Origen, his early passion for martyrdom, i. 295; his education
and spirit of inquiry, ib.; catechises at Alexandria, 397;
distinguishes himself by his attachment t,o martyrs, ib.; his
great industry and self-denial, 298 ; becomes a voluntary
eunuch, 301 ; ordained a presbyter, ib.; comes to Rome but
; soon returns, 311; publishes his Hexapla, ib.; confutes
Ambrose, a Valentinian, 312 ; his lectures attended by he-
retics and philosophers, ib.; his opinion of the necessity 'of
secular and philosophical learning, ib.; his habit of allego-
rizing Scripture, 314 ; sent for to instruct the governor of
Aralica, 315 ; sent for by Mammaea, the emperor's mother,
318 ; sent for to Athens , to assist the churches, 320; goes
to Palestine, ib.; ejected from the church, and banished
from Egypt, ib.; retires to Palestine, and is still followed,
ib.; his letter to Gregory Tbauniaturjius, 321, 503; re-
claims Beryllus, 322 ; his epistle to the Emperor Philip, ib.;
confutes the error of those who denied the intermediate state
of souls, 323 ; extreme tortures suffered by him under De-
cian persecution, 388 ; dies, 389. Compared with Cyprian.
455 ; his opinion of Christ, 465; ii. 45 ; of justification, 467;
injurious effects of his writings, 469; supposed to be deficient
in orthodoxy, 545; vindicated, ib.; difficulty to clear him
of depreciating divinity of. Christ, ii. 45 ; censured by Au-
gustine, 418; his love of allegorizing condemned by Luthe/,
Orthodoxy, its fruits contrasted with those of Arianism, ii. 163,.
I 183; its practical fruits, 384; its openness of character,
Osiander, a reformed, heads the reformed party in a conference at
Nuremberg, y. 377 ; his character, 578"; his treatment of
Melanctbon, ib.; raises disturbances among the Lutherans,
ib.; his death, ib.
Osmund, Bp. of Salisbury, his judicious correction of the Liturgy,
iii. 304, note.
Gsuald, King of Northumbria, attempts to evangelize his people,
iii. 106; his zeal in the cause, 107; bis character, 108;
Othingcr, a Danish bishop, extends Christianity in Denmark,
Othman, Sultan, founds a new empire in the east, iv. 13.
— empire, founded, iv. 13.
Otko, Emperor of Germany, represses papal disorders at Rome,
iii. 249. establishes right of choosing the Pope, ib.; his
character, 2,50 ; fixes the imperial crown in Germany, ib.;
represses the Turks, ib.; his laudable efforts in the cause of
Bp. of Bamberg, his labours in Pomerania, iii. 427.
Oxford, university of, founded, iii. 419; oppressed by the Danes,
ib.; its celebrity and impiety, in twelfth century, ib.
pacianus, Bp. of Barcelona, renowned for piety and eloquence,
ii. 246 ; his writings, 247.
Paganism, its decline, ii. 108.
Paletz, professor of divinity at Prague, persecutes Huss, iv. 219,
220, 223, 237 ; endeavours to induce him to retract, 244.
Paladius, first Bishop of Scotland, ii. 485.
Pallavieini, a popish advocate, his confession respecting the mea-
sures against Luther, iv. 479 ; his prejudices, 567 ; his cha-
racter of Adrian the Sixth, v. 105, note.
Tamphilwi, the friend of Eusebius, his character, ii. 26; his
confession and martyrdom, ib.
Pantamts, master of the school at Alexandria, i. 287 ; combines
Stoicism with Christianity, ib.; preaches among the Indians,
Papacy, its discriminating marks, iii. 86; its corruption testified
by papists, 275.
Taphnutius, Bp. of Thebais, successfully contends in Nicene
council against prohibiting the clergy from cohabiting with
their wives, ii. 63 ; his honest secession from the council of
Papias, Bp. of Hierapolis, a disciple of St. John, his character,
C i. 69.
Paris, University of, celebrated as a divinity seminary, 111.410:
its renown, iv. 313, 369; v. 26; appeals from council d
Lateran, 369; condemns Luther, v. 26 ; censures Erasnra
Paris, Matthew, a valuable monkish historian, iii. 447 ; calos.-
niates the Waldenses, ib.; his history, iv. 6, 7 ; his cha-
Parishes not known in third century, i. 516.
Paschal II. Pope, silences the Bishop of Florence, iii. 422.
, a Waldensian, sent as pastor into Calabria, iii. 503 ; bona*
505 ; his constancy, ib.
Patiens, Bp. of Lyons, his great charity, ii. 497 ; his pastori
Patricius, father of Augustine, his character and converske,
ii- 358, 359-
Patrick, the apostle of Ireland, born in Scotland, ii. 486; carriri
captive into Ireland, 487 ; conveyed into Gaul, ib.; reams
to convert the natives, ib.; his ill success, ib.; returns a
Gaul, ib.; encouraged by Germanu* and Ccelestine, retina
to Ireland, ib.; his great success, ib.; teaches the Irish tbe
use of letters, ib.; his death, ib.
Patronage, church, origin of, iii. 23.
Potto, a Scotch abbot, made bishop of Verden, iii. 243; his
character, ib.; suffers martyrdom, ib.
Paul the apostle, see Saul; his conversion, i. 18 ; goes to Jeru-
salem, 21, sent by the apostles to Tarsus, 22 ; no favoria
in the church at Jerusalem, 23; goes along with Barnabas
to bring alms to Jerusalem, ib.; returns to minister to the
Gentiles, ib.; supports Pettr's opinion at the council, 27; his
prudence regarding the Jewish converts, 29; his conduct
touching communion vindicated, ib.; rebukes Peter's dissi-
mulation, 30; his third and fourth visits to Jerusalem, ib.;
joins in a Nazarite vow, 31; suffers outrages, undergoes
various other trials, and arrives in Rome, 33 ; his epistle tt
the Hebrews, 34; brought from Tarsus to Antioch by
Barnabas, 49 ; sent by the Holy Ghost into other countries,
50; his travels, ib.; his separation from Barnabas, 55;
takes Silas as his companion, 56; their progress, ib. 61;
ejects the spirit of Python, 63 ; scourged and imprisoned,
ib.; delivered from prison, ib.; his visit to Athens, 70;
works at Corinth as a tent-maker, 73 ; sent to Rome, 80;
how employed there, ib.; his dangers and distress at Ephesns,
86; further account of his labours, epistles, and persecu-
tions, 106; his martyrdom and character, 110; what time
he speaks of in ch. vii. of Romans, ii. 957.
— the first hermit, his early life, i. 410; lives a hermit ninety
years, ib.; his piety, ib.; his retirement vindicated, ib.
— of Samosata, his heresy, i. 488; his character, ib.; recant*
before a council, 489; his conduct examined before a second
council, ib.; deposed, ib.; letter from the council respecting
him, 492 ; favoured by Zenobia, 496; keeps possession of
his church, but finally expelled, ib.
Paul, a martyr, his charitable prayers before he suffered, ii. 24. Bp. of Constantinople, recommended to that see by Alexander
on his death bed, ii. 77; his character, ib.; elected, 78 ;
dispossessed, ib.; re-elected, 81; banished, ib.; murdered, 85.
a Novatian bishop, his great reputation for holiness, ii. 524.
Pope, cultivates the friendship of Pepin, iii. 164.
Paula, an illustrious Roman lady, becomes intimate with Jerom,
ii. 471 ; adopts a monastic life, 472 ; erects four monasteries,
ib.; her death, ib.
Paulianists, re-baptism in their case required by the church, and
why, ii. 64.
Politicians, their sect, iii. 20I ; origin of their name, 203 ; con-
founded with Manichees, ib.; effusion'of the spirit amopg
them, ib.; calumnies against them, ib.; their growing im-
portance, 205 ; persecuted, ib.; their exemplary conduct
under persecution, 206; alteration of their character, 207,
5209 ; probability of true church being among them in twelfth
Pauliitus, lip. of Antiocb, ii. 132; ordained by Lucifer, which
causes a schism, ib.; his character, 133 ; proposal of Gre-
gory to confirm him rejected, 184.
