Job 31


1 I've made a covenant with my eyes; how could I look at a virgin?
2 What is God's portion for me from above, the Almighty's inheritance from on high?
3 Isn't it disaster for the wicked, destruction for workers of iniquity?
4 Doesn't he see my ways, count all my steps?


5 If I have walked with frauds or my feet have hurried to deceit,
6 let him weigh me on accurate scales; let God know my integrity.
7 If my step has turned from the way, if my heart has followed my eyes or a blemish has clung to my hands,
8 then let me sow and another reap; let my offspring be uprooted.


9 If my heart has been drawn to a woman and I have lurked at my neighbor's door,
10 then may my wife grind for another and others kneel over her;
11 for that's a crime; it's a punishable offense;
12 indeed, it's a fire that consumes to the underworld, uprooting all my harvest.


13 If I've rejected the just cause of my male or female servant when they contended with me,
14 what could I do when God rises; when he requires an account, what could I answer?
15 Didn't the one who made me in the belly make them; didn't the same one fashion us in the womb?

The defenseless

16 If I have denied what the poor wanted, made a widow's eyes tired,
17 eaten my morsel alone, and not shared any with an orphan
18 (for from my youth I raised the orphan as a father, and from my mother's womb I led the widow);
19 if I ever saw someone dying without clothes, the needy naked;
20 if they haven't blessed me fervently, or if they weren't warmed by the wool from my sheep;
21 if I have lifted my hand against the orphans, when I saw that I had help in the city gate—
22 may my arm fall from my shoulder, my forearm be broken at the elbow—
23 for God's calamity is terror to me; I couldn't endure his splendor.

False worship

24 If I've made gold my trust, said to fine gold: "My security!"
25 if I've rejoiced because my wealth was great, when my hand found plenty;
26 if I've looked at the sun when it shone, the moon, splendid as it moved;
27 and my mind has been secretly enticed, and threw a kiss with my hand,
28 that also is a punishable offense, because I would then be disloyal to God above.

Other’s misfortune

29 If I have rejoiced over my foes' ruin or was excited when evil found them,
30 I didn't let my mouth sin by asking for their life with a curse.
31 Surely those in my tent never said: "Who has been filled by Job's food?"
32 A stranger didn't spend the night in the street; I opened my doors to the road.

Concealing sin

33 If I have hidden my transgressions like Adam, concealing my offenses inside me
34 because I feared the large crowd; the clan's contempt frightened me; I was quiet and didn't venture outside.

Sealing the solemn pledge

35 Oh, that I had someone to hear me! Here's my signature; let the Almighty respond, and let my accuser write an indictment.
36 Surely I would bear it on my shoulder, tie it around me like a wreath.
37 I would give him an account of my steps, approach him like a prince.

Abuse of the land

38 If my land has cried out against me, its rows wept together;
39 if I have eaten its yield without payment and caused its owners grief,
40 may briars grow instead of wheat, poisonous weeds instead of barley. Job's words are complete.

Job 31 Commentary

Chapter 31

Job declares his uprightness. (1-8) His integrity. (9-15) Job merciful. (16-23) Job not guilty of covetousness or idolatry. (24-32) Job not guilty of hypocrisy and violence. (33-40)

Verses 1-8 Job did not speak the things here recorded by way of boasting, but in answer to the charge of hypocrisy. He understood the spiritual nature of God's commandments, as reaching to the thoughts and intents of the heart. It is best to let our actions speak for us; but in some cases we owe it to ourselves and to the cause of God, solemnly to protest our innocence of the crimes of which we are falsely accused. The lusts of the flesh, and the love of the world, are two fatal rocks on which multitudes split; against these Job protests he was always careful to stand upon his guard. And God takes more exact notice of us than we do of ourselves; let us therefore walk circumspectly. He carefully avoided all sinful means of getting wealth. He dreaded all forbidden profit as much as all forbidden pleasure. What we have in the world may be used with comfort, or lost with comfort, if honestly gotten. Without strict honestly and faithfulness in all our dealings, we can have no good evidence of true godliness. Yet how many professors are unable to abide this touchstone!

Verses 9-15 All the defilements of the life come from a deceived heart. Lust is a fire in the soul: those that indulge it, are said to burn. It consumes all that is good there, and lays the conscience waste. It kindles the fire of God's wrath, which, if not quenched by the blood of Christ, will consume even to eternal destruction. It consumes the body; it consumes the substance. Burning lusts bring burning judgments. Job had a numerous household, and he managed it well. He considered that he had a Master in heaven; and as we are undone if God should be severe with us, we ought to be mild and gentle towards all with whom we have to do.

Verses 16-23 Job's conscience gave testimony concerning his just and charitable behaviour toward the poor. He is most large upon this head, because in this matter he was particularly accused. He was tender of all, and hurtful to none. Notice the principles by which Job was restrained from being uncharitable and unmerciful. He stood in awe of the Lord, as certainly against him, if he should wrong the poor. Regard to worldly interests may restrain a man from actual crimes; but the grace of God alone can make him hate, dread, and shun sinful thoughts and desires.

Verses 24-32 Job protests, 1. That he never set his heart upon the wealth of this world. How few prosperous professors can appeal to the Lord, that they have not rejoiced because their gains were great! Through the determination to be rich, numbers ruin their souls, or pierce themselves with many sorrows. 2. He never was guilty of idolatry. The source of idolatry is in the heart, and it corrupts men, and provokes God to send judgments upon a nation. 3. He neither desired nor delighted in the hurt of the worst enemy he had. If others bear malice to us, that will not justify us in bearing malice to them. 4. He had never been ( 1 Peter. 4:9 )

Verses 33-40 Job clears himself from the charge of hypocrisy. We are loth to confess our faults, willing to excuse them, and to lay the blame upon others. But he that thus covers his sins, shall not prosper, ( Proverbs 28:13 ) . He speaks of his courage in what is good, as an evidence of his sincerity in it. When men get estates unjustly, they are justly deprived of comfort from them; it was sown wheat, but shall come up thistles. What men do not come honestly by, will never do them any good. The words of Job are ended. They end with a bold assertion, that, with respect to accusation against his moral and religious character as the cause for his sufferings, he could appeal to God. But, however confident Job was, we shall see he was mistaken, chap. 40:4, chap. 40:5 ; 1Jo. 1:8 . Let us all judge ourselves; wherein we are guilty, let us seek forgiveness in that blood which cleanseth from all sin; and may the Lord have mercy upon us, and write his laws in our hearts!

Footnotes 6

Chapter Summary


In this chapter Job gives an account of himself in private life, of the integrity and uprightness of his life, and his holy walk and conversation, with this view, that it might be thought that the afflictions which were upon him were not on account of a vicious course of life he had indulged unto, as was suggested; and he clears himself from various crimes which it might be insinuated he was guilty of, as from unchastity; and he observes the method he took to prevent his falling into it, and the reasons that dissuaded him from it, Job 31:1-4; from injustice in his dealings with men, Job 31:5-8; from the sin of adultery, Job 31:9-12; from ill usage of his servants, Job 31:13-15; from unkindness to the poor, which he enlarges upon, and gives many instances of his charity to them, Job 31:16-23; from covetousness, and a vain confidence in wealth, Job 31:24,25; from idolatry, the worship of the sun and moon, Job 31:26-28; from a revengeful spirit, Job 31:29-31; and from inhospitality to strangers, Job 31:32; from covering his sin, Job 31:33; and fear of men, Job 31:34; and then wishes his cause might be heard before God, Job 31:35-37; and the chapter is closed with an imprecation on his head if guilty of any injustice, Job 31:38-40.

Job 31 Commentaries

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