.
Probus the Emperor, succeeds Tacitus, i. 497.
Proclus, Bp. of Constantinople, puts an end to the schism cf ±'
Joannists, ii. 493.
Procopius, a martyr, answers a demand to sacrifice by a qoocasx
from Homer, ii. 13.
Ptoculus, recovers Severus from sickness, i. 310.
Proeresius, his magnanimous refusal to be exempted from Jbdk;
. law against public teachers, ii. 127.
Prophets, celestial, v. 903 ; their pretensions, 204.
Prosper, withstands Semi-Pelagianism, ii. 388, 411,488; be
opinion respecting predestination, 467 ; iii. 5 ; distinguish*
himself in defence of the doctrines of grace, ii. 543 ; excel-
lence of his spirit, ib.
Protestant princes, their protest and appeal, v. 555 ; their Jk>
ceedings in consequence of the diet of Spires, 557; coeelaJ;
an alliance at Smalcald, 562.
Protestantism, its essential difference from popery, iii. 485;
Protestants in twelfth century, iii. 376 ; origin of the tern, v. 554.
Provision, system of, iv. 49, 66.
Prussians, the last of European nations to receive the Gospel,
iii. 294; their character, iv. 14; compelled to receive Chris-
Psalmody, origin of in church of Milan, ii. 357.
Publia, her courageous zeal against idolatry before Julian, ii. 138.
Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius the younger, ii. 522 ; her character,
ib.; her ascendancy over her brother, ib; succeeds to tbi
empire and Marcian, 5^6.
Pupian, accuses Cyprian of haughtiness, i. 440 ; disowns his au-
Pupiemis, Emperor, succeeds Maximin jointly with Balbinus,
Purgatory, iii. 156, note; iv. 38.
Quadratus, Bp. of Athens, restores order in that church, i. J"6;
presents an apology to Adrian, 177.
Quinta, her martyrdom, i. 309.
Quvttus, his lapse, i. 213.
Rabanus, Abp. of Mentz, his learning, iii. 198 ; opposes doctrine
of transubstantiation, ib. 212; deficient in Godliness, ib.;
i . his controversy with Gotteschalcus, 22a 6c seq.
Radbert, Pascasius, introduces doctrine of trausubslantiation,
iii. 198. :,
Radegunda, daughter of the King of Thuringia, taken captive in
infancy, iii. 2&; falls to the lot of Clotaire, who marries her,
ib.; her piety infected with monasticism, ib.; separates from
her husband, and follows monastic rules, ib.
Radulph, a monk of tenth century, his intimate acquaintance with
divine truth, iii. 279 ; extracts from his writings, ib.
Rapin, strictures on his history, iv. 189, 190.
Ratisbon, confederacy of, v. 173.
Kavenna, Exarchate of, what, iii. 162 ; given to the Pope, 163.
Raynard, Earl of Toulouse, protects the Waldenses, iii. 486 ; his
unjustifiable means of resisting the Pope, ib.; bis deficiency
in true religion, ib. 490, 494.; his death, 493.
— son of the former, his misfortunes, iii. 494.
Recaredus, succeeds his father in kingdom of Visigoths in Spain,
iii. 31; embraces orthodoxy, ib.; destroys Ariauism in Spain,
ib.; his character, 45.
Reformation, propriety of the name, iv. 74; remarkable events,
subservient to it, 286 & seq.; its fruits, v. 72, 74; its pro-
gress, 94, 95, 98, 99, 100, 129 & seq. 177 & seq. i86&seq.
375 & seq. 541.
Reinerius, his testimony to the character of the Waldenses,
iii. 453, 472; made inquisitor, 494.
Reinhard, Martin, a partizan of Carolstadt, his attack upon
Luther, v. 229.
Reinher, Sancho, an apostate, persecuter of the Waldenses, his
account of the Wickliffeites, iv. 202; and of the Waldenses,
Rembart, Bp. of Bremen, his labours and character, iii. 242;
preaches in Brandenburg, 243.
Remigius, Abp. of Lyons, vindicates Gotteschalcus, iii. 225.
Rhednn, Thomas, a Carmelite friar, preaches against corruptions
of Pome, iv. 289 ; degraded and burned, ib.
Ricardus, his treatise on the Incarnation, iii. 433.
Richard, I. of England, sends for and hears Joachim of Calabria,
iii. 425 ; his subserviency to the Pope, 426.
— II. of England, patronizes persecution of the Lollards, iv. 164;
Robert, King of France, patronizes learning, iii. 284.
— a Waldensian, turns Dominican, made inquisitor general, and
persecutes the Waldenses, iii. 510 ; suspended by the Pope,
ib.; condemned to perpetual imprisonment, ib.
Rogations, what, ii. 426.
Rob/san, a Calixtine, seduced by ambitious motives, iv. 280 ;
made Archbishop of Prague, ib.; his temporising conduct,
281, 282, 283; hi3 sensibility at the torture of Gregory,
284 ; persecutes the Hussites, 285 ; dies in despair, ib.
Rollo, a Norwegian pirate, ravages France, and becomes Duke
- of Normandy, iii. 2G1; marrie? the daughter of Charles the
Simple, and embraces Christianity, ib.
Romans, their superstitious character, ii. 107; fond of adop&E
gods of conquered nations, ib.