— of Nola, his prayer, ii. 415, 530; his death and character,
485, 532 ; his writings, 528 ; marries a rich lady, 529 ; re-
tires from the world, ib.; obliged by the people to receive
orders, ib.; his remarkable humility, ib.; ordained bishop,
530; disturbed by the Goths, ib.; his friendship with Augus-
tine, ib.; his letters to Amandus and others, ib. & seq.; his
intimacy with Sulpitius Severus, ib.; refuses his picture to
Severus, but gives picture of his heart, 531 ; has the walls of
a temple painted with Scripture stories, iii. 153.
— consecrated bishop of the north of England, iii. 101 ; attends
Ethelberg into Northumberland, ib.; labours to convert the
Pagans, ib.; his success, ib. 104; preaches in Lincolnshire,
with success, 105; made Bishop of Rochester, ib.
— Bp. of Aquileia, takes a part in council of Frankfort, iii. 169 ;
his writings and character, 193 ; opposes the Pope, and the
second council of Nice, ib.; enjoys favour of Charlemagne,
>95 5 preaches to the Pagans, ib.
Paulus Sergius, his conversion, i. 50.
Pavan, James, a reformer, persecuted, and recants, v. 380; re-
sumes his profession, and suffers martyrdom, ib.
Feasants, war of, v. 203 & seq.; cause thereof, 242.
Pelagian papers, ii. 390.
l'elagians, guilty of burnings and plunderings, ii. 379 ; banished
from Rome, 383; their party indefatigable, 384; their sect
nearly eradicated by Augustine, 424.
Ptkgianism, ii. 369, 374, 376 ; history of, by Augustine, 379 ;
compared to Socinianism, 386; pure, lost for many ages» 387'
Semi, its rise and continuance, 388, 395 & seq.; opposed in
Britain by Germanus and Lupus, and suppressed, 484;
Semi, supported by Cassian, 487 ; and checked by Prosper
and others, 4.88 ; prevalence of in the eastern church, 533:
again spread in Britain, 492 ; put down by Germanus, ib.
characteristic thereof, v. 265, note.
Pelagius, a British monk, ii. 370; his morals decent, 371 ; bis
reputation for piety, ib.; his genius, ib.; his heresy, ib.-;
his duplicity and deceit, 372 ; settles at Rome, and gives of-
fence to the church, ib.; flies to Africa upon taking of Rome,
ib.; passes into Palestine, and excites notice of Jerom, 373 ;
writes respectfully to Augustine, 375; his letter to Deme-
trius, 376; his letter to a widow, ib.; his heretical book, ib.;
summoned before council of Diospolis, 377 ; denies his letter
to the widow, 378 ; acquitted, ib.; improves his acquittal to
heretical purposes, 379 ; his opinions condemned in council
of Carthage, ib.; and in council of Milevum, 380 ; his letter
to Innocent, 381; condemned by Zozimus, 383; complains
of his treatment, and imposes on respectable persons, 384 ;
reduced to obscurity, 387; his insidiousness, 394; his
writings, ib. I
— a Goth, chosen king, by a remnant of that nation, iii. 143 ;
his pious trust in God, 144; his success against the Ara-
J'elican, Conrad, a Swiss divine, his controversy with Erasmus,
»v. 239,32°. not«-
Penance, its influence in withdrawing sinners from Christ, i v. 9.
Penda, King of Mercia, a Pagan, defeats Edwin, iii. 105; and
Oswald, 108 ; slain, 109.
— son of the former, embraces and propagates Christianity,
Pepin, son of Charles Martel, usurps the crown of France, iii. 161;
supports the Pope, 163; gains great advantages, from the
Lombards, and bestows them on the Pope, ib.; his death,
Peregrinns, Lucian's account of him, i. 244 & seq.; commits
suicide, 533 ; a statue erected to him, ib. —
Pergamiu, church of, i. 69.
Perpetua, a lady of quality, her constancy, i. 305 ; exposed to a
wild cow, 308 ; her extraordinary fortitude, ib.; her mar-
tyrdom, 309 ; her visions doubtful, ib.
Peter, the apostle, his discourse on the effusion of the Spirit, i. 6;
miraculous cure by him and John, 10 ; imprisoned, 11; dis-
missed, ib.; imprisoued by Herod Agrippa, 23 ; delivered
by an angel, 24 ; opens the debate of the council at Jerusat
lem, 27; dissembles his opinion respecting the Gentiles, 30;
his activity in establishing the churches, 38 ; raises Tabitha
from the dead, ib.; is sent to Samaria, 40 ; returns to Jeru-
salem, 41 • his visit to Cornelius, 45; his Jabours and
mariyrdom, 113; bis wife's martyrdom, 114, bis charac-
ter, ib. •
Peter, one of Diociesian's household, his mariyrdom, ii. 7.
< ■ . the monk, tuffers martyrdom, ii. 25.
Bp. of Alexandria, a martyr, deposes Meletius, ii,49; his
patience, how tried, 50 ; his character, ib.
— named by Athanasius as his successor, ii. 161 ; his electiou
approved by the church, 164; opposition raised by Euzoius
to him, ib. ; banished, 165; recovers his see, 168.
Bp. of Terraco, consents to a species of persecution against the
Jews, iii. 45.
— King of Hungary, persecutes Gerard Bishop of Choriad,
iii. 292; expelled, ib.; recalled, ib.; banished, 293.
— Abbot of Cluney, his ill founded celebrity, iii. 435 ; his kind-
ness to Abelard and Eloisa, ib.; his character, ib.
— the Hermit, famous for promoting the first crusades, iv. 25 ;
his instructions respecting crusades, ib.
Petit, John, a friar, vindicates an assassination, iv. 209 ; accused
before council of Constance, but not condemned, ib.
Petrarch, a great reviver of polite literature, iv. 67.
Philadelphia, church of, i. 95.
Phileas, a lip. and man of eminence, suffers martyrdom, ii. 8;
his epistle to church of Thmuitx, 9.
Philemon, Paul's epistle to, i. 83.
Philip, one of seven deacons, i. 16; preaches at Samaria, 40;
baptizes the Ethiopian eunuch, 43 ; settles at Caesarea, 44 ;
♦ntertains St. Paul, ib.
— the Arabian emperor, murders and succeeds Gordian, i. 321 ;
professes Christianity, 332 ; not a cordial friend to the Gos-
pel, ib.; slain, 323.
— Augustus, King of France, his sagacity, iii. 443 ; and worldli-
ness, ib.; persecutes the Waldenses, ib.
,— Duke of Savoy, protects the Waldenses, iii. 499.
— Landgrave of Hesse, promotes the Reformation, v. 275 ; at-
tempts to gain over Duke George, 376; foiled in a second
conciliatory attempt, 428 ; proposes an association of several
German states, 429; his magnanimous declaration, in a
crisis of danger, 439 ; endangered by a secret treaty, ib. 440;
engages in the treaty of Magdeburg, 441 ; his policy and
conduct at the diet of Spires, 442 & seq.; his proposal for
domestic reform to the Elector of Saxony, 449 ; his character,
450; calls a synod to determine the reformed doctrines,
451 ; his measures of reform in Hesse, 453 ; founds the
university of Marpurg, ib.; disposed to offensive measures in
the cause of the Reformation, ib.; induces the elector to
adopt warlike measures, 493; bis ardour in the cause,
495 ; endeavours to reconcile the Lutherans and Zuingliahs,
— Count of Hanover, forwards the Reformation, v. 562. -
Pkilippi, church of, i. 6x ; why called the first city of Macedonia,
62 ; description thereof, ib.; liberality of the church of, 6;;
epistle to it, ib.
Philosophers, extraordinary story of the conversion of one, ii. 57-
Phocas, a centurion, raised to the empire, iii. 66; his character,
C7, 117 ; deposed and put to death, 117.
Phutinus, Bp. of Sirmium, deposed as a Sabellian, ii. 85.
Photius, Bp. of Constantinople, his character, iii. 298, note; h»
opposition to Ignatius, 226 ; reproved by Cyril, 227.
Pilgrimages, bad effects of them, iii. 219.
Pionius, a presbyter, of Smyrna, his admirable address to tix
people, i 403; imprisoned, 406; forced to an idol tempk
407 ; his bold confession, ib.; silences Ruffinus by an appro-
priate answer, ib.; suffers martyrdom, 40K.
