In this chapter are an answer to several objections which follow one upon another, relating to what the apostle had said concerning the equality of the Gentiles with the Jews; and various proofs out of the Psalms and Prophets, showing the general depravity and corruption of mankind, of the Jews as well as of the Gentiles; and the conclusion from all this, that there is no justification by the works of the law, but by the righteousness of God received by faith, of which a large and clear account is given. The first objection is in \\#Ro 3:1\\, and is taken from the unprofitableness of being a Jew and a circumcised person, if that is true which is asserted in the preceding chapter; to which an answer is given, \\#Ro 3:2\\, showing that though many things might be instanced in, in which the Jew had the advantage of the Gentile in external things; this might be mentioned as one for all, and taken sufficient answer, that the Jews had the oracles or word of God committed to their trust, by which they became acquainted with the will of God. The apostle foreseeing that another objection would arise upon this; what signifies their having the oracles of God, when these are not believed by them? prevents it by observing, \\#Ro 3:3\\, that though some did not believe, some did, and as for the unbelief of others, the truth and faithfulness of God in his word were not made void by it; however false and deceitful men are, God is always true to his word, \\#Ro 3:4\\, and which is confirmed by a passage of Scripture, cited out of \\#Ps 51:4\\, hence arises another objection, that if the righteousness of God is commended and illustrated by the unrighteousness of man, then it would be unjust in God to take vengeance on men for their sins, \\#Ro 3:5\\, which is removed with abhorrence, and answered by observing, that if there was any truth in it, the world could not be judged by God, as it certainly will, \\#Ro 3:6\\, but still the objection is continued and strengthened, \\#Ro 3:7\\, that if God is glorified through the sins of men, not only men ought not to be punished for them, but they should not be reckoned sinners, or as doers of evil things, but of good things, and be indulged in them; to which is replied, that this was the common calumny cast upon the doctrine of the apostle, and persons of such principles and practices are deserving of damnation, \\#Ro 3:8\\. Having removed these objections, the apostle reassumes his former assertion, and supports it, that a carnal circumcised Jew is no better than a carnal uncircumcised Gentile; it being already sufficiently made to appear, that they are both under the power and guilt of sin; and as a further evidence of it, he produces several passages out of the book of Psalms, and out of the prophecies of Isaiah, which fully express the sad corruption of human nature, and especially of the Jews; and this account begins in \\#Ro 3:10\\, and ends in \\#Ro 3:18\\, and which account he suggests, \\#Ro 3:19\\, carries in it such a full conviction of the truth of what he had said, that all men are under sin, that no one would be able to open his mouth in his own defence, but all must acknowledge themselves guilty before God: and then he proceeds to the conclusion he meant to draw from all this, that there is no justification of any before God by the deeds of the law; giving this as a reason for it, because the law discovered sin, but not a justifying righteousness, \\#Ro 3:20\\, that is revealed in another way, by the Gospel, and not the law, though both law and prophets bear a testimony to it, \\#Ro 3:21\\, which righteousness is described by the author of it, God; by the means through which it comes to the use and comfort of men, the faith of Christ; and by the subjects of it, them that believe; in the justification of which there is no difference, \\#Ro 3:22\\, of which a reason is given, \\#Ro 3:23\\, taken from the general state of men, as sinners, and bereaved of the image of God: the several causes, ways, means, and end of the justification of such persons are suggested; the moving cause is the free grace of God, the meritorious or procuring cause the redemption that is in Christ, \\#Ro 3:24\\, and his propitiatory sacrifice, \\#Ro 3:25\\, which is owing to the eternal purpose of God, whose end in it was to declare his purity, holiness, and justice; which end is repeated and enlarged on, in \\#Ro 3:26\\, upon which the apostle asks, \\#Ro 3:27\\, what is become of boasting in the creature? and answers himself by saying, it was excluded, not by the doctrine of works, but by the doctrine of faith, and particularly the doctrine of justification by faith in the righteousness of Christ; wherefore the conclusion stands firm and just, from the premises, that justification is by faith without the works of the law, \\#Ro 3:28\\, and it is further confirmed, that Jews and Gentiles, with respect to their state and condition God-ward, are on a level; he is the God of the one, as well as of the other, \\#Ro 3:29\\, and this appears by his justifying both in one and the same way, through faith in the righteousness of this Son, \\#Ro 3:30\\, and the chapter is concluded by obviating an objection that might be made, that through this doctrine of justification by faith the law is made void, and is of no use, \\#Ro 3:31\\, to which the apostle answers, that this is so far from being fact, that the law is established by it.
Ver 1. \\What advantage then hath the Jew\\? &c.] If he is not properly a Jew, who is born of Jewish parents, and brought up in the customs, rites, and religion of the Jewish nation, but anyone of whatsoever nation, that is born again of water, and of the Spirit; where is the superior excellency of the Jew to the Gentile? A man may as well be born and brought up a Heathen as a Jew; the one has no more advantages than the other by his birth and education: it may be rendered, "what hath the Jew more?" or "what has he superfluous" or "abundant?" the phrase answers to the Hebrew \^Mdal Nwrty hm\^ in \\#Ec 1:3\\, which is rendered, "what profit hath a man?" and in \\#Ec 6:8\\, \^Mkxl rtwy hm\^, "what hath a wise man more" and in \\#Ro 3:11\\, \^Mdal rty hm\^, "what is a man better?" the first of these passages the Septuagint render by \~tiv perisseia\~, "what abundance?" and the last by \~ti\~ \~perisson\~, "what more", or "superfluous", or "abundant?" the phrase used by the apostle here:
\\or what profit is there of circumcision\\? since that which is outward in the flesh profits not unless the law is kept, otherwise circumcision is no circumcision; and if an uncircumcised Gentile keeps the law, he is a better man than a circumcised Jew; yea, he judges and condemns him; for the only true circumcision is internal, spiritual, and in the heart. To this the apostle answers in the \\#Ro 3:2\\. 04849