Romanm, a deacon of Caesarea, rebukes the cowardice of the es-
tates at Antioch, ii. 14; seized, and has his tongue cat oc,
15; suffers other tortures and martyrdom, ib
Rome, church of, its erection obscure, i. 78 ; epistle thereto, to.-
same as church at Babylon, 81; epistle from, to cburci 1
Carthage, 339 ; thriving state of, 341; schism therein raise
by Novatian, 37-2 ; state of, in third century, 373;
corrupted under Vigilius, iii. 29 ; election to, necessary $
be confirmed by the emperor, 34, note; its supposed sap*-
macy, 38 ; its great depravity, 249 ; iv. 246 ; its supremacy
acknowledged by princes, iii. 250; becomes seat of Ma-
•— city of, burned, i. 97 ; taken by the Goths, ii. 372.
— empire, of its moral condition during first three centuries,
Rorar, George, a disciple of Luther's, instrument of giving pab-
licity to Luther's Commentary on the Galatians, iv. 514-
Rosary, constituted by.Dominic, iv. 24.
Roscelin, publishes erroneous views of the Trinity, iii. 309; coo-
' futed by Anselm, ib.; condemned for Tritheism, 340.
Roscoe, misrepresents the character of Luther, v. 514.
Roussel, Garret, a Lutheran, sent by Margaret of Navarre to
confer with Strasburg divines, v. 186.
Ruffinus, his opinion quoted by Cailestius the heretic, ii. 374; bis
quarrel with Jerom, 446.
Rumold, an English or Irish missionary, his labours, iii.
Rupert, Bp. of Worms, invited to Bavaria, iii. 114 ; success ot his
ministry, ib.; made Bishop of Saltzburg. ib.
Sabbath breaking, laws against it, ii. 523, 527 ; iii. 95.
Sabbalius, a Jew, ordained by Marcian, the Novatian bishop,
ii. 242 ; his ambitious views and pretences to strictness, ib.;
obliged by a council to swear against aiming at a bishopric
243; breaks his oath, and excites a schism, ib.
Sabeans, Christianity spread among them, ii. 105.
Sabellianism, i. 482, 487.
Sabellians, their heresy, ii. 85.
Sabina, sister to Pionius, her confession, i. 405.
Sa&lucees, their character, i. 13 ; persecute the Apostles, ib.
St. Amour, William de, his celebrity, iv. 18; opposes the friars
ib. 19; banished, and his book burned, 21; returns to Paris,
ib.; his character, ib.
'St. Pourcain, Durandus de, his fame in school divinity, iv. 108,
faints, so called, not always reputable characters, iii. 149.
Sa/iza, James of. Bp. of Breslau, favours the Reformation, v. 145.
Sal-viuji, Bp. of Marseilles, character of his writings, ii. 546.
Samaria, church of, i. 36 ; situation of, 39; how inhabited, ib.
Samaritans, their origin, i. 39 ; receive the Gospel, 40.
Sampson, a Welchman, founds a monastery at Dol, iii. 26; made
Bishop of Dol, ib.; his renown, 27.
Samson, a Waldensian martyr, his horrid death, iii. 504.
Sand us, of Vienne, distinguished in the persecution, i. 227 ; his
extraordinary fortitude, 228; renewal of his tortures, 232 ;
his martyrdom, ib.
Super, King of Persia, his treatment of the Emperor Valerian,
i. 478 ; persecutes the Christians, ii. 107.
Sapphira, struck dead for lying to the Holy Ghost, i. 13.
Sapricius, story of him and Nicephorus, i. 473.
Saracens, progress of Christianity among them, ii. 239; their con-
quests, iii. 128, 145; put an end to the kingdom of the Goths,
143; defeated by Pelagius, 144; by Charles Martel, 145;
their government becomes more regular, 165; invade Cala-
bria, 282 ; persecute Christians in Africa, 286.
Sardis, church of, i. 93.
Sarolta, wife of Geysa, persuades her husband to embrace
Christianity, iii. 252.
Satur, steward to Huneric's house, persecuted for his orthodoxy,
ii. 495 ; his constancy, ib.
Saul, of Tarsus, his character and education, i. 18 ; persecutes the
church, ib.; his conversion, ib.; goes to Jerusalem, si 5
sent by the Apostles to Tarsus, 22. See Paul.
Savonarola, Jerome, an Italian monk, his boldness in preaching
the Gospel, iv. 289; imprisoned, ib.; his meditation on
xxxi. Psalm, ib.; burned as a heretic, 290.
Saville, Sir Henry, his life of Bradwardine, iv. 85.
Sawtre, first martyr among the Lollards, iv. 167; recants, ib.}
recovers his courage and suffers, ib. 168.
Schaumburg, a Franconian knight, offers protection to Luther,
Schism among the Corinthians rebuked by Clement, i. 126;
breaks out in church of Carthage, 368; also in church of
Rome, 372 ; blamed to an excess by Cyprian, 386; of Do-
natists, ii. 47; of Novatians, and others, under their proper
Sclileinig, John d, Bp. of Misnia, opposes the Reformation, v. 74.
Sckuch, IVolJfgangus, a reformed minister, his labours, courage
and martyrdom, v. 380.
Schurff, Dr. Luther's advocate at Worms, bis management there,
iv. 547 ; sent by Frederic as a confidential agent to Luther,
v. 54; his sentiments on Luther's marriage, 255.
Scillita, a city of Africa, account of martyrs there, i. 302.
Scot, John, Bp. of Dunkeld, his character, iv. >7; proposes to
have his see divided, ib.
Scot in, John, his learning, iii. 198; opposes transubstantiation, ib.
212 ; deficient in godliness, 198.
— John Duns, bis learning and character, iv. 67.
Scriptures, preference given to human writings above them, iiL
197 ; providential preservation of their integrity, 203.
