1 Corinthians 12

Listen to 1 Corinthians 12

Spiritual Gifts

1 Now 1concerning[a] spiritual gifts,[b] brothers,[c] I do not want you to be uninformed.
2 You know that 2when you were pagans 3you were led astray to 4mute idols, however you were led.
3 Therefore I want you to understand that 5no one speaking in the Spirit of God ever says "Jesus is 6accursed!" and 7no one can say "Jesus is Lord" except in the Holy Spirit.
4 Now 8there are varieties of gifts, but 9the same Spirit;
5 and 10there are varieties of service, but 11the same Lord;
6 and there are varieties of activities, but it is 12the same God who empowers them all in everyone.
7 13To each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good.
8 For to one is given through the Spirit the utterance of 14wisdom, and to another the utterance of 15knowledge according to the same Spirit,
9 to another 16faith by the same Spirit, to another 17gifts of healing by the one Spirit,
10 to another 18the working of miracles, to another 19prophecy, to another 20the ability to distinguish between spirits, to another 21various kinds of tongues, to another 22the interpretation of tongues.
11 All these are empowered by one and the same Spirit, 23who apportions to each one individually 24as he wills.

One Body with Many Members

12 For just as 25the body is one and has many members, and all the members of the body, though many, are one body, 26so it is with Christ.
13 For 27in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body--28Jews or Greeks, slaves[d] or free--and 29all were made to drink of one Spirit.
14 For the body does not consist of one member but of many.
15 If the foot should say, "Because I am not a hand, I do not belong to the body," that would not make it any less a part of the body.
16 And if the ear should say, "Because I am not an eye, I do not belong to the body," that would not make it any less a part of the body.
17 If the whole body were an eye, where would be the sense of hearing? If the whole body were an ear, where would be the sense of smell?
18 But as it is, 30God arranged the members in the body, each one of them, 31as he chose.
19 If all were a single member, where would the body be?
20 As it is, there are many parts,[e] yet one body.
21 The eye cannot say to the hand, "I have no need of you," nor again the head to the feet, "I have no need of you."
22 On the contrary, the parts of the body that seem to be weaker are indispensable,
23 and on those parts of the body that we think less honorable we bestow the greater honor, and our unpresentable parts are treated with greater modesty,
24 which our more presentable parts do not require. But God has so composed the body, giving greater honor to the part that lacked it,
25 that there may be no division in the body, but that the members may have the same care for one another.
26 If one member suffers, all suffer together; if one member is honored, 32all rejoice together.
27 Now 33you are the body of Christ and individually 34members of it.
28 And 35God has appointed in the church first 36apostles, second 37prophets, third teachers, then 38miracles, then 39gifts of healing, 40helping, 41administrating, and 42various kinds of tongues.
29 Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Do all work miracles?
30 Do all possess gifts of healing? Do all speak with tongues? Do all interpret?
31 But 43earnestly desire the higher gifts. And I will show you a still more excellent way.

1 Corinthians 12 Commentary

Chapter 12

The variety of use of spiritual gifts are shown. (1-11) In the human body every member has its place and use. (12-26) This is applied to the church of Christ. (27-30) And there is something more excellent than spiritual gifts. (31)

Verses 1-11 Spiritual gifts were extraordinary powers bestowed in the first ages, to convince unbelievers, and to spread the gospel. Gifts and graces greatly differ. Both were freely given of God. But where grace is given, it is for the salvation of those who have it. Gifts are for the advantage and salvation of others; and there may be great gifts where there is no grace. The extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit were chiefly exercised in the public assemblies, where the Corinthians seem to have made displays of them, wanting in the spirit of piety, and of Christian love. While heathens, they had not been influenced by the Spirit of Christ. No man can call Christ Lord, with believing dependence upon him, unless that faith is wrought by the Holy Ghost. No man could believe with his heart, or prove by a miracle, that Jesus was Christ, unless by the Holy Ghost. There are various gifts, and various offices to perform, but all proceed from one God, one Lord, one Spirit; that is, from the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, the origin of all spiritual blessings. No man has them merely for himself. The more he profits others, the more will they turn to his own account. The gifts mentioned appear to mean exact understanding, and uttering the doctrines of the Christian religion; the knowledge of mysteries, and skill to give advice and counsel. Also the gift of healing the sick, the working of miracles, and to explain Scripture by a peculiar gift of the Spirit, and ability to speak and interpret languages. If we have any knowledge of the truth, or any power to make it known, we must give all the glory of God. The greater the gifts are, the more the possessor is exposed to temptations, and the larger is the measure of grace needed to keep him humble and spiritual; and he will meet with more painful experiences and humbling dispensations. We have little cause to glory in any gifts bestowed on us, or to despise those who have them not.