Pius IV. Pope, persecutes the VValdenses, iii. 503.
Planitz, John, a German nobleman, represents Frederic of Sasor?
at diet of Nuremberg, v. 114; his attachment to Prota-
tantism, ib.; his prudent conduct at Nuremberg, ib. 124.
Plato, how distinguished from other philosophers, ii. 346.
Platonics, new, rise of, ii. 108.
Pliny, his letter to Trajan, i. 145.
Plotinus, a Platonist, his great reputation, i. 536.
Ploughman's Complaint, a tract, its celebrity, iv. 74.
Pluralities, question of, care of the church upon it, iv. 40.
Podiebrad, King of Poland, persecutes the Hussites, iv. 282.
Poggius,secretary to Pope John XXIII. his ingenuous testimony
. . , to the behaviour and eloquence of Jerom of Prague, iv. 265.
Polentz, George de. Bp. of Samland, styled father of the Refor-
mation in Prussia, v. 178.
Poliaco, John, de, opposes the Mendicant orders, iv. 21 ; con-
demned by papal authority, ib.
Poliander, John, the amanuensis of Eckius, embraces and warmly
supports the reformed doctrines, v. 178.
Polychius, Martin, his extraordinary prognostic respecting Luther,
iv. 325 ; his fame, ib.
Politian, a devout soldier at court, visits Augustine, ii. 351.
Poli/carp, his epistle to the Philippians, i. 173.; succeeds to the
bishopric of Smyrna, 209 ; was familiar with the apostles,
ib.; supposed to have been the angel of the church of
Smyrna, in the Revelations, 210; his conference with
Anicetus, respecting Blaster, ib.; his reply to Marcion, ib.;
particulars of his martyrdom, 212.
Pomeranus, see Bugenhagius.
Pomerius, Julian, his writings, ii. 548.
Ponticus, a youth, suffers martyrdom, i. 235.
Pontius, a deacon, his life of Cyprian, i. 324 ; his extraordinary
affection for that bishop, 455.
Pope becomes a secular prince, iii. 151; becomes master of
Ravenna and other cities, 163; assumes infallibility, 164;
obtains Ferrara and other fortresses, ib.; obtains other
grants from Charlemagne, 165; those of tenth century,
their atrocious wickedness, 246; his authority opposed,
by kings and councils, 247; right of emperor to choose
him, 849; effect of this regulation on the morals of Popes,
ib.; right of election transferred to cardinals, 285; his in-
feriority to councils, iv. 206; his supremacy controverted
by Luther, 403.
Popedom, commencement of, iii. 146; its identity with Anti-
christ, 157 ; its despotism not acknowledged in eighth century,
193; growth of its influence, 197 ; its power strongly fixed by
Charlemagne, 201; domination of, 285 ; its power extended
-* in England, 304; instances of its tyranny, oppression and
corruptions, 426, 480, 485, 486, 487, 490; iv. 5, 6, 8;
schism in it, 66; its decline, v. 112.
Popery, opposition to, in ninth century, iii. 211 & seq.; in eleventh
century, 286 & seq.; its essential difference from Protes-
tantism, 485 ; iv. 307; its corruptions, 413, 568, note; v. 91,
104, 112, 131, 185.
Porphyry, studies under Plotmus, i- 539; ii. 108; his learning
and talents, i. 539 ; in early life a Christian, ii. 109; cause
of his apostacy, ib.; his books replete with malignity and
talent, ib.; his philosophy of oracles, ib. ;
Possidonius, Bp. of Calama, his life of Augustine, ii. 299, note;
Potamuena, her beauty, firmness and martyrdom, i. 299; alleged
to have appeared to Basilides, 300.
Potamo, Bp. of Heraclea, insults Lusebius at council of Tyre,
ii. 68 ; receives cruel treatment from the Arians, 79.
Pothinus, Bp. of Lyons, his martyrdom, i. 230.
Praxeas, his heresy, i. 281; retracts, 282.
Prayer, Lord's, daily used in the churches, ii. 423 ; Augustine's
exposition of, 480.
Prayers for the dead, origin of, iii. 156, note.
Preaching, its importance, iv. 6y.
Predestination, doctrine of, misunderstood by Ambrose, ii. 238 ;
Augustine's opinion thereon, 465; other opinions thereon,
Presbyterian system, scriptural and primitive in a degree, but
defective, i. 518.
Presbyters, distinct all along from bishops, i. 514 ; in some in-
stances elected by the people, ib.; why chosen by people,
517 ; how different at Alexandria from rest of the church,
Pride, spiritual, its nature, v. 472.
Prierias, a Dominican, writes against the Theses of Luther,
iv. 351 ; silenced by the Pope, 360.
Primatius, an African bishop, character of his writings, ii. 545.
Printing invented, iv. 288.
PrisciUa, see Aquila.
Priscillian, a heretic, his character, ii. 187 ; put to death, 189;
honoured as a martyr, ib.
Priscillmnists, their heresy, ii. 187; capitally punishej, 1-.
Prison, the name of a monastery, its peculiar plan, in- 2<t
Privalus, an impostor, detected, i. 361.
Probus the Emperor, succeeds Tacitus, i. 497.
Proclus, Bp. of Constantinople, puts an end to the schism cf ±'
Joannists, ii. 493.
Procopius, a martyr, answers a demand to sacrifice by a qoocasx
from Homer, ii. 13.
Ptoculus, recovers Severus from sickness, i. 310.
Proeresius, his magnanimous refusal to be exempted from Jbdk;
. law against public teachers, ii. 127.
Prophets, celestial, v. 903 ; their pretensions, 204.
Prosper, withstands Semi-Pelagianism, ii. 388, 411,488; be
opinion respecting predestination, 467 ; iii. 5 ; distinguish*
himself in defence of the doctrines of grace, ii. 543 ; excel-
lence of his spirit, ib.
Protestant princes, their protest and appeal, v. 555 ; their Jk>
ceedings in consequence of the diet of Spires, 557; coeelaJ;
an alliance at Smalcald, 562.
Protestantism, its essential difference from popery, iii. 485;
Protestants in twelfth century, iii. 376 ; origin of the tern, v. 554.
Provision, system of, iv. 49, 66.
Prussians, the last of European nations to receive the Gospel,
iii. 294; their character, iv. 14; compelled to receive Chris-
Psalmody, origin of in church of Milan, ii. 357.
Publia, her courageous zeal against idolatry before Julian, ii. 138.
Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius the younger, ii. 522 ; her character,
ib.; her ascendancy over her brother, ib; succeeds to tbi
empire and Marcian, 5^6.
Pupian, accuses Cyprian of haughtiness, i. 440 ; disowns his au-
Pupiemis, Emperor, succeeds Maximin jointly with Balbinus,
Purgatory, iii. 156, note; iv. 38.
Quadratus, Bp. of Athens, restores order in that church, i. J"6;
presents an apology to Adrian, 177.
Quinta, her martyrdom, i. 309.
Quvttus, his lapse, i. 213.
Rabanus, Abp. of Mentz, his learning, iii. 198 ; opposes doctrine
of transubstantiation, ib. 212; deficient in Godliness, ib.;
i . his controversy with Gotteschalcus, 22a 6c seq.
Radbert, Pascasius, introduces doctrine of trausubslantiation,
iii. 198. :,
Radegunda, daughter of the King of Thuringia, taken captive in
infancy, iii. 2&; falls to the lot of Clotaire, who marries her,
ib.; her piety infected with monasticism, ib.; separates from
her husband, and follows monastic rules, ib.
Radulph, a monk of tenth century, his intimate acquaintance with
divine truth, iii. 279 ; extracts from his writings, ib.
Rapin, strictures on his history, iv. 189, 190.
Ratisbon, confederacy of, v. 173.
Kavenna, Exarchate of, what, iii. 162 ; given to the Pope, 163.
Raynard, Earl of Toulouse, protects the Waldenses, iii. 486 ; his
unjustifiable means of resisting the Pope, ib.; bis deficiency
in true religion, ib. 490, 494.; his death, 493.
— son of the former, his misfortunes, iii. 494.