Scultetim, Abraham, his character as an historian, v. 380.
Seckcndorf, his translation of the history of Lutheranism, iv. 305,
"Sella 1 his, Michael, an Anabaptist, his martyrdom, v. 545.
Sepulchre, Holy Church of, its magnificence, ii. 101.
Serapion, a martyr, i. 391.
— an aged Christian, his fall and recovery, i. 395.
Serenius Granianvs, his letter to Adrian, i. 177.
Serenus,Tip. of Marseilles, destroys images in churches, iii. 55,15J.
Sergius, a Paulician, his excellent character, iii. 207.
Seval, Abp. of York, his courageous rebuke of the pope, iv. 18;
excommunicated, but retains his see, ib.
Scvertts, Septimus, Emperor, persecutes the Christians, L 270,
294; his character, 270; his death, 310.
— Alexander, Emperor, countenances the Christians, i. 316; bis
mixed worship, 317; his partial adoption of Christian maxims;
ib.; nicknamed Archysynagogus, ib.; murdered, 321
— Sulpitius, the historian, his character, ii. 187,530; exagge-
rates character of Martin, 192; his superstitions concerning
the dead, ib.; his intimacy with Paulinus of Nola, ib.; de-
cisive marks of his conversion, 531.
Sibtrt, King of the East Angles, his zeal and piety, iii. 104.
Sick, visitation of Anselm's, direction for, iii. 313.
Sickengen, Francis, a German nobleman, patronizes Luther, 245,
note; bis motives and their consequences, ib. 570.
Sidonius, of Lyons, celebrated as an orator and poet, ii. 497; ap-
pointed Bishop of Clermont, ib.; his liberality, ib.
Sigefrid, an English missionary, his labours, iii. 294; made Bi-
shop of Wixia, ib.; bis character, 295.
Sigismund, King of Burgundy, brought over to orthodoxy, iii. 13;
puts to death his son, ib.; repents, ib.; his prayer, ib.; how
»—Emperor, attends council of Constance, iv. 210; his oppo-
sition to Pope John the twenty-third, ib.; his character, ib.
219, 222 ; his base conduct towards Huss, 221, 239, 240;
attempts to restore unity to the hierarchy, 224; accuses
Pope John, ib.; wishes to save Huss, 247; blushes at the
rebuke of Huss, 351 ; desirous of a partial reformation, 274.
Silas accompanies Paul and Barnabas to Jerusalem, i. 55; after-
wards joined with Paul alone, ,56. See Paul.
Sikeriua, Bp. of Rome, delivered into the hands of Vigilius, iii.
23; banished to Palmaria, and dies of hunger, ib.
Silvester III. Pope, deposed for simony and wickedness, iii. 2P5.
(. . note. - *
— a friar, Lis martyrdom, iv. 289,.; ,. ^. ...
Simeon, succeeds James as pastor of Jerusalem, i. 106 ; his mar»
7— an officer, sent to persecute the Paulicians, iii. 206; adopts
their faith, and preaches the Gospel, ib.; dies a martyr, ib.
Simon Magus convinced of truth, of Christianity, i. 40; oners the
Apostles money, ib.; reproved by Peter, 41; father of the
Docteae, 135 ; honoured even to idolatry, 139. .
Simony, Jaw against it, ii. 527.
Simplician, a Presbyter of Rome, his learning and piety, ii. 176;
instructs Ambrose, ib.; and Augustine, ib.; succeeds Am-
brose in see of Milan, 176, 433; visited by Augustine, 347.
Sicinnius, Bp. of the Novatians, writes against Chrysostom, ii.
280" ibis character, ib.; joins in persecuting Chrysostom, 294.
Bishop of Constantinople, ii. 524; his character, ib.
Sixtnt, Bishop of Rome, i. 446; suffers martyrdom, 451; mani-
fests a spirit of prophecy, 470.
Sleidan, his history commended, iv. 3o9.
Smalcald, treaty of, v. 441..
Smaragdus, extract from his writings, iii. 274.
Smyrna, Church of, i. 90; epistle of, respecting Polycarp's mar-
tyrdom, 211. ,
Socinianism, ii. 386, 395, note.
Socrates, the historian, his fairness, ii. 72; inclined to Nova-
tianism, 286; unjustly censures Chrysostom, ib.; his char
racter as an author, 518, note; 537.
Sitfyman, Sultan, igvades Hungary, v. 456; gains a signal vic-
tory, ib.; invades Austria, and besieges Vienna, 457..
Sophia, wife of Wenceslaus, King of Bohemia, her esteem for
John Huss, iv. 211; her character ib.; ordered to retire
after his condemnation, 212.
Sophronius,}ip. of Jerusalem, opposes Monothelite heresy, iii. 121 j
his writings, 131. . ,
Sorbonne, College of, founded, iv, 13.
Sorcery, see Magic. "
Sozomen, the historian, his character as an author, ii. 537.
Spulatinvs, secretary and chaplain to Frederic the Wise, patro-
nizes Luther, iv. 329; intimidated, 393; goes to Wittenv
berg toexamine the uersity and confer with Luther,473 ;
bis letter on the occasion, ib.; entreats Luther not to appear
at Worms, 545; his friendship with Luther, 615; short
account of him, 616 ; ventures to marry, v. 249, 257; his
observation on the Diet of Spires, 447. -,
Spengler, Pefer, a reformer, his martyrdom, v. 468.
Speral, Paul, a reformer, suffers persecution, v. 178; escapes to
Wittemberg, 179; made Bp. of Pomesane, ib.
