Job 31

1 I have made a solemn promise never to look with lust at a woman.
2 What does Almighty God do to us? How does he repay human deeds?
3 He sends disaster and ruin to those who do wrong.
4 God knows everything I do; he sees every step I take.
5 I swear I have never acted wickedly and never tried to deceive others.
6 Let God weigh me on honest scales, and he will see how innocent I am.
7 If I have turned from the right path or let myself be attracted to evil, if my hands are stained with sin,
8 then let my crops be destroyed, or let others eat the food I grow.
9 If I have been attracted to my neighbor's wife, and waited, hidden, outside her door,
10 then let my wife cook another man's food and sleep in another man's bed.
11 Such wickedness should be punished by death.
12 It would be like a destructive, hellish fire, consuming everything I have.
13 When any of my servants complained against me, I would listen and treat them fairly.
14 If I did not, how could I then face God? What could I say when God came to judge me?
15 The same God who created me created my servants also.
16 I have never refused to help the poor; 1 never have I let widows live in despair
17 or let orphans go hungry while I ate.
18 All my life I have taken care of them.
19 When I found someone in need, too poor to buy clothes,
20 I would give him clothing made of wool that had come from my own flock of sheep. Then he would praise me with all his heart.
21 If I have ever cheated an orphan, knowing I could win in court,
22 then may my arms be broken; may they be torn from my shoulders.
23 Because I fear God's punishment, I could never do such a thing.
24 I have never trusted in riches 2
25 or taken pride in my wealth.
26 I have never worshiped the sun in its brightness or the moon in all its beauty.
27 I have not been led astray to honor them by kissing my hand in reverence to them.
28 Such a sin should be punished by death; it denies Almighty God.
29 I have never been glad when my enemies suffered, or pleased when they met with disaster;
30 I never sinned by praying for their death.
31 All those who work for me know that I have always welcomed strangers.
32 I invited travelers into my home and never let them sleep in the streets.
33 Others try to hide their sins, but I have never concealed mine.
34 I have never feared what people would say; I have never kept quiet or stayed indoors because I feared their scorn.
35 Will no one listen to what I am saying? I swear that every word is true. Let Almighty God answer me. If the charges my opponent brings against me were written down so that I could see them,
36 I would wear them proudly on my shoulder and place them on my head like a crown.
37 I would tell God everything I have done, and hold my head high in his presence.
38 If I have stolen the land I farm and taken it from its rightful owners -
39 if I have eaten the food that grew there but let the farmers that grew it starve -
40 then instead of wheat and barley, may weeds and thistles grow. The words of Job are ended.

Job 31 Commentary

Chapter 31

Job declares his uprightness. (1-8) His integrity. (9-15) Job merciful. (16-23) Job not guilty of covetousness or idolatry. (24-32) Job not guilty of hypocrisy and violence. (33-40)

Verses 1-8 Job did not speak the things here recorded by way of boasting, but in answer to the charge of hypocrisy. He understood the spiritual nature of God's commandments, as reaching to the thoughts and intents of the heart. It is best to let our actions speak for us; but in some cases we owe it to ourselves and to the cause of God, solemnly to protest our innocence of the crimes of which we are falsely accused. The lusts of the flesh, and the love of the world, are two fatal rocks on which multitudes split; against these Job protests he was always careful to stand upon his guard. And God takes more exact notice of us than we do of ourselves; let us therefore walk circumspectly. He carefully avoided all sinful means of getting wealth. He dreaded all forbidden profit as much as all forbidden pleasure. What we have in the world may be used with comfort, or lost with comfort, if honestly gotten. Without strict honestly and faithfulness in all our dealings, we can have no good evidence of true godliness. Yet how many professors are unable to abide this touchstone!

Verses 9-15 All the defilements of the life come from a deceived heart. Lust is a fire in the soul: those that indulge it, are said to burn. It consumes all that is good there, and lays the conscience waste. It kindles the fire of God's wrath, which, if not quenched by the blood of Christ, will consume even to eternal destruction. It consumes the body; it consumes the substance. Burning lusts bring burning judgments. Job had a numerous household, and he managed it well. He considered that he had a Master in heaven; and as we are undone if God should be severe with us, we ought to be mild and gentle towards all with whom we have to do.

Verses 16-23 Job's conscience gave testimony concerning his just and charitable behaviour toward the poor. He is most large upon this head, because in this matter he was particularly accused. He was tender of all, and hurtful to none. Notice the principles by which Job was restrained from being uncharitable and unmerciful. He stood in awe of the Lord, as certainly against him, if he should wrong the poor. Regard to worldly interests may restrain a man from actual crimes; but the grace of God alone can make him hate, dread, and shun sinful thoughts and desires.

Verses 24-32 Job protests, 1. That he never set his heart upon the wealth of this world. How few prosperous professors can appeal to the Lord, that they have not rejoiced because their gains were great! Through the determination to be rich, numbers ruin their souls, or pierce themselves with many sorrows. 2. He never was guilty of idolatry. The source of idolatry is in the heart, and it corrupts men, and provokes God to send judgments upon a nation. 3. He neither desired nor delighted in the hurt of the worst enemy he had. If others bear malice to us, that will not justify us in bearing malice to them. 4. He had never been ( 1 Peter. 4:9 )

Verses 33-40 Job clears himself from the charge of hypocrisy. We are loth to confess our faults, willing to excuse them, and to lay the blame upon others. But he that thus covers his sins, shall not prosper, ( Proverbs 28:13 ) . He speaks of his courage in what is good, as an evidence of his sincerity in it. When men get estates unjustly, they are justly deprived of comfort from them; it was sown wheat, but shall come up thistles. What men do not come honestly by, will never do them any good. The words of Job are ended. They end with a bold assertion, that, with respect to accusation against his moral and religious character as the cause for his sufferings, he could appeal to God. But, however confident Job was, we shall see he was mistaken, chap. 40:4, chap. 40:5 ; 1Jo. 1:8 . Let us all judge ourselves; wherein we are guilty, let us seek forgiveness in that blood which cleanseth from all sin; and may the Lord have mercy upon us, and write his laws in our hearts!

Cross References 2

  • 1. +231.16-18Tobit 4.7-11, 16.
  • 2. +231.24Ben Sira 31.5-10.

Footnotes 1

  • [a]. All my life . . . them; [Hebrew unclear.]

Chapter Summary


In this chapter Job gives an account of himself in private life, of the integrity and uprightness of his life, and his holy walk and conversation, with this view, that it might be thought that the afflictions which were upon him were not on account of a vicious course of life he had indulged unto, as was suggested; and he clears himself from various crimes which it might be insinuated he was guilty of, as from unchastity; and he observes the method he took to prevent his falling into it, and the reasons that dissuaded him from it, Job 31:1-4; from injustice in his dealings with men, Job 31:5-8; from the sin of adultery, Job 31:9-12; from ill usage of his servants, Job 31:13-15; from unkindness to the poor, which he enlarges upon, and gives many instances of his charity to them, Job 31:16-23; from covetousness, and a vain confidence in wealth, Job 31:24,25; from idolatry, the worship of the sun and moon, Job 31:26-28; from a revengeful spirit, Job 31:29-31; and from inhospitality to strangers, Job 31:32; from covering his sin, Job 31:33; and fear of men, Job 31:34; and then wishes his cause might be heard before God, Job 31:35-37; and the chapter is closed with an imprecation on his head if guilty of any injustice, Job 31:38-40.

Job 31 Commentaries

Scripture taken from the Good News Translation - Second Edition, Copyright 1992 by American Bible Society. Used by Permission.