Recaredus, succeeds his father in kingdom of Visigoths in Spain,
iii. 31; embraces orthodoxy, ib.; destroys Ariauism in Spain,
ib.; his character, 45.
Reformation, propriety of the name, iv. 74; remarkable events,
subservient to it, 286 & seq.; its fruits, v. 72, 74; its pro-
gress, 94, 95, 98, 99, 100, 129 & seq. 177 & seq. i86&seq.
375 & seq. 541.
Reinerius, his testimony to the character of the Waldenses,
iii. 453, 472; made inquisitor, 494.
Reinhard, Martin, a partizan of Carolstadt, his attack upon
Luther, v. 229.
Reinher, Sancho, an apostate, persecuter of the Waldenses, his
account of the Wickliffeites, iv. 202; and of the Waldenses,
Rembart, Bp. of Bremen, his labours and character, iii. 242;
preaches in Brandenburg, 243.
Remigius, Abp. of Lyons, vindicates Gotteschalcus, iii. 225.
Rhednn, Thomas, a Carmelite friar, preaches against corruptions
of Pome, iv. 289 ; degraded and burned, ib.
Ricardus, his treatise on the Incarnation, iii. 433.
Richard, I. of England, sends for and hears Joachim of Calabria,
iii. 425 ; his subserviency to the Pope, 426.
— II. of England, patronizes persecution of the Lollards, iv. 164;
Robert, King of France, patronizes learning, iii. 284.
— a Waldensian, turns Dominican, made inquisitor general, and
persecutes the Waldenses, iii. 510 ; suspended by the Pope,
ib.; condemned to perpetual imprisonment, ib.
Rogations, what, ii. 426.
Rob/san, a Calixtine, seduced by ambitious motives, iv. 280 ;
made Archbishop of Prague, ib.; his temporising conduct,
281, 282, 283; hi3 sensibility at the torture of Gregory,
284 ; persecutes the Hussites, 285 ; dies in despair, ib.
Rollo, a Norwegian pirate, ravages France, and becomes Duke
- of Normandy, iii. 2G1; marrie? the daughter of Charles the
Simple, and embraces Christianity, ib.
Romans, their superstitious character, ii. 107; fond of adop&E
gods of conquered nations, ib.
Romanm, a deacon of Caesarea, rebukes the cowardice of the es-
tates at Antioch, ii. 14; seized, and has his tongue cat oc,
15; suffers other tortures and martyrdom, ib
Rome, church of, its erection obscure, i. 78 ; epistle thereto, to.-
same as church at Babylon, 81; epistle from, to cburci 1
Carthage, 339 ; thriving state of, 341; schism therein raise
by Novatian, 37-2 ; state of, in third century, 373;
corrupted under Vigilius, iii. 29 ; election to, necessary $
be confirmed by the emperor, 34, note; its supposed sap*-
macy, 38 ; its great depravity, 249 ; iv. 246 ; its supremacy
acknowledged by princes, iii. 250; becomes seat of Ma-
•— city of, burned, i. 97 ; taken by the Goths, ii. 372.
— empire, of its moral condition during first three centuries,
Rorar, George, a disciple of Luther's, instrument of giving pab-
licity to Luther's Commentary on the Galatians, iv. 514-
Rosary, constituted by.Dominic, iv. 24.
Roscelin, publishes erroneous views of the Trinity, iii. 309; coo-
' futed by Anselm, ib.; condemned for Tritheism, 340.
Roscoe, misrepresents the character of Luther, v. 514.
Roussel, Garret, a Lutheran, sent by Margaret of Navarre to
confer with Strasburg divines, v. 186.
Ruffinus, his opinion quoted by Cailestius the heretic, ii. 374; bis
quarrel with Jerom, 446.
Rumold, an English or Irish missionary, his labours, iii.
Rupert, Bp. of Worms, invited to Bavaria, iii. 114 ; success ot his
ministry, ib.; made Bishop of Saltzburg. ib.
Sabbath breaking, laws against it, ii. 523, 527 ; iii. 95.
Sabbalius, a Jew, ordained by Marcian, the Novatian bishop,
ii. 242 ; his ambitious views and pretences to strictness, ib.;
obliged by a council to swear against aiming at a bishopric
243; breaks his oath, and excites a schism, ib.
Sabeans, Christianity spread among them, ii. 105.
Sabellianism, i. 482, 487.
Sabellians, their heresy, ii. 85.
Sabina, sister to Pionius, her confession, i. 405.
Sa&lucees, their character, i. 13 ; persecute the Apostles, ib.
St. Amour, William de, his celebrity, iv. 18; opposes the friars
ib. 19; banished, and his book burned, 21; returns to Paris,
ib.; his character, ib.
'St. Pourcain, Durandus de, his fame in school divinity, iv. 108,
faints, so called, not always reputable characters, iii. 149.
Sa/iza, James of. Bp. of Breslau, favours the Reformation, v. 145.
Sal-viuji, Bp. of Marseilles, character of his writings, ii. 546.
Samaria, church of, i. 36 ; situation of, 39; how inhabited, ib.
Samaritans, their origin, i. 39 ; receive the Gospel, 40.
Sampson, a Welchman, founds a monastery at Dol, iii. 26; made
Bishop of Dol, ib.; his renown, 27.
Samson, a Waldensian martyr, his horrid death, iii. 504.
Sand us, of Vienne, distinguished in the persecution, i. 227 ; his
extraordinary fortitude, 228; renewal of his tortures, 232 ;
his martyrdom, ib.
Super, King of Persia, his treatment of the Emperor Valerian,
i. 478 ; persecutes the Christians, ii. 107.
Sapphira, struck dead for lying to the Holy Ghost, i. 13.
Sapricius, story of him and Nicephorus, i. 473.
Saracens, progress of Christianity among them, ii. 239; their con-
quests, iii. 128, 145; put an end to the kingdom of the Goths,
143; defeated by Pelagius, 144; by Charles Martel, 145;
their government becomes more regular, 165; invade Cala-
bria, 282 ; persecute Christians in Africa, 286.
Sardis, church of, i. 93.
Sarolta, wife of Geysa, persuades her husband to embrace
Christianity, iii. 252.
Satur, steward to Huneric's house, persecuted for his orthodoxy,
ii. 495 ; his constancy, ib.
Saul, of Tarsus, his character and education, i. 18 ; persecutes the
church, ib.; his conversion, ib.; goes to Jerusalem, si 5
sent by the Apostles to Tarsus, 22. See Paul.
Savonarola, Jerome, an Italian monk, his boldness in preaching
the Gospel, iv. 289; imprisoned, ib.; his meditation on
xxxi. Psalm, ib.; burned as a heretic, 290.
Saville, Sir Henry, his life of Bradwardine, iv. 85.
Sawtre, first martyr among the Lollards, iv. 167; recants, ib.}
recovers his courage and suffers, ib. 168.
Schaumburg, a Franconian knight, offers protection to Luther,
Schism among the Corinthians rebuked by Clement, i. 126;
breaks out in church of Carthage, 368; also in church of
Rome, 372 ; blamed to an excess by Cyprian, 386; of Do-
natists, ii. 47; of Novatians, and others, under their proper
Sclileinig, John d, Bp. of Misnia, opposes the Reformation, v. 74.
Sckuch, IVolJfgangus, a reformed minister, his labours, courage
and martyrdom, v. 380.
Schurff, Dr. Luther's advocate at Worms, bis management there,
iv. 547 ; sent by Frederic as a confidential agent to Luther,
v. 54; his sentiments on Luther's marriage, 255.
Scillita, a city of Africa, account of martyrs there, i. 302.
Scot, John, Bp. of Dunkeld, his character, iv. >7; proposes to
have his see divided, ib.
Scot in, John, his learning, iii. 198; opposes transubstantiation, ib.
212 ; deficient in godliness, 198.
— John Duns, bis learning and character, iv. 67.
Scriptures, preference given to human writings above them, iiL
197 ; providential preservation of their integrity, 203.
Scultetim, Abraham, his character as an historian, v. 380.
Seckcndorf, his translation of the history of Lutheranism, iv. 305,
"Sella 1 his, Michael, an Anabaptist, his martyrdom, v. 545.
Sepulchre, Holy Church of, its magnificence, ii. 101.