"Spires, convention of, v. 174 ; diet of, 442 ; a second diet of, 552
Spongia, a work of Erasmus, v. 267.
"Sprxng,James, a scholar of Luther, persecuted and obliged to
recant, iy. §79, note.; tepents bis recantation and. again
preaches, ib. "*.'.....
Staupitius, Vicar General of the Augustine monks, his learnis:
and religion, iv. 323 ; his- extraordinary prognostic of La-
ther, ib.; his conduct on Luther's examination at Augsbajx.
370 and seq.; withdraws his support from Luther, 377;
his conduct palliated, ib.; receives preferment, 379; L»-
ther's letters to him, ib.
Stephen, the Deacon, his martyrdom, i. 16.
— Bp. of Rome, i. 419 ; maintains the true doctrine respeenn;
re-baptism, 443 ; his violence on the subject, 444 ; dealt,
— Bp. of Antioch, an Arian, deposed for corruption, ii. 83.
— Pope, seeks protection from Constantine, iii. 163; app&s
for assistance to Pepin and the French duke, ib.; promts!
them remission of sins, ib.: goes to Pavia to treat with
Astulphus, 163 ; passes into France and treats with Pepk
ib.; receives Ravenna and other great advantages fros
him, ib.; assumes infallibility, 164; supports Desiderk!
and obtains Ferrara and other advantages, ib.; his death, ib.
— Chief Prince of Hungary, baptized, iii. 253 ; his zeal, ib. 291;
his character, 292 ; his excellent laws, ib.; takes the Prince
of Transilvania prisoner, ib.; restores him to liberty oa
condition of allowing the preaching of the Gospel, ib.; his
afflictions and death, ib.
— a Missionary to Sweden, beaten and expelled from the coun-
try, iii. 257.
— last Bp. of the Waldenses, burned, iv. 285.
Stork, a baker, his fanaticism, v. 44.
Stubncr,n. German fanatic,v. 44 ; his conference with Luther, 70.
Stunica, a Spanish divine, accused of calumny by Erasmus,
v. 326; publishes a book against Erasmus, ib. note.
Subdeacon, what, iii. 58.
Sudbury, Abp. of Canterbury, cites Wickliff, iv. 114; his cha-
racter, ib.; murdered, 587,
Suen, Otho, son of the King of Denmark, forms a party against
his father, iii. 258; his apostacy, expulsion, restoration and
Suicide, honourable among the Gentiles, i. 246; committed by
Christians in Dioclesian persecution, ii. 11; remarkable ooe
of a lady at Antioch, and her daughter, toavoid brutality, is.
Supererogation, doctrine of, iv. 308.
Superintendant, what, v. 491.
Sv/ein, King of Denmark, subdues Norway and abolishes idolatry
there, iii. 260 ; compelled to do penance for an illegal act,
297, note; devastates England, 300.
Sylvanus, founder of the Paulicians. See Constantine.
Symmachus, his translation of the Bible, i. 311; was an Ebio-
nite, and inveighs against St. Matthew's Gospel, ib.
— a man of learning and eloquence, his attempt to restore
Paganism, ii. 194: his address to the emperors, iys.
Synod, see Council.
Tuborites, iv. 270, 278.
Tacitus, Emperor, succeeds Aurelian, i. 497.
Tamerlane, the Tartar, persecutes the Christians, iv. 65,
Tanchelin, a heretic, iii. 375.
Tanes, a Scotch abbot, preaches in Germany, iii. 243; made
Bishop of Verden, ib.
Tarasius, Bp. of Constantinople, supports image worship, iii. 166.
Taut, Herman, a reformer, preaches under a tree, v. 132 ;
preaches the first public reformed sermon atGardingen, ib.
Tatian, deserving of the name of heretic, i. 265.
Tauber, Caspar, a reformer, suffers martyrdom, v. x88.
Taylor, William, a Lollard priest, burned, iv. 197.
Tcutunic Knights, iv. 209, 233 & seq.
Tercntius, an officer of Valens, petitions for a church for the or-
thodox, ii. 166; injuriously treated, ib.
Tertullian, his character, i. 277 ; seduced by the Montanists, 280 ;
deserts them and forms the sect Tertullionists, ib.; his
treatise against Praxeas, 281 ; his views of the Trinity, ib.;
his apology, 282 ; apt to torture Scripture in controversy,
Tetzel, John, a Dominican inquisitor, employed to sell the indul-
gences of Leo the Tenth, iv. 315, 347 ; his character, 315 ;
his impious conduct in respect to Sale of indulgences, ib-3ao;
348, note ; sentenced to death for adultery, but escapes, 377;
opposes Luther and burns his theses, 347 ; rebuked by Miltitz,
389; deserted by all, and dies of a broken heart, 394.
Theatre, opinion of Cyprian respecting it, i. 433 ; of the Romans,
434; of the early Christians, 435 ; of Julian, ii. 116.
Theobald, Count of Blois, brother of Stephen King of England,
his extraordinary piety and virtue, iii. 338.
Theodolinda, Queen of the Lombards, brings over the nation to
orthodoxy, iii. 50.
Theodora, Empress, wife of Justinian, her unprincipled attempt to
make Vigilius Bishop of Rome, iii. 22.
— Empress, supports image worship, iii. 198 ; her violent per-
secution of the Pauhcians, 207.
Theodore, Bp. of Pharan, author of Monothelite heresy, iii. 120.
Theodoret, the historian, his character, ii. 537 ; condemned as a
heretic, ib.; his appeal to his past life in bis letter to Leo, ib.;
restored to his see, 538.
