By faith (pistei). Instrumental case of pisti which he now illustrates in a marvellous way. Each example as far as verse Matthew 31 is formally and with rhetorical skill introduced by pistei. After that only a summary is given. We understand (nooumen). Present active indicative of noew, old verb (from nou, intellect) as in Matthew 15:17 ; Romans 1:20 . The author appeals to our knowledge of the world in which these heroes lived as an illustration of faith. Recent books by great scientists like Eddington and Jeans confirm the position here taken that a Supreme Mind is behind and before the universe. Science can only stand still in God's presence and believe like a little child. The worlds (tou aiwna). "The ages" as in Romans 1:2 (cf. Einstein's fourth dimension, time). Accusative case of general reference. Have been framed (kathrtisqai). Perfect passive infinitive of katartizw, to mend, to equip, to perfect ( Luke 6:40 ), in indirect discourse after nooumen. So that (ei to). As a rule ei to with the infinitive is final, but sometimes as here it expresses result as in Romans 12:3 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1003). Hath been made (gegonenai). Perfect active infinitive of ginomai. What is seen (to blepomenon). Present passive articular participle (accusative case of general reference) of blepw. Of things which do appear (ek painomenwn). Ablative case with ek (out of) of the present passive participle. The author denies the eternity of matter, a common theory then and now, and places God before the visible universe as many modern scientists now gladly do.