The Futility of All Endeavor

1 The words of the 1Preacher, the son of David, king in Jerusalem.

References for Ecclesiastes 1:1

2 "a2Vanity of vanities," says the Preacher, "bVanity of vanities! All is cvanity."

References for Ecclesiastes 1:2

    • a 1:2 - Or "Futility of futilities"
    • b 1:2 - Or "Futility of futilities"
    • c 1:2 - Or "futile"
      3 3What advantage does man have in all his work Which he does under the sun?

      References for Ecclesiastes 1:3

      4 A generation goes and a generation comes, But the 4earth dremains forever.

      References for Ecclesiastes 1:4

      5 Also, 5the sun rises and the sun sets; And ehastening to its place it rises there again.

      References for Ecclesiastes 1:5

        • e 1:5 - Lit "panting"
          6 f6Blowing toward the south, Then turning toward the north, The wind continues gswirling along; And on its circular courses the wind returns.

          References for Ecclesiastes 1:6

            • f 1:6 - Lit "Going"
            • g 1:6 - Lit "turning"
              7 All the rivers hflow into the sea, Yet the sea is not full. To the place where the rivers iflow, There they jflow again.

              References for Ecclesiastes 1:7

                • h 1:7 - Lit "go"
                • i 1:7 - Lit "go"
                • j 1:7 - Lit "go"
                  8 All things are wearisome; Man is not able to tell it. 7The eye is not satisfied with seeing, Nor is the ear filled with hearing.

                  References for Ecclesiastes 1:8

                  9 8That which * has been is that which will be, And that which * has been done is that which will be done. So there is nothing * new under the sun.
                  10 Is there anything of which one might say, "See this, it is new "? Already it has existed for ages Which were before * us.
                  11 There is 9no remembrance of kearlier things; And also of the llater things which will occur, There will be for them no remembrance Among those who will come mlater still.

                  References for Ecclesiastes 1:11

                    • k 1:11 - Lit "first" or "former"
                    • l 1:11 - Lit "latter" or "after"
                    • m 1:11 - Lit "latter" or "after"

                      The Futility of Wisdom

                      12 I, the 10Preacher, have been king over Israel in Jerusalem.

                      References for Ecclesiastes 1:12

                      13 And I 11set my nmind to seek and 12explore by wisdom concerning all that has been done under heaven. It is oa grievous 13task which God has given to the sons of men to be afflicted with.
                      14 I have seen all the works which have been done under the sun, and behold, all is p14vanity and striving after wind.

                      References for Ecclesiastes 1:14

                      15 What is 15crooked cannot * be straightened and what is lacking cannot * be counted.

                      References for Ecclesiastes 1:15

                      16 I qsaid to myself, "Behold, I have magnified and increased 16wisdom more than all who were over Jerusalem before me; and my rmind has observed sa wealth of wisdom and knowledge."

                      References for Ecclesiastes 1:16

                        • q 1:16 - Lit "spoke with my heart, saying"
                        • r 1:16 - Lit "heart"
                        • s 1:16 - Lit "an abundance"
                          18 Because 20in much wisdom there is much grief, and increasing knowledge results in increasing pain.

                          References for Ecclesiastes 1:18