Theodoric, the Goth, overcomes Odoacer, ii. 496, 510 ; his law
against the adherents of Odoacer, ib.; how moderated at the
intercession of Epiphanius, ib.; employs Epiphanius on a
Theodorus, a Christian, tortured at the command of Julian, ii.
158; bis constancy and remarkable declaration of divine
Theodosius, chosen by G rati an as his colleague in the empire,
ii. 178; his great abilities, 179 ; reprobates Arianisiu by
Vot. v. Y r
a law, 182 ; calls a general council at Constantinople, 183 ;
his attempts to establish union, 185 ; prohibits assemblies of
heretics, 186; assists Valentinian the younger against Max-
imus, 200; hw vigorous support of Christianity, 201 ; graots
toleration to the Luciferians, ib.; was of a passionate temper,
202; orders a massacre to punish the Thessalonians, ib;
forbidden by Ambrose to enter the church, ib ; his repent-
ance and restoration, 203; becomes sole master of Roman
world, 204; his measures to extirpate idolatry, ib.; endea-
vours to induce the Roman Senate to embrace Christianity,
206 ; makes idolatry a capital crime, 207 ; his death and
character, ib.; his statue insulted at Antiocb, 281 ; gene-
rously forgives the city, 282.
Theodotiut II. orders the body of Chrysostom to be brought with
funeral solemnity to Constantinople, ii. 293; succeeds Arca-
dius, 519; affords refuge to the Christian fugitives from the
Persian persecution, 521; engaged in a war in consequence,
ib.; his reign and character, 522 ; completes destruction of
idolatry, ib.; instance of his piety, 523; his laws against pro-
fanation of the sabbath, ib.; and against progressof Judaism,
ib.; prohibits molestation of Jews and Pagans, ib.; reduces
penalty against heathenism, ib; instance of bis weakness,
524; his death, 526.
Theodotus, a tanner, distinguished as a heretic, i. 258 ; denies
Theugnis, of Nice, banished for supporting Arianisra, ii. 66 ; re-
Theognosttu, of Alexandria, his theological opinions, i. 508.
Thtophilus, Bishop of Antiocb, brought up a gentile, i. 250; his
— Bishop of Alexandria, his bad character, ii. 287; contrives the
condemnation of Chrysostom, ib.; his death-bed reflection,
Theophylact, extracts from his writings, iii. 274 & scq.; was a
Theotecnut, governor of Antiocb, his artifices against the Chris-
tians, ii. 33.
ThessaUmica, church of, i. 66 ; epistle to it, 68 ; character of, 69,
Thorn, Lambert, a reformed monk, his martyrdom, v. 148, 577;
Luther's letter to him, 150.
Thrasamond, King of the Vandals, ii. 516 ; his policy against the
church, iii. 1; sends 220 bishops into exile, 3.
Thurzo, John, Bp. of Breslaw, favours the Reformation, v. 143;
Luther's opinion of him, 144; Melancthon's, 145.
Thyatira, church of, i. 92.
Tiberiut succeeds Justin in the empire, iii. 34 ; supports Gregory,
the First, ib.
Timothy, chief pastor at Ephesus, i. 87 ; Paul's epistle to him, ib.
Tons/all, Up. of London, his acrimony against the Reformers,
v. 291; solicits Erasmus to oppose Luther, ib.
Tvrgau, articles of, v. 561.
Tomar, Nicholas, suffers martyrdom for denying transubstantia-
tion, v. 467.
Tortosa, Cardinal de, opposes Luther, iv. 413.
Trajan, Emperor, persecutes the Christians, i. 145; his letter to
Pliny, 148 ; bis death, 174.
Translation of clergy forbidden, ii. 63 ; of bishops forbidden, 82.
Transubstantiation, remarkable testimony against it, iii. 9.5, 194 ;
introduced 198; an upstart notion, 212; opposed in tenth
century, 246; established by a council, 285; required by
court of Rome to be uersally acknowledged, 438 ; idolatry
resulting from it, ib.; its importance in the popish scheme,
Trevisa, John de, vicar of Berkeley, translates the Bible, iv. 166;
his character, ib.
Trinitarians, their difficulties in contending against Ariaus, ii. 59 ;
their manner of commenting on the disputed doctrine, ib.;
their conduct contrasted with that of Arians, 74.
Trinity, treatise on, by Novatian, i. 400 ; difficulty of supporting
it arising from imperfection of ideas and language, 486 ;
uersally believed in the church in third century, 491,509;
inaccuracy in the language of some of the ancient fathers
respecting it, 508 ; reason of this, ib.; sentiments of Roman
synod upon it, 509; Augustine's treatise on it; ii. 442;
erroneous views of, published by Roscelin, iii. 309.
Trocedorf, Valentine, a reformer, v. 145.
Turks, a providential scourge, iii. 251; supersede the Saracens,
ib.; their ferocity, ib.; their conquests, 333; iv. 287;
take Constantinople, v. 457 ;
Tyra, Queen of Denmark, supports Christianity under disadvan-
tageous circumstances, iii. 256.
Valens, an Arian, after recanting Christianity supports Arianism,
ii. 85 ; persecutes the Trinitarians, 86, 88.
— Emperor, ii. 155; his weakness, ib.; persecutes the Trini-
tarians, 156 ; receives baptism from Ludoxious, and swears
adherence to Arian creed, 158; orders Britannio, a Nicene
bishop, to communicate with him and his adherents, ib.;
banishes him for refusing, 159; recals him, ib.; banishes
Evagrius, ib.; his conduct complained of by a deputation of
eighty ecclesiastics-, ib.; orders them to be murdered, ib.
other instances of his persecution, 160, 161; dies in battle,
167 ; had previously recalled the exiled bishops, ib.