Serapion, a martyr, i. 391.
— an aged Christian, his fall and recovery, i. 395.
Serenius Granianvs, his letter to Adrian, i. 177.
Serenus,Tip. of Marseilles, destroys images in churches, iii. 55,15J.
Sergius, a Paulician, his excellent character, iii. 207.
Seval, Abp. of York, his courageous rebuke of the pope, iv. 18;
excommunicated, but retains his see, ib.
Scvertts, Septimus, Emperor, persecutes the Christians, L 270,
294; his character, 270; his death, 310.
— Alexander, Emperor, countenances the Christians, i. 316; bis
mixed worship, 317; his partial adoption of Christian maxims;
ib.; nicknamed Archysynagogus, ib.; murdered, 321
— Sulpitius, the historian, his character, ii. 187,530; exagge-
rates character of Martin, 192; his superstitions concerning
the dead, ib.; his intimacy with Paulinus of Nola, ib.; de-
cisive marks of his conversion, 531.
Sibtrt, King of the East Angles, his zeal and piety, iii. 104.
Sick, visitation of Anselm's, direction for, iii. 313.
Sickengen, Francis, a German nobleman, patronizes Luther, 245,
note; bis motives and their consequences, ib. 570.
Sidonius, of Lyons, celebrated as an orator and poet, ii. 497; ap-
pointed Bishop of Clermont, ib.; his liberality, ib.
Sigefrid, an English missionary, his labours, iii. 294; made Bi-
shop of Wixia, ib.; bis character, 295.
Sigismund, King of Burgundy, brought over to orthodoxy, iii. 13;
puts to death his son, ib.; repents, ib.; his prayer, ib.; how
»—Emperor, attends council of Constance, iv. 210; his oppo-
sition to Pope John the twenty-third, ib.; his character, ib.
219, 222 ; his base conduct towards Huss, 221, 239, 240;
attempts to restore unity to the hierarchy, 224; accuses
Pope John, ib.; wishes to save Huss, 247; blushes at the
rebuke of Huss, 351 ; desirous of a partial reformation, 274.
Silas accompanies Paul and Barnabas to Jerusalem, i. 55; after-
wards joined with Paul alone, ,56. See Paul.
Sikeriua, Bp. of Rome, delivered into the hands of Vigilius, iii.
23; banished to Palmaria, and dies of hunger, ib.
Silvester III. Pope, deposed for simony and wickedness, iii. 2P5.
(. . note. - *
— a friar, Lis martyrdom, iv. 289,.; ,. ^. ...
Simeon, succeeds James as pastor of Jerusalem, i. 106 ; his mar»
7— an officer, sent to persecute the Paulicians, iii. 206; adopts
their faith, and preaches the Gospel, ib.; dies a martyr, ib.
Simon Magus convinced of truth, of Christianity, i. 40; oners the
Apostles money, ib.; reproved by Peter, 41; father of the
Docteae, 135 ; honoured even to idolatry, 139. .
Simony, Jaw against it, ii. 527.
Simplician, a Presbyter of Rome, his learning and piety, ii. 176;
instructs Ambrose, ib.; and Augustine, ib.; succeeds Am-
brose in see of Milan, 176, 433; visited by Augustine, 347.
Sicinnius, Bp. of the Novatians, writes against Chrysostom, ii.
280" ibis character, ib.; joins in persecuting Chrysostom, 294.
Bishop of Constantinople, ii. 524; his character, ib.
Sixtnt, Bishop of Rome, i. 446; suffers martyrdom, 451; mani-
fests a spirit of prophecy, 470.
Sleidan, his history commended, iv. 3o9.
Smalcald, treaty of, v. 441..
Smaragdus, extract from his writings, iii. 274.
Smyrna, Church of, i. 90; epistle of, respecting Polycarp's mar-
tyrdom, 211. ,
Socinianism, ii. 386, 395, note.
Socrates, the historian, his fairness, ii. 72; inclined to Nova-
tianism, 286; unjustly censures Chrysostom, ib.; his char
racter as an author, 518, note; 537.
Sitfyman, Sultan, igvades Hungary, v. 456; gains a signal vic-
tory, ib.; invades Austria, and besieges Vienna, 457..
Sophia, wife of Wenceslaus, King of Bohemia, her esteem for
John Huss, iv. 211; her character ib.; ordered to retire
after his condemnation, 212.
Sophronius,}ip. of Jerusalem, opposes Monothelite heresy, iii. 121 j
his writings, 131. . ,
Sorbonne, College of, founded, iv, 13.
Sorcery, see Magic. "
Sozomen, the historian, his character as an author, ii. 537.
Spulatinvs, secretary and chaplain to Frederic the Wise, patro-
nizes Luther, iv. 329; intimidated, 393; goes to Wittenv
berg toexamine the university and confer with Luther,473 ;
bis letter on the occasion, ib.; entreats Luther not to appear
at Worms, 545; his friendship with Luther, 615; short
account of him, 616 ; ventures to marry, v. 249, 257; his
observation on the Diet of Spires, 447. -,
Spengler, Pefer, a reformer, his martyrdom, v. 468.
Speral, Paul, a reformer, suffers persecution, v. 178; escapes to
Wittemberg, 179; made Bp. of Pomesane, ib.
"Spires, convention of, v. 174 ; diet of, 442 ; a second diet of, 552
Spongia, a work of Erasmus, v. 267.
"Sprxng,James, a scholar of Luther, persecuted and obliged to
recant, iy. §79, note.; tepents bis recantation and. again
preaches, ib. "*.'.....
Staupitius, Vicar General of the Augustine monks, his learnis:
and religion, iv. 323 ; his- extraordinary prognostic of La-
ther, ib.; his conduct on Luther's examination at Augsbajx.
370 and seq.; withdraws his support from Luther, 377;
his conduct palliated, ib.; receives preferment, 379; L»-
ther's letters to him, ib.
Stephen, the Deacon, his martyrdom, i. 16.
— Bp. of Rome, i. 419 ; maintains the true doctrine respeenn;
re-baptism, 443 ; his violence on the subject, 444 ; dealt,
— Bp. of Antioch, an Arian, deposed for corruption, ii. 83.
— Pope, seeks protection from Constantine, iii. 163; app&s
for assistance to Pepin and the French duke, ib.; promts!
them remission of sins, ib.: goes to Pavia to treat with
Astulphus, 163 ; passes into France and treats with Pepk
ib.; receives Ravenna and other great advantages fros
him, ib.; assumes infallibility, 164; supports Desiderk!
and obtains Ferrara and other advantages, ib.; his death, ib.
— Chief Prince of Hungary, baptized, iii. 253 ; his zeal, ib. 291;
his character, 292 ; his excellent laws, ib.; takes the Prince
of Transilvania prisoner, ib.; restores him to liberty oa
condition of allowing the preaching of the Gospel, ib.; his
afflictions and death, ib.
— a Missionary to Sweden, beaten and expelled from the coun-
try, iii. 257.
— last Bp. of the Waldenses, burned, iv. 285.
Stork, a baker, his fanaticism, v. 44.
Stubncr,n. German fanatic,v. 44 ; his conference with Luther, 70.
Stunica, a Spanish divine, accused of calumny by Erasmus,
v. 326; publishes a book against Erasmus, ib. note.
Subdeacon, what, iii. 58.
Sudbury, Abp. of Canterbury, cites Wickliff, iv. 114; his cha-
racter, ib.; murdered, 587,
Suen, Otho, son of the King of Denmark, forms a party against
his father, iii. 258; his apostacy, expulsion, restoration and
Suicide, honourable among the Gentiles, i. 246; committed by
Christians in Dioclesian persecution, ii. 11; remarkable ooe
of a lady at Antioch, and her daughter, toavoid brutality, is.
Supererogation, doctrine of, iv. 308.
Superintendant, what, v. 491.
Sv/ein, King of Denmark, subdues Norway and abolishes idolatry
there, iii. 260 ; compelled to do penance for an illegal act,
297, note; devastates England, 300.
Sylvanus, founder of the Paulicians. See Constantine.
Symmachus, his translation of the Bible, i. 311; was an Ebio-
nite, and inveighs against St. Matthew's Gospel, ib.
