Doth bear me witness (marturei moi). Present active indicative as if still living. Caiaphas was no longer high priest now, for Ananias is at this time ( 1 Timothy 23:2 ), though he may be still alive. All the estate of the elders (pan to presbuterion). All the eldership or the Sanhedrin ( 1 Timothy 4:5 ) of which Paul was probably then a member ( 1 Timothy 26:10 ). Possibly some of those present were members of the Sanhedrin then (some 20 odd years ago). From whom (par wn). The high priest and the Sanhedrin. Letters unto the brethren (epistala pro tou adelpou). Paul still can tactfully call the Jews his "brothers" as he did in Romans 9:3 . There is no bitterness in his heart. Journeyed (eporeuomhn). Imperfect middle indicative of poreuomai, and a vivid reality to Paul still as he was going on towards Damascus. To bring also (axwn kai). Future active participle of agw, to express purpose, one of the few N.T. examples of this classic idiom (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1118). Them which were there (tou ekeise onta). Constructio praegnans. The usual word would be ekei (there), not ekeise (thither). Possibly the Christians who had fled to Damascus, and so were there (Robertson, Grammar, p. 548). In bonds (dedemenou). Perfect passive participle of dew, predicate position, "bound." For to be punished (ina timwrhqwsin). First aorist passive subjunctive of timwrew, old verb to avenge, to take vengeance on. In the N.T. only here, and Romans 26:11 . Pure final clause with ina. He carried his persecution outside of Palestine just as later he carried the gospel over the Roman empire.