Grace to you and peace (cari umin kai eirhnh). As in I Thess., II Thess., I Cor., II Cor. (already written) and in all the later Epistles save that in I and II Timothy "mercy" is added. But this customary salutation (see on "1Th 1:1") is not a perfunctory thing with Paul. He uses it here even when he has so much fault to find just as he did in I and II Corinthians.