— a man of learning and eloquence, his attempt to restore
Paganism, ii. 194: his address to the emperors, iys.
Synod, see Council.
Tuborites, iv. 270, 278.
Tacitus, Emperor, succeeds Aurelian, i. 497.
Tamerlane, the Tartar, persecutes the Christians, iv. 65,
Tanchelin, a heretic, iii. 375.
Tanes, a Scotch abbot, preaches in Germany, iii. 243; made
Bishop of Verden, ib.
Tarasius, Bp. of Constantinople, supports image worship, iii. 166.
Taut, Herman, a reformer, preaches under a tree, v. 132 ;
preaches the first public reformed sermon atGardingen, ib.
Tatian, deserving of the name of heretic, i. 265.
Tauber, Caspar, a reformer, suffers martyrdom, v. x88.
Taylor, William, a Lollard priest, burned, iv. 197.
Tcutunic Knights, iv. 209, 233 & seq.
Tercntius, an officer of Valens, petitions for a church for the or-
thodox, ii. 166; injuriously treated, ib.
Tertullian, his character, i. 277 ; seduced by the Montanists, 280 ;
deserts them and forms the sect Tertullionists, ib.; his
treatise against Praxeas, 281 ; his views of the Trinity, ib.;
his apology, 282 ; apt to torture Scripture in controversy,
Tetzel, John, a Dominican inquisitor, employed to sell the indul-
gences of Leo the Tenth, iv. 315, 347 ; his character, 315 ;
his impious conduct in respect to Sale of indulgences, ib-3ao;
348, note ; sentenced to death for adultery, but escapes, 377;
opposes Luther and burns his theses, 347 ; rebuked by Miltitz,
389; deserted by all, and dies of a broken heart, 394.
Theatre, opinion of Cyprian respecting it, i. 433 ; of the Romans,
434; of the early Christians, 435 ; of Julian, ii. 116.
Theobald, Count of Blois, brother of Stephen King of England,
his extraordinary piety and virtue, iii. 338.
Theodolinda, Queen of the Lombards, brings over the nation to
orthodoxy, iii. 50.
Theodora, Empress, wife of Justinian, her unprincipled attempt to
make Vigilius Bishop of Rome, iii. 22.
— Empress, supports image worship, iii. 198 ; her violent per-
secution of the Pauhcians, 207.
Theodore, Bp. of Pharan, author of Monothelite heresy, iii. 120.
Theodoret, the historian, his character, ii. 537 ; condemned as a
heretic, ib.; his appeal to his past life in bis letter to Leo, ib.;
restored to his see, 538.
Theodoric, the Goth, overcomes Odoacer, ii. 496, 510 ; his law
against the adherents of Odoacer, ib.; how moderated at the
intercession of Epiphanius, ib.; employs Epiphanius on a
Theodorus, a Christian, tortured at the command of Julian, ii.
158; bis constancy and remarkable declaration of divine
Theodosius, chosen by G rati an as his colleague in the empire,
ii. 178; his great abilities, 179 ; reprobates Arianisiu by
Vot. v. Y r
a law, 182 ; calls a general council at Constantinople, 183 ;
his attempts to establish union, 185 ; prohibits assemblies of
heretics, 186; assists Valentinian the younger against Max-
imus, 200; hw vigorous support of Christianity, 201 ; graots
toleration to the Luciferians, ib.; was of a passionate temper,
202; orders a massacre to punish the Thessalonians, ib;
forbidden by Ambrose to enter the church, ib ; his repent-
ance and restoration, 203; becomes sole master of Roman
world, 204; his measures to extirpate idolatry, ib.; endea-
vours to induce the Roman Senate to embrace Christianity,
206 ; makes idolatry a capital crime, 207 ; his death and
character, ib.; his statue insulted at Antiocb, 281 ; gene-
rously forgives the city, 282.
Theodotiut II. orders the body of Chrysostom to be brought with
funeral solemnity to Constantinople, ii. 293; succeeds Arca-
dius, 519; affords refuge to the Christian fugitives from the
Persian persecution, 521; engaged in a war in consequence,
ib.; his reign and character, 522 ; completes destruction of
idolatry, ib.; instance of his piety, 523; his laws against pro-
fanation of the sabbath, ib.; and against progressof Judaism,
ib.; prohibits molestation of Jews and Pagans, ib.; reduces
penalty against heathenism, ib; instance of bis weakness,
524; his death, 526.
Theodotus, a tanner, distinguished as a heretic, i. 258 ; denies
Theugnis, of Nice, banished for supporting Arianisra, ii. 66 ; re-
Theognosttu, of Alexandria, his theological opinions, i. 508.
Thtophilus, Bishop of Antiocb, brought up a gentile, i. 250; his
— Bishop of Alexandria, his bad character, ii. 287; contrives the
condemnation of Chrysostom, ib.; his death-bed reflection,
Theophylact, extracts from his writings, iii. 274 & scq.; was a
Theotecnut, governor of Antiocb, his artifices against the Chris-
tians, ii. 33.
ThessaUmica, church of, i. 66 ; epistle to it, 68 ; character of, 69,
Thorn, Lambert, a reformed monk, his martyrdom, v. 148, 577;
Luther's letter to him, 150.
Thrasamond, King of the Vandals, ii. 516 ; his policy against the
church, iii. 1; sends 220 bishops into exile, 3.
Thurzo, John, Bp. of Breslaw, favours the Reformation, v. 143;
Luther's opinion of him, 144; Melancthon's, 145.
Thyatira, church of, i. 92.
Tiberiut succeeds Justin in the empire, iii. 34 ; supports Gregory,
the First, ib.
Timothy, chief pastor at Ephesus, i. 87 ; Paul's epistle to him, ib.
Tons/all, Up. of London, his acrimony against the Reformers,
v. 291; solicits Erasmus to oppose Luther, ib.
Tvrgau, articles of, v. 561.
Tomar, Nicholas, suffers martyrdom for denying transubstantia-
tion, v. 467.
Tortosa, Cardinal de, opposes Luther, iv. 413.
Trajan, Emperor, persecutes the Christians, i. 145; his letter to
Pliny, 148 ; bis death, 174.
Translation of clergy forbidden, ii. 63 ; of bishops forbidden, 82.
Transubstantiation, remarkable testimony against it, iii. 9.5, 194 ;
introduced 198; an upstart notion, 212; opposed in tenth
century, 246; established by a council, 285; required by
court of Rome to be universally acknowledged, 438 ; idolatry
resulting from it, ib.; its importance in the popish scheme,
Trevisa, John de, vicar of Berkeley, translates the Bible, iv. 166;
his character, ib.
Trinitarians, their difficulties in contending against Ariaus, ii. 59 ;
their manner of commenting on the disputed doctrine, ib.;
their conduct contrasted with that of Arians, 74.
Trinity, treatise on, by Novatian, i. 400 ; difficulty of supporting
it arising from imperfection of ideas and language, 486 ;
universally believed in the church in third century, 491,509;
inaccuracy in the language of some of the ancient fathers
respecting it, 508 ; reason of this, ib.; sentiments of Roman
synod upon it, 509; Augustine's treatise on it; ii. 442;
erroneous views of, published by Roscelin, iii. 309.
Trocedorf, Valentine, a reformer, v. 145.
Turks, a providential scourge, iii. 251; supersede the Saracens,
ib.; their ferocity, ib.; their conquests, 333; iv. 287;
take Constantinople, v. 457 ;
Tyra, Queen of Denmark, supports Christianity under disadvan-
tageous circumstances, iii. 256.
Valens, an Arian, after recanting Christianity supports Arianism,
ii. 85 ; persecutes the Trinitarians, 86, 88.
— Emperor, ii. 155; his weakness, ib.; persecutes the Trini-
tarians, 156 ; receives baptism from Ludoxious, and swears
adherence to Arian creed, 158; orders Britannio, a Nicene
bishop, to communicate with him and his adherents, ib.;
banishes him for refusing, 159; recals him, ib.; banishes
Evagrius, ib.; his conduct complained of by a deputation of
eighty ecclesiastics-, ib.; orders them to be murdered, ib.
other instances of his persecution, 160, 161; dies in battle,
167 ; had previously recalled the exiled bishops, ib.