Valentinitm, Emperor, when an officer commanding Julian's body
guards, strikes a doorkeeper for defiling his mantle with the
sacred water in the temple of Fortune, ii. 128 ; banished for
the offence, ib.; succeeds jointly with Valens to the empire,
155; follows Jovian's plan in affairs of the church ; ib.;
establishes toleration by a law, 168 ; partially restrains its
extentri6g; imposed upon by' Auxentius, ib.; refers elec-
tion of a bishop of Milan to bishops of the province, and
refuses to nominate one himself, 174; his death and character, 177.
Valentinian. the Younger, succeeds his father in part of the western empire, ii. 178 ; imbibes A nanism from his mother, 193; ill treats Ambrose, 194; forsakes Arianism and is reconciled to Ambrose, 200 ; his death, ib.
Valentinians, their heretical artifices, i. 273.
Valerian, Emperor, protects the church, i. 427 ; becomes a persecutor, 445 ; taken prisoner by Sapor, 478 ; treated with ignominy and put to death, ib. 1
— Bishop of Abbenza, his sufferings for the faith, ii. 495. Valerius, Bishop of Hippo, his piety, ii. 367 ; ordains Augustine,
ib.; has him made bishop jointly with himself, 368. Vallenses, see Cathari.
Vararanes, King of Persia, persecutes the Christians, ii. 520.
Varillas, a French author, his character of Luther, iv. 338.
Varro, his division of religion, ii. 418.
Vasa, Guttaias, King of Sweden, takes measures to reform the church, v. 133; employs his chancellor to translate the Scriptures, 134; his proclamation upon this subject, ib. ; his wise and pious conduct, 136, 141, note; summons a convocation, 137 ; resigns the government from religious motives, 139; persuaded to resume, 140; his candor instanced, 574.
Vaudes, see Cathari.
Vaudui.s, see Cathari.
Vtrgerin, a lawyer sent by Clement VII, to Ferdinand to prevent a general council, v. 560; manner in which he executed his commission, ib.
Vettitu Epagathut, his character, i. 225: advocates cause of the Christians, and suffers martyrdom, ib.
Victlinus, Bp. of Oldenburg, his labours, character, and talents, iii. 430, 431 ; sketch of his former lite, 434. ." t
Victor, Bp. of Rome, excommunicates Asiatic churches for differing as to the celebration of Easter, i. 259.
— of Vita, his history of the African persecutions, ii. 548 ; his
Victorian, of Adrumetum, his great wealth, ii. 504; his magnanimous answer to the proposal of Huneric, 505; dies under persecution, ib.
Victorinus, an African, gives up his rhetorical school on occasion of Julian's edict, ii. 127,350 ; writes in defence of the truth, 127; his great reputation as a rhetorician, 245; converted in old age, ib ; writes against the Arians and Manicliees, 246;. manner of his conversion, 347.
Vienne, martyrs of, i. 223 & seq.
Vigilantiits a I'resbyter, opposes superstition, ii. 479 ; opposed by Jerom, 480.
Vigilius, of Thapsus, a celebrated writer, ii. 503; composes treatises under names of most eminent fathers, ib.; supposcu to be the author of the Athanasian cieed, 504.
figilins, a Roman deacon bribes Belisarius to make him Bishop of Home, iii. 22 ; receives into his hands Silverius the bishop, and treats him with barbarity, 23 ; his death and character, ib.; compelled to consent to decrees of a council at Constantinople, ib.
Villehad, an English missionary, his success, iii. 187; made Bishop of Bremen, 188; his death, ib.
Vincentius, of Lerins, renowned for piety, ii. 543.
Virgilius, an Irish missionary, made Bishop of Saltzburg, iii. 189; his labours, ib.; misunderstanding between him and Boniface, ib. note.
Vitalis, of Carthage, author of Semi-Pelagianism, ii. 388 ; his doctrine, 409.
ViUllius, governor of Syria, his character, i. 17.
Vitus, St. patron of New Corbie, iii. 260 ; idolatrous worship paid him by the Rugi, 261.
Ulfilas, Bp. of the Goths, induced by presents to draw his people over to Arianism, ii. 168; further particulars of him, 240; his genius and endowments, ib.; his success and character,ib.
Ulfrid, an English missionary, his success in Germany and Sweden, iii. 295; cuts down idol Thor, and is slain in consequence, ib.
Ulric, son of Count Hucbald, made bishop of Augsburg, iii. 263 ;
his character, 264. Unni, Abp. of Hamburg, his labours, iii 256 ; his success, 257 ;
his character. 272. Unman, Bp. of Hamburg, cuts down idolatrous groves and erects
churches instead, iii. 293. Voes, Henry, a reformed monk, his martyrdom, v. 148, 577. Voltaire, his insidiousness, iii. 333. Vows, when binding, v, 248, note. Urban 11. Pope, holds council of Clermont, iii. 417. -r— V. Pope, promotes a crusade, iv. 65.
Urlunus, governor of Caesarea, persecutes Christians, ii. 19; his
excessive malice and activity, ib.; capitally punished, ib. Vric, Thcodoric, a monk, his malicious account of the martyrdom
of Jerom of Prague, iv. 267. Ursatius, an Arian, after renouncing Christianity, supports
Arianism, ii. 86 ; persecutes the Trinitarians, ib. 88. Ursula, Duchess of Munsterberg, persecuted, v. 543; (lies to
Luther for protection, ib. Vulgate edition, iii. 440.
