Revelation 8:3

Another angel (allo aggelo). Not one of the seven of verse Joel 2 and before they began to sound the trumpets. This preliminary incident of the offering of incense on the altar covers verses Joel 3-6 . Stood (estaqh). Ingressive first aorist passive of isthmi (intransitive), "took his place." Over the altar (epi tou qusiasthriou). See Joel 6:9 for the word for the burnt-offering, here apparently the altar of incense (clearly so in Luke 1:11 ; possibly also Revelation 9:13 ), but it is not clear that in apocalyptic the distinction between the two altars of the tabernacle and temple is preserved. Aleph C Q have the genitive, while A P have the accusative epi to qusiasthrion. A golden censer (libanwton crusoun). Old word for frankincense (from libano, Matthew 2:11 ; Revelation 18:13 ), but here alone in N.T. and for censer, as is plain by the use of crusoun (golden) with it. Cf. 1 Kings 7:50 . Much incense (qumiamata polla). See Revelation 5:8 for qumiama (the aromatic substance burnt, also in Revelation 18:13 ), but here for the live coals on which the incense falls. That he should add (ina dwsei). Sub-final clause (subject of edoqh, was given, singular because qumiamata neuter plural) with ina and the future active indicative of didwmi, to give, instead of dwi, the second aorist subjunctive. Unto the prayers (tai proseucai). Dative case. In 5:18 the qumiamata are the prayers. Upon the golden altar (epi to qusiasthrion to crusoun to). Accusative case here, not genitive as above, and apparently the altar of incense as indicated by the word golden ( Exodus 30:1 ; Leviticus 4:17 ). Note triple article here to (once before the substantive, once before the adjective, once before the adjunct "the one before the throne").