Valentinitm, Emperor, when an officer commanding Julian's body
guards, strikes a doorkeeper for defiling his mantle with the
sacred water in the temple of Fortune, ii. 128 ; banished for
the offence, ib.; succeeds jointly with Valens to the empire,
155; follows Jovian's plan in affairs of the church ; ib.;
establishes toleration by a law, 168 ; partially restrains its
extentri6g; imposed upon by' Auxentius, ib.; refers elec-
tion of a bishop of Milan to bishops of the province, and
refuses to nominate one himself, 174; his death and character, 177.
Valentinian. the Younger, succeeds his father in part of the western empire, ii. 178 ; imbibes A nanism from his mother, 193; ill treats Ambrose, 194; forsakes Arianism and is reconciled to Ambrose, 200 ; his death, ib.
Valentinians, their heretical artifices, i. 273.
Valerian, Emperor, protects the church, i. 427 ; becomes a persecutor, 445 ; taken prisoner by Sapor, 478 ; treated with ignominy and put to death, ib. 1
— Bishop of Abbenza, his sufferings for the faith, ii. 495. Valerius, Bishop of Hippo, his piety, ii. 367 ; ordains Augustine,
ib.; has him made bishop jointly with himself, 368. Vallenses, see Cathari.
Vararanes, King of Persia, persecutes the Christians, ii. 520.
Varillas, a French author, his character of Luther, iv. 338.
Varro, his division of religion, ii. 418.
Vasa, Guttaias, King of Sweden, takes measures to reform the church, v. 133; employs his chancellor to translate the Scriptures, 134; his proclamation upon this subject, ib. ; his wise and pious conduct, 136, 141, note; summons a convocation, 137 ; resigns the government from religious motives, 139; persuaded to resume, 140; his candor instanced, 574.
Vaudes, see Cathari.
Vaudui.s, see Cathari.
Vtrgerin, a lawyer sent by Clement VII, to Ferdinand to prevent a general council, v. 560; manner in which he executed his commission, ib.
Vettitu Epagathut, his character, i. 225: advocates cause of the Christians, and suffers martyrdom, ib.
Victlinus, Bp. of Oldenburg, his labours, character, and talents, iii. 430, 431 ; sketch of his former lite, 434. ." t
Victor, Bp. of Rome, excommunicates Asiatic churches for differing as to the celebration of Easter, i. 259.
— of Vita, his history of the African persecutions, ii. 548 ; his
Victorian, of Adrumetum, his great wealth, ii. 504; his magnanimous answer to the proposal of Huneric, 505; dies under persecution, ib.
Victorinus, an African, gives up his rhetorical school on occasion of Julian's edict, ii. 127,350 ; writes in defence of the truth, 127; his great reputation as a rhetorician, 245; converted in old age, ib ; writes against the Arians and Manicliees, 246;. manner of his conversion, 347.
Vienne, martyrs of, i. 223 & seq.
Vigilantiits a I'resbyter, opposes superstition, ii. 479 ; opposed by Jerom, 480.
Vigilius, of Thapsus, a celebrated writer, ii. 503; composes treatises under names of most eminent fathers, ib.; supposcu to be the author of the Athanasian cieed, 504.
figilins, a Roman deacon bribes Belisarius to make him Bishop of Home, iii. 22 ; receives into his hands Silverius the bishop, and treats him with barbarity, 23 ; his death and character, ib.; compelled to consent to decrees of a council at Constantinople, ib.
Villehad, an English missionary, his success, iii. 187; made Bishop of Bremen, 188; his death, ib.
Vincentius, of Lerins, renowned for piety, ii. 543.
Virgilius, an Irish missionary, made Bishop of Saltzburg, iii. 189; his labours, ib.; misunderstanding between him and Boniface, ib. note.
Vitalis, of Carthage, author of Semi-Pelagianism, ii. 388 ; his doctrine, 409.
ViUllius, governor of Syria, his character, i. 17.
Vitus, St. patron of New Corbie, iii. 260 ; idolatrous worship paid him by the Rugi, 261.
Ulfilas, Bp. of the Goths, induced by presents to draw his people over to Arianism, ii. 168; further particulars of him, 240; his genius and endowments, ib.; his success and character,ib.
Ulfrid, an English missionary, his success in Germany and Sweden, iii. 295; cuts down idol Thor, and is slain in consequence, ib.
Ulric, son of Count Hucbald, made bishop of Augsburg, iii. 263 ;
his character, 264. Unni, Abp. of Hamburg, his labours, iii 256 ; his success, 257 ;
his character. 272. Unman, Bp. of Hamburg, cuts down idolatrous groves and erects
churches instead, iii. 293. Voes, Henry, a reformed monk, his martyrdom, v. 148, 577. Voltaire, his insidiousness, iii. 333. Vows, when binding, v, 248, note. Urban 11. Pope, holds council of Clermont, iii. 417. -r— V. Pope, promotes a crusade, iv. 65.
Urlunus, governor of Caesarea, persecutes Christians, ii. 19; his
excessive malice and activity, ib.; capitally punished, ib. Vric, Thcodoric, a monk, his malicious account of the martyrdom
of Jerom of Prague, iv. 267. Ursatius, an Arian, after renouncing Christianity, supports
Arianism, ii. 86 ; persecutes the Trinitarians, ib. 88. Ursula, Duchess of Munsterberg, persecuted, v. 543; (lies to
Luther for protection, ib. Vulgate edition, iii. 440.
WalJemar, King of Denmark, subjects Rugen, and imposes Christianity there, iii. 428.
Walden, Dr. abuses Lord Cobham, iv. 178.
Walden, Thomas of, his opposition to WicklifF, iv.
IValdaises, not to be traced to Paulicians, iii. 210 ; probably derived their notions from those of Claudius of Turin, 218; why confounded with the Cathari, 438 ; persecuted, 443, 445,480 & seq.; their increase, 445 ; character of lb is people, 446; calumnies against tbetn, ib.; their apology, 44S ; their opinions respecting oaths, 449 ; and infant baptism, 450; and other points, 451 & seq.; testimony to their character from enemies and others, 452 & seq.; iv. 202, note; their doctrine and discipline, iii. 459 & seq.; their unreasonable objections to the anniversaries of saints, 465 ; their catechism, ib.; were the first of the Protestant churches, 477, note; their vast numbers, 487; defend themselves successfully,499; their opinion of the holy communion, iv. 236, note; unite with the Hussites, 285 ; defective in evangelical light, 286.
Waldo, Peter, his zeal and labours, iii. 437 ; opposes transubstantiation, 439; remarkable account of his first regard for religion, ib.; abandons his mercantile occupation, and gives his wealth to the poor, ib.; disperses the Scriptures, 440 ; question of his learning, 441 ; procures or makes first translation of the Hible into a modern tongue, ib.; boldly condemns the reigning vices, and the arrogance of the Pope, 442 ; threatened, ib.; compelled to retire into Dauphiny, 443; bis success, ib.; flies into Bohemia, 444; not the founder of the Waldenses, 4G4, 475.
Wallenrod, Abp. of Riga, his cruel treatment of Jerom of Prague, iv. 230.
Walsingham, strictures on his history, iv. 184.
Warham, William, Abp. of Canterbury, his cruelty to the Lollards, iv. 199.
Waterland, Dr. ably confutes Dr. Clark, ii. 61.
Wenceslavs, King of Poland, constrained to favour the Hussites, iv. 273 ; retires to a castle, ib.
Wendelinus, an inhabitant of Hagenau, causes his son to be baptized after the reformed mode, v. 377.
Wcndelmnt, a widow, her martyrdom, v. 544.
Wcsalia, John de, a Dr. of divinity, persecuted for his opinions, iv. 292; recants, and is condemned to perpetual penance, 293 ; his character questionable, ib.; his strong Calviuislic opinions, ib.
Wesselus, John, his celebrity and character, iv. 295 ; why called the Light of the World, ib.; Luther's praise of one of his work3, ib.; character of his works, 297; doubts of Revelation on his death bed, 301 ; overcomes the temptation, ib.; his disinterested refusal of honours, 302.
White, William, a Lollard, his holy and venerable character,, iv. 197 ; suffers martyrdom, ib.