Verses 12-26 Christ and his church form one body, as Head and members. Christians become members of this body by baptism. The outward rite is of Divine institution; it is a sign of the new birth, and is called therefore the washing of regeneration, ( Titus 3:5 ) . But it is by the Spirit, only by the renewing of the Holy Ghost, that we are made members of Christ's body. And by communion with Christ at the Lord's supper, we are strengthened, not by drinking the wine, but by drinking into one Spirit. Each member has its form, place, and use. The meanest makes a part of the body. There must be a distinction of members in the body. So Christ's members have different powers and different places. We should do the duties of our own place, and not murmur, or quarrel with others. All the members of the body are useful and necessary to each other. Nor is there a member of the body of Christ, but may and ought to be useful to fellow-members. As in the natural body of man, the members should be closely united by the strongest bonds of love; the good of the whole should be the object of all. All Christians are dependent one upon another; each is to expect and receive help from the rest. Let us then have more of the spirit of union in our religion.

Verses 27-31 Contempt, hatred, envy, and strife, are very unnatural in Christians. It is like the members of the same body being without concern for one another, or quarrelling with each other. The proud, contentious spirit that prevailed, as to spiritual gifts, was thus condemned. The offices and gifts, or favours, dispensed by the Holy Spirit, are noticed. Chief ministers; persons enabled to interpret Scripture; those who laboured in word and doctrine; those who had power to heal diseases; such as helped the sick and weak; such as disposed of the money given in charity by the church, and managed the affairs of the church; and such as could speak divers languages. What holds the last and lowest rank in this list, is the power to speak languages; how vain, if a man does so merely to amuse or to exalt himself! See the distribution of these gifts, not to every one alike, ( 1 Corinthians. 12:29-30 ) body were all ear, or all eye. The Spirit distributes to every one as he will. We must be content though we are lower and less than others. We must not despise others, if we have greater gifts. How blessed the Christian church, if all the members did their duty! Instead of coveting the highest stations, or the most splendid gifts, let us leave the appointment of his instruments to God, and those in whom he works by his providence. Remember, those will not be approved hereafter who seek the chief places, but those who are most faithful to the trust placed in them, and most diligent in their Master's work.

Cross References 43

  • 1. 1 Corinthians 14:1
  • 2. Ephesians 2:11, 12; [1 Peter 4:3]; See 1 Corinthians 6:11
  • 3. 1 Thessalonians 1:9
  • 4. Habakkuk 2:18, 19; [Psalms 115:5; Isaiah 46:7; Jeremiah 10:5]
  • 5. 1 John 4:2, 3
  • 6. See Romans 9:3
  • 7. John 15:26; [Matthew 16:17]; See Romans 10:9
  • 8. [Hebrews 2:4]; See Romans 12:6
  • 9. Ephesians 4:4-6
  • 10. Romans 12:7; [Ephesians 4:11]
  • 11. [See ver. 4 above]
  • 12. [See ver. 4 above]
  • 13. Ephesians 4:7; [1 Corinthians 14:26; Romans 12:3]
  • 14. 1 Corinthians 2:6, 7
  • 15. See 1 Corinthians 1:5
  • 16. 1 Corinthians 13:2; 2 Corinthians 4:13
  • 17. ver. 28, 30
  • 18. ver. 28, 29; [Galatians 3:5]
  • 19. 1 Corinthians 13:2, 8; 1 Corinthians 14:1
  • 20. [1 Corinthians 14:29; 1 John 4:1]
  • 21. See Mark 16:17
  • 22. ver. 30; 1 Corinthians 14:26
  • 23. [2 Corinthians 10:13]
  • 24. Hebrews 2:4
  • 25. See 1 Corinthians 10:17
  • 26. ver. 27
  • 27. [Romans 6:5; Ephesians 2:18]
  • 28. Galatians 3:28; Colossians 3:11; [Ephesians 2:13-17]
  • 29. [John 7:37-39]
  • 30. ver. 28
  • 31. ver. 11; [1 Corinthians 3:5; Romans 12:3]
  • 32. Romans 12:15
  • 33. [Ephesians 1:23; Ephesians 4:12; Ephesians 5:30; Colossians 1:24]
  • 34. See Romans 12:5
  • 35. ver. 18
  • 36. Ephesians 4:11
  • 37. Ephesians 2:20; Ephesians 3:5
  • 38. ver. 10
  • 39. ver. 9
  • 40. [Acts 20:35]
  • 41. [Romans 12:8; 1 Timothy 5:17; Heb. 13:7, 17, 24]
  • 42. ver. 10
  • 43. 1 Corinthians 14:1, 39