WalJemar, King of Denmark, subjects Rugen, and imposes Christianity there, iii. 428.
Walden, Dr. abuses Lord Cobham, iv. 178.
Walden, Thomas of, his opposition to WicklifF, iv.
IValdaises, not to be traced to Paulicians, iii. 210 ; probably derived their notions from those of Claudius of Turin, 218; why confounded with the Cathari, 438 ; persecuted, 443, 445,480 & seq.; their increase, 445 ; character of lb is people, 446; calumnies against tbetn, ib.; their apology, 44S ; their opinions respecting oaths, 449 ; and infant baptism, 450; and other points, 451 & seq.; testimony to their character from enemies and others, 452 & seq.; iv. 202, note; their doctrine and discipline, iii. 459 & seq.; their unreasonable objections to the anersaries of saints, 465 ; their catechism, ib.; were the first of the Protestant churches, 477, note; their vast numbers, 487; defend themselves successfully,499; their opinion of the holy communion, iv. 236, note; unite with the Hussites, 285 ; defective in evangelical light, 286.
Waldo, Peter, his zeal and labours, iii. 437 ; opposes transubstantiation, 439; remarkable account of his first regard for religion, ib.; abandons his mercantile occupation, and gives his wealth to the poor, ib.; disperses the Scriptures, 440 ; question of his learning, 441 ; procures or makes first translation of the Hible into a modern tongue, ib.; boldly condemns the reigning vices, and the arrogance of the Pope, 442 ; threatened, ib.; compelled to retire into Dauphiny, 443; bis success, ib.; flies into Bohemia, 444; not the founder of the Waldenses, 4G4, 475.
Wallenrod, Abp. of Riga, his cruel treatment of Jerom of Prague, iv. 230.
Walsingham, strictures on his history, iv. 184.
Warham, William, Abp. of Canterbury, his cruelty to the Lollards, iv. 199.
Waterland, Dr. ably confutes Dr. Clark, ii. 61.
Wenceslavs, King of Poland, constrained to favour the Hussites, iv. 273 ; retires to a castle, ib.
Wendelinus, an inhabitant of Hagenau, causes his son to be baptized after the reformed mode, v. 377.
Wcndelmnt, a widow, her martyrdom, v. 544.
Wcsalia, John de, a Dr. of divinity, persecuted for his opinions, iv. 292; recants, and is condemned to perpetual penance, 293 ; his character questionable, ib.; his strong Calviuislic opinions, ib.
Wesselus, John, his celebrity and character, iv. 295 ; why called the Light of the World, ib.; Luther's praise of one of his work3, ib.; character of his works, 297; doubts of Revelation on his death bed, 301 ; overcomes the temptation, ib.; his disinterested refusal of honours, 302.
White, William, a Lollard, his holy and venerable character,, iv. 197 ; suffers martyrdom, ib.
Wickliff, John, probability of his deriving instruction from Lollard, iii. 509 ; his birth and education, iv. 107; his progress in school divinity, ib.; attacks the vices of the friars, and the prevailing abuses, 108 ; made master of Baliol College, 109; made warden of Canterbury Hall, ib.; ejected from this office, ib.; appeals to the Pope, ib.; continues to declaim' against abuses, ib.; his ejection confirmed, ib.; how far influenced by vindictive feelings, 110 ; consulted by the P'arliament, ill; made lector of Lutterworth, and a prebendary, ib ; befriended by the Duke of Lancaster, ib.; his qualifications for reform, 112; his manner of treating the Pope, ib.; and the friars, ib. 148; accused at Rome, 113 ; the Pope's five bulls against him, ib.; countenanced by the Parliament, 114; cited before the Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of London, ib.; puts himself under the protection of the Duke of Lancaster, ib.; appears to the citation, ib.; escapes by the tumultuous breaking up of the court, ib.; his opinions, 115, 125 andseq. 581, 593; his perseverance, 115; appears to a second citation, 116; escapes again, ib. ; his explanatory qualification of his opinions, 117 ; opposes transubstantiation, 120; condemned by the uersity of Oxford, 120, 129 ; discountenanced by the duke in this part of his conduct, 130 ; his character, 121, 123, 124,141 & seq. 584 & seq.; his translation of the Bible, 122, 152, 594 ; his death, 124,592; his books burned, 124,171; his remains dugup and burned, 124; his writings, 126 & seq.; appeals from the uersity to the king, 129; his confession, ib. ; made professor of divinity, 148 ; his endeavours to defend the independence of the crown, ib.; disgraced at Oxford, but countenanced at court, 149; appointed ambassador to the Pope, ib.; reinstated at Oxford, 150 ; the various treatment he received accounted for, ib. & seq.; his ingenuous declaration of his motives, 155; specimen of his style, ib.; his opinions condemned by council of Constance, 231 ; anecdotes relating to him, 586,587.
Wkkliffites, whence called Lollards, iii. 509.
Widefort, a Franciscan, his reply to Wicklitt's Trialogus, iv. 131.
Wilfrid, Bp. of York, his character, iii. 110.
Will, free, Arminian notion of, supported by John of Damascus, iii. 190; Waldenses, notion of, 463; impropriety of the term, iv. 80, 401; question of, v. 264 & ueq.
William the Conqueror, his character, iii. 284, 304; restores learning in England, 284; supports papal power in England, 304
— an English priest, attends Canute into Denmark, iii. 297,
note; desires to be left as a missionary ib.; made Bishop of Roschild, ib.; his successful labours, ib; forbids King Swein from communion, ib.; offers his neck to the swords of the courtiers, 298, note. William II. Rufus, his contest with Anselm, iii. 304 ; his rapacity, ib.; usurps revenues of the see of Canterbury, 308 ; his tyranny, ib.; his remorse, ib.; preys upon ecclesiastical benefices, 310.