Wickliff, John, probability of his deriving instruction from Lollard, iii. 509 ; his birth and education, iv. 107; his progress in school divinity, ib.; attacks the vices of the friars, and the prevailing abuses, 108 ; made master of Baliol College, 109; made warden of Canterbury Hall, ib.; ejected from this office, ib.; appeals to the Pope, ib.; continues to declaim' against abuses, ib.; his ejection confirmed, ib.; how far influenced by vindictive feelings, 110 ; consulted by the P'arliament, ill; made lector of Lutterworth, and a prebendary, ib ; befriended by the Duke of Lancaster, ib.; his qualifications for reform, 112; his manner of treating the Pope, ib.; and the friars, ib. 148; accused at Rome, 113 ; the Pope's five bulls against him, ib.; countenanced by the Parliament, 114; cited before the Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of London, ib.; puts himself under the protection of the Duke of Lancaster, ib.; appears to the citation, ib.; escapes by the tumultuous breaking up of the court, ib.; his opinions, 115, 125 andseq. 581, 593; his perseverance, 115; appears to a second citation, 116; escapes again, ib. ; his explanatory qualification of his opinions, 117 ; opposes transubstantiation, 120; condemned by the university of Oxford, 120, 129 ; discountenanced by the duke in this part of his conduct, 130 ; his character, 121, 123, 124,141 & seq. 584 & seq.; his translation of the Bible, 122, 152, 594 ; his death, 124,592; his books burned, 124,171; his remains dugup and burned, 124; his writings, 126 & seq.; appeals from the university to the king, 129; his confession, ib. ; made professor of divinity, 148 ; his endeavours to defend the independence of the crown, ib.; disgraced at Oxford, but countenanced at court, 149; appointed ambassador to the Pope, ib.; reinstated at Oxford, 150 ; the various treatment he received accounted for, ib. & seq.; his ingenuous declaration of his motives, 155; specimen of his style, ib.; his opinions condemned by council of Constance, 231 ; anecdotes relating to him, 586,587.
Wkkliffites, whence called Lollards, iii. 509.
Widefort, a Franciscan, his reply to Wicklitt's Trialogus, iv. 131.
Wilfrid, Bp. of York, his character, iii. 110.
Will, free, Arminian notion of, supported by John of Damascus, iii. 190; Waldenses, notion of, 463; impropriety of the term, iv. 80, 401; question of, v. 264 & ueq.
William the Conqueror, his character, iii. 284, 304; restores learning in England, 284; supports papal power in England, 304
— an English priest, attends Canute into Denmark, iii. 297,
note; desires to be left as a missionary ib.; made Bishop of Roschild, ib.; his successful labours, ib; forbids King Swein from communion, ib.; offers his neck to the swords of the courtiers, 298, note. William II. Rufus, his contest with Anselm, iii. 304 ; his rapacity, ib.; usurps revenues of the see of Canterbury, 308 ; his tyranny, ib.; his remorse, ib.; preys upon ecclesiastical benefices, 310.
— Abbot of St. Therry, excites a defence of the truth, against
Abelard, iii. 428. Willebrod, an English missionary, his zeal and success, iii. 114;
made bishop of Wilteberg, ib.; his labours, 172. Winebald, an English missionary, his labours, iii. 185. Winf'rid, an Englishman, brought up in monastic life, iii. 172 ; his labours, ib ; goes as a missionary to Friezeland, ib.; returns to England, 173 ; refuses to be made abbot, ib.' obtains a commission from Rome as a missionary, ft proceeds to Bavaria and Thuringia, ib.; returns to Frioeland, ib.; chosen to succeed to bishopric of Utretcht, ft; declines, 174; his labours and success in Germany, ft.; hardships he encountered, 175; returns to Rome, and s consecrated bishop of the new German churches, by taae of Boniface, ib.; takes an oath of subjection to the Pope,4.; returns to Germany, ib.; protected by Charles Mand, ft.; his difficulties respecting communion with scandalous pries. 177 ; his great celebrity,ib.; made archbishop, 178 ; eras new churches, and extends Christianity, ib.; condemns i heretic, and restores discipline, ib; his t:harity, since* and superstition, ib.; his letter to Cuthbert, ib.; avails hiaself of the support of civil authority to purify the cbwet, 179; is fixed at Mentz, 180; his zeal and laboriousoes, ib.; revisits Friezeland, ib.; slain by Pagans, 18a; lui letters, ib.; his character, 183 ; his misunderstanding *itk Virgilius, 189, note. Witnesses, prophesying of, iii. 170,445.
Wittenberg, University of, their conduct on receiving the Pope's
bull against Luther, iv. 479. Wolfang, Bp. of Ratisbon, his labours, iii. 254. Wolfgang, brother of the elector Palatine, his reception of Luther, « iv. 479.
Wolodotnir, King of Russia, baptized, iii. 263.
Wolsey, Luther's opinion of him, v. 357; defended by Henry the Eighth, 358 ; disappointed of the popedom, 435, note; revenges himself on Charles the Fifth, ib.
Worms, Diet of, iv. 524; edict of, 565.
Zaccheus, a Bp. of Palestine, his extraordinary fortitude and martyrdom, ii. 14.
Zachary, Pope, his character, iii. 161 ; seizes the power of the Roman dukedom, ib.; looks for protection to Pepin, ib.; justifies Pepin in his usurpation, ib.
Zathes, King of the Lazi, desirous of receiving the Gospel, applies to the emperor, iii. 13.
Zenobia, Queen of the East, desires instruction of Paul of Samosata, i. 148; favours him after his exclusion, 496; conquered by Aurelian, ib.
Zisca, a Bohemian lord, distinguished by his resentment of the death of Huss, iv. 256 ; heads the Hussites, 269, 279.
Zoiimus, Bp. of Rome, ii. 380 ; imposed upon by Caelestius, and writes in his favour, 381 ; his precipitancy condemned by African bishops, ib.; blamed by Augustine for delaying condemnation of Caelestius, ib; imposed on by letters uf Pelagius, 382 ; declares the innocence of Pelagius in a letter to the African bishop*, ib.; condemns the two heretics, 383.
Zuinglians, their cruelty to the Anabaptists, v, 511, 512.
Zuinglius, Huldric, or Ulrick, a Swiss reformer, opposes indulgences, iv. 386 ; his conduct in the sacramentary contest, v. 235, 400, 403. 418, 476, 509 & seq. 530; his character, 396, 399, 416, 531 ; his writings in the sacramentary contest, 397 & seq.; his commentary on true and false religion, 399; his sentiments respecting resistance, 503, 531; his republican principles, 503; his zeal against the mass and images, 504; his conduct towards the Anabaptists, ib. & seq ; difference of his opinions from those of Calvin, 515; attends conferences at Marpurg, 518 & seq.; his confession of faith and peculiar sentiments, 523 & seq. 531 ; his dream, 526, 533; compared with Luther. 527 & seq.; writes a letter to Luther, which the latter terms abusive, 537.
ALBTGEXSES, iii. 477, note ; persecuted, 482 & seq.; propose a disputation, 487.
Antoninus, Marcus, Emperor, his enmity to the Christians, i. 191 ; commences a persecution, 202; his enmity accounted for, 203 ; his early history, 205 ; story of his miraculous deliverance, 208.
Arian Bishops, their duplicity at Nicene Council, ii. 62. Circumcelliones, ii. 101 ; their violence and propensity to suicide, 424.
Claudius, Emperor, protects the Christians, i. 489. Clergy, restrictions imposed on them by Council of Laodicea, ii. 158.
Deogratias, Bp. of Carthage, redeems Genseric's captives with gold and silver of the churches, ii. 493 ; his zealous charity to the captives, ib.; his death and character, 494.
Hot, Arnold, appears as principal manager of a disputation for the Albigenses, iii. 488 ; makes a great impression, ib.
Julian, a martyr, i. 392.
Lucian, of Samosata, his story of Perecrinus, i. 243; his character as an author, 246,533 ; his notion of Christians, 534; usefulness of his writings, 535.
Redemption, particular, Augustine's opinion on that point, ii. 466; unknown to the ancients, 467.
Sihin, a courtier, becomes a missionary and a bishop, iii. 189 ; his success, ib.