Being darkened (eskotwmenoi onte). Periphrastic perfect passive participle of skotow, old verb from skoto (darkness), in N.T. only here and Revelation 9:2 ; Revelation 16:10 . In their understanding (th dianoiai). Locative case. Probably dianoia (dia, nou) includes the emotions as well as the intellect (nou). It is possible to take onte with aphllotriwmenoi (see Revelation 2:12 ) which would then be periphrastic (instead of eskotwmenoi) perfect passive participle. From the life of God (th zwh tou qeou). Ablative case zwh after aphllotriwmenoi ( Revelation 2:12 ). Because of the ignorance (dia thn agnoian). Old word from agnoew, not to know. Rare in N.T. See Acts 3:17 . Hardening (pwrwsin). Late medical term (Hippocrates) for callous hardening. Only other N.T. examples are Mark 3:5 ; Romans 11:25 .