Titus, to whom this epistle is inscribed, was a Greek, an
uncircumcised Gentile, and so remained; nor did the apostle
circumcise him, as he did Timothy, when he became his companion; nor
did the apostles at Jerusalem oblige him to be circumcised, when Paul
took him with Barnabas along with him thither, \\#Ga 2:1,3\\. He was
a man of great grace, and large gifts, and very dear to the apostle:
he calls him his brother, his partner, and fellow helper, and says he
walked in the same spirit, and in the same steps, \\#2Co 2:13 8:23 12:18\\.
He was employed by the apostle much, and sent into various parts, on
different occasions: he sent him to Corinth, to finish there the
collection for the poor saints at Jerusalem, \\#2Co 8:6,16,17\\ and to
Dalmatia, to know the state of the saints there, and to confirm them
in the faith, \\#2Ti 4:10\\. As he was a Greek, so his name is a Greek
name, yet used among the Romans, as Titus Vespasian, and others {a};
and among the Jews, so we read of R. Chijah bar \^ojyj\^, "Titas"
{b}, and of R. Judah ben Titas {c}: when and where this epistle was
written, is not very easy to determine; some think it was written
between the first and second time the apostle was in bonds at Rome;
and certain it is, that he was not in bonds when he wrote it, for he
desires Titus to meet him at Nicopolis, \\#Tit 3:19\\ from whence some
have supposed it to be written, as the subscription shows; but others
think it was wrote much earlier, and when the apostle was at Ephesus,
towards the close of his three years stay there, before he went into
Macedonia; but it seems rather that it was written when he returned
from Macedonia into Greece: he left Titus at Crete, and staying in
Greece three months, he intended to have sailed to Syria, but was
prevented by the Jews lying in wait for him, upon which he steered his
course to Macedonia again; and as he was going there, or when there,
writes this letter to Titus, to come to him at Nicopolis. The occasion
of it was partly the judaizing preachers, and false teachers, that got
into that island, and were corrupting the principles of the people;
and partly the unbecoming conversation and practices of some
professors of religion: and whereas the apostle had left Titus in
Crete, to finish what he had begun, and to put the churches in order,
and see that they had proper officers, particularly pastors over them,
that they might be taken care of, both with respect to doctrine and
practice; the design of this epistle is to lay before Titus the
several qualifications of a pastor, which might be instruction to him,
and to the churches, in the choice and ordination of them; and to stir
him up to zeal and diligence in refuting false teachers, and dealing
with heretics; and to put him upon exhorting the saints to the
discharge of their duty, in every branch of it, from the best
principles, by arguments taken from the grace of God, and the doctrines
of it. This epistle is supposed to be written about the year 55.

{a} Vid. Martial. Epigram. l. 1. ep. 18. l. 7. ep. 48.
{b} T. Hieros. Trumot, c. 8. fol. 45. 3.
{c} T. Hieros. Trumot Biccurim, fol. 65. 4. & Succa, fol. 55. 4.


This chapter contains the inscription of the epistle, the apostle's
salutation and preface to it; an account of the qualifications of an
eider, or pastor of a church; a description of these teachers; and a
charge to Titus to rebuke the Cretians for their errors and
immoralities. The inscription and salutation are in \\#Tit 1:1-4\\, in
which the writer of the epistle is described by his name and office; by
the faith and hope he had; and by the ministration of the Gospel,
committed to him by the order of Christ: and the person to whom it is
written is mentioned by name; and is described by the spiritual
relation he stood in to the apostle, and to whom he wishes grace,
mercy, and peace: the preface to the epistle is in \\#Tit 1:5\\ which
gives the reason of the apostle's leaving Titus in Crete, which was to
set things in order there, and to ordain elders in all the churches;
which leads him to point at the necessary qualifications of them for
his direction; some of which respect their moral life and conversation,
and others their doctrine, and are in \\#Tit 1:6-9\\ and on occasion of
the latter, and which is a reason why the elders should be sound in the
faith, and hold it fast, the apostle takes notice of the false teachers
that were in Crete, whom he describes by their noisy, vain, and
deceitful talk; by their being pernicious and hurtful to whole
families; and by their covetousness and sensuality, which is confirmed
by a testimony out of one of the Cretian poets, \\#Tit 1:10-12\\
wherefore he charges Titus sharply to rebuke either these false
teachers, or those they had corrupted, that they regard sound doctrine,
and not Jewish fables, and the commandments of erroneous men,
\\#Tit 1:13,14\\ and instances in things forbidden in the law of Moses as
unclean, which were not now to be attended to by those who were pure in
heart, and sound in faith, to whom all things were pure and lawful; and
as for others that were impure, whose minds and consciences were
defiled, and were unbelieving, nothing was pure to them, \\#Tit 1:15\\
and who are further described as professors in words of the true
knowledge of God, and yet practically were deniers of him; and as
abominable in their nature and actions, disobedient to law and Gospel,
and unfit for any good work whatever, \\#Tit 1:16\\.