— Abbot of St. Therry, excites a defence of the truth, against
Abelard, iii. 428. Willebrod, an English missionary, his zeal and success, iii. 114;
made bishop of Wilteberg, ib.; his labours, 172. Winebald, an English missionary, his labours, iii. 185. Winf'rid, an Englishman, brought up in monastic life, iii. 172 ; his labours, ib ; goes as a missionary to Friezeland, ib.; returns to England, 173 ; refuses to be made abbot, ib.' obtains a commission from Rome as a missionary, ft proceeds to Bavaria and Thuringia, ib.; returns to Frioeland, ib.; chosen to succeed to bishopric of Utretcht, ft; declines, 174; his labours and success in Germany, ft.; hardships he encountered, 175; returns to Rome, and s consecrated bishop of the new German churches, by taae of Boniface, ib.; takes an oath of subjection to the Pope,4.; returns to Germany, ib.; protected by Charles Mand, ft.; his difficulties respecting communion with scandalous pries. 177 ; his great celebrity,ib.; made archbishop, 178 ; eras new churches, and extends Christianity, ib.; condemns i heretic, and restores discipline, ib; his t:harity, since* and superstition, ib.; his letter to Cuthbert, ib.; avails hiaself of the support of civil authority to purify the cbwet, 179; is fixed at Mentz, 180; his zeal and laboriousoes, ib.; revisits Friezeland, ib.; slain by Pagans, 18a; lui letters, ib.; his character, 183 ; his misunderstanding *itk Virgilius, 189, note. Witnesses, prophesying of, iii. 170,445.
Wittenberg, Uersity of, their conduct on receiving the Pope's
bull against Luther, iv. 479. Wolfang, Bp. of Ratisbon, his labours, iii. 254. Wolfgang, brother of the elector Palatine, his reception of Luther, « iv. 479.
Wolodotnir, King of Russia, baptized, iii. 263.
Wolsey, Luther's opinion of him, v. 357; defended by Henry the Eighth, 358 ; disappointed of the popedom, 435, note; revenges himself on Charles the Fifth, ib.
Worms, Diet of, iv. 524; edict of, 565.
Zaccheus, a Bp. of Palestine, his extraordinary fortitude and martyrdom, ii. 14.
Zachary, Pope, his character, iii. 161 ; seizes the power of the Roman dukedom, ib.; looks for protection to Pepin, ib.; justifies Pepin in his usurpation, ib.
Zathes, King of the Lazi, desirous of receiving the Gospel, applies to the emperor, iii. 13.
Zenobia, Queen of the East, desires instruction of Paul of Samosata, i. 148; favours him after his exclusion, 496; conquered by Aurelian, ib.
Zisca, a Bohemian lord, distinguished by his resentment of the death of Huss, iv. 256 ; heads the Hussites, 269, 279.
Zoiimus, Bp. of Rome, ii. 380 ; imposed upon by Caelestius, and writes in his favour, 381 ; his precipitancy condemned by African bishops, ib.; blamed by Augustine for delaying condemnation of Caelestius, ib; imposed on by letters uf Pelagius, 382 ; declares the innocence of Pelagius in a letter to the African bishop*, ib.; condemns the two heretics, 383.
Zuinglians, their cruelty to the Anabaptists, v, 511, 512.
Zuinglius, Huldric, or Ulrick, a Swiss reformer, opposes indulgences, iv. 386 ; his conduct in the sacramentary contest, v. 235, 400, 403. 418, 476, 509 & seq. 530; his character, 396, 399, 416, 531 ; his writings in the sacramentary contest, 397 & seq.; his commentary on true and false religion, 399; his sentiments respecting resistance, 503, 531; his republican principles, 503; his zeal against the mass and images, 504; his conduct towards the Anabaptists, ib. & seq ; difference of his opinions from those of Calvin, 515; attends conferences at Marpurg, 518 & seq.; his confession of faith and peculiar sentiments, 523 & seq. 531 ; his dream, 526, 533; compared with Luther. 527 & seq.; writes a letter to Luther, which the latter terms abusive, 537.
ALBTGEXSES, iii. 477, note ; persecuted, 482 & seq.; propose a disputation, 487.
Antoninus, Marcus, Emperor, his enmity to the Christians, i. 191 ; commences a persecution, 202; his enmity accounted for, 203 ; his early history, 205 ; story of his miraculous deliverance, 208.
Arian Bishops, their duplicity at Nicene Council, ii. 62. Circumcelliones, ii. 101 ; their violence and propensity to suicide, 424.
Claudius, Emperor, protects the Christians, i. 489. Clergy, restrictions imposed on them by Council of Laodicea, ii. 158.
Deogratias, Bp. of Carthage, redeems Genseric's captives with gold and silver of the churches, ii. 493 ; his zealous charity to the captives, ib.; his death and character, 494.
Hot, Arnold, appears as principal manager of a disputation for the Albigenses, iii. 488 ; makes a great impression, ib.
Julian, a martyr, i. 392.
Lucian, of Samosata, his story of Perecrinus, i. 243; his character as an author, 246,533 ; his notion of Christians, 534; usefulness of his writings, 535.
Redemption, particular, Augustine's opinion on that point, ii. 466; unknown to the ancients, 467.
Sihin, a courtier, becomes a missionary and a bishop, iii. 189 ; his success, ib.