Footnotes 5

  • [a]. The expression Now concerning introduces a reply to a question in the Corinthians' letter; see 7:1
  • [b]. Or spiritual persons
  • [c]. Or brothers and sisters
  • [d]. Or servants; Greek bondservants
  • [e]. Or members; also verse 22

Chapter Summary


In this chapter the apostle discourses concerning spiritual gifts, showing the author, nature, use, and excellency of them; compares the church to an human body, and in a beautiful manner sets forth the symmetry and subserviency of the members of it to one another, being set in different places, and having different gifts; and enumerates the several offices and gifts in the church, and yet suggests there is something more excellent than them. He intimates, that spiritual gifts are valuable things, and should be taken notice of; nor would he have the saints ignorant of them, and therefore gives the following account, 1Co 12:1 and yet he would not have those that have them be proud of them, and lifted up with them; for which reason he puts them in mind of their former state in Heathenism, to make and keep them humble, 1Co 12:2 and points out such who have the Spirit of God, the author of all gifts and grace; not such who call Jesus accursed, but they that call him Lord, 1Co 12:3 which Holy Ghost, who is called Spirit, Lord, and God, is the author of the different gifts bestowed upon men, 1Co 12:4-6 the end of bestowing which gifts is the profit of others, 1Co 12:7 of which gifts there is an enumeration in nine particulars, 1Co 12:8-10 of each of which the Spirit of God is the worker and giver, according to his sovereign will and pleasure, 1Co 12:11 and which are all for the good of the whole community; which is illustrated by the simile of an human body, which as it consists of many members, and is but one, so Christ mystical, or the church, though it consists of divers persons, yet they are all one in Christ, and all their gifts are for the service of each other, 1Co 12:12 which unity is proved and confirmed by the saints being baptized by one Spirit into one body, the church, and by drinking of him, or partaking of the same grace, 1Co 12:13 and in order to show the usefulness and profit of every spiritual gift, even the meanest, to the churches of Christ, and that none might be despised, he enlarges upon the metaphor of the human body he had compared the church to, and by it illustrates the unity of the church, and the members of it, 1Co 12:14 and shows that the inferior members should not envy the superior ones, or be dejected because they have not the same gifts: and conclude from hence, that they are not, or deserve not, to be of the same body, 1Co 12:15,16 seeing it is convenient and absolutely necessary that there should be many members, and these set in different places, and have different gifts and usefulness; and particularly what should make them easy is, that God has placed them according to his will and pleasure, 1Co 12:17-20. And, on the other hand, he shows, that the more noble, and excellent, and useful members, ought not to despise the lower, meaner, and more ignoble ones, partly because of the usefulness and necessity of them, they cannot do without them, 1Co 12:21,20 and partly because of the honour put upon them, 1Co 12:23,24, and all this is so ordered, that there be no schism, but that there should be a mutual care of one member for another, and that they should sympathize with each other, 1Co 12:25,26. This simile the apostle more plainly and particularly accommodates and applies to the church, the body of Christ, and the members of it, and of one another, 1Co 12:27 and gives an enumeration of the several officers and offices in the church, set there by God himself; and there are no less than eight of them, some greater than others, most of them proper and peculiar to the primitive church, though some perpetual, and which still continue, 1Co 12:28 but in the times in which they were all of them in being and use, every member of the church was not possessed of them, only some, though all had more or less the advantage of them, 1Co 12:29,30. Wherefore, he concludes with an exhortation to the saints to covet the best of those gifts; and yet observes that there was something more excellent than them, and preferable to them, which he was about to show them, 1Co 12:31 and hereby he makes an easy transition to the next chapter, in which he recommends charity, and prefers it to gifts.

1 Corinthians 12 Commentaries

The English Standard Version is published with the permission of Good News Publishers.