Ezekiel 1

Date of Vision of Living Creatures and Glory of the Throne of Yahweh

1 And it was in [the] thirtieth year, in the fourth [month], on the fifth [day] of the month, and I [was] in the midst of[a] the exiles[b] by the {Kebar River}.[c] The heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God.
2 On the fifth [day] of the month--it was the fifth year of the exile of the king Jehoiachin--
3 the word of Yahweh {came}[d] clearly[e] to Ezekiel the son of Buzi, the priest, in the land of [the] Chaldeans at the {Kebar River},[f] and the hand of Yahweh was on him there.
4 And I looked,[g] and look! A storm wind [was] coming from the north, a great cloud, and fire flashing back and forth, and brightness around [and] {within it},[h] and from its midst[i] [it was] like [the] outward appearance of amber stone from the midst[j] of the fire.
5 And from its midst[k] [was] the likeness of four living creatures, and this [was] their appearance: {a human form},[l]
6 and {each had four faces},[m] and {each of them had four wings}.[n]
7 And their legs [were] straight legs, and the sole of their feet [was] like the sole of [the] foot of a calf, and [they] were sparkling like the outward appearance of polished bronze.
8 And under their wings [were] {human hands}[o] on their four sides. And their faces and their wings for the four of them [were as follows]:
9 {their wings were touching one another};[p] {each of them went straight forward},[q] {without turning right or left}.[r]
10 The likeness of their faces [was the] face of a human [in front], and [the] face of a lion on the right {of each of them},[s] and the face of an ox on the left {of each of them},[t] and [the] face of an eagle {for each of them}.[u]
11 So [were] their faces; their wings [were] spread out {upward};[v] each [had] two touching one another and two covering their bodies.
12 And each {went straight forward};[w] {wherever the spirit went}[x] they went, [and] {they did not turn as they went}.[y]
13 As for[z] the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance [was] like burning coals of fire, like the appearance of torches. It[aa] [was] moving to and fro between the living creatures, and {the fire was very bright}[ab] and lightning [was] going out from the fire.
14 And the living creatures {were speeding to and fro}[ac] like the appearance of lightning.
15 And I saw the living creatures, and look! A wheel was on the earth[ad] beside {each of the living creatures that had four faces}.[ae]
16 The appearance of the wheels and their construction [was] like [the] appearance of beryl,[af] and {they all looked alike},[ag] and their appearance and their construction [was] {like a wheel within a wheel}.[ah]
17 When they moved, they went toward their four sides; they did not {veer at all as they went}.[ai]
18 And their rims {were high and awesome},[aj] and {all four of}[ak] their rims [were] full of eyes [all] around.
19 And at the going of the living creatures, the wheels next to them [also] went, and {when the creatures were lifted from the ground}[al] the wheels [also] rose.
20 {Wherever}[am] the spirit went they would go there, and the wheels rose, for the spirit of the living creatures[an] [was] in the wheels.
21 At their[ao] going, they[ap] go, and at their standing, they stood, and at their being lifted up from on the earth,[aq] the wheels rose,[ar] for the spirit of the living creatures[as] [was] in the wheels.
22 Now[at] [the] likeness above the heads of the living creatures [was] an expanse like the outward appearance of {awesome}[au] {ice}[av] spread out above their heads {upward}.[aw]
23 And under the expanse their wings [were stretched out] straight {one toward the other};[ax] each had two [wings] covering them, and each had two [wings] covering their bodies.
24 And I heard the sound of their wings like [the] sound of many waters, like the voice of Shaddai,[ay] [and] {when they moved}[az] [there was] a sound of tumult like [the] sound of an army; {when they stood still}[ba] they lowered their wings.
25 And there was[bb] a sound from above the expanse that [was] above their heads, {and when they stood}[bc] they lowered their wings.
26 And from above the expanse that [was] above their heads [there was] the likeness of a throne, {looking like a sapphire},[bd] and above the likeness of the throne [was] a likeness similar to[be] [the] appearance of a human on it, [but] {above it}.[bf]
27 And I saw [something] like [the] outward appearance of amber, [something] like [the] appearance of fire, [with] a covering around [it], from the likeness of his loins and {upward}.[bg] And from the likeness of his loins and {downward}[bh] I saw [something] like [the] appearance of fire, and {it was radiant all around}.[bi]
28 Like the appearance[bj] of a bow that is in the cloud on {a rainy day},[bk] such [was] the radiance[bl] around it; [thus was] the appearance of the likeness of the glory of Yahweh. And I saw, and I fell on my face, and I heard a voice speaking.

Ezekiel 1 Commentary

Chapter 1

Ezekiel was one of the priests; he was carried captive to Chaldea with Jehoiachin. All his prophecies appear to have been delivered in that country, at some place north of Babylon. Their chief object appears to have been to comfort his brethren in captivity. He is directed to warn of the dreadful calamities coming upon Judea, particularly upon the false prophets, and the neighbouring nations. Also to announce the future restoration of Israel and Judah from their several dispersions, and their happy state in their latter days, under the Messiah. Much of Christ will be found in this book, especially in the conclusion.

Ezekiel's vision of God, and of the angelic host. (1-14) The conduct of Divine Providence. (15-25) A revelation of the Son of man upon his heavenly throne. (26-28)

Verses 1-14 It is a mercy to have the word of God brought to us, and a duty to attend to it diligently, when we are in affliction. The voice of God came in the fulness of light and power, by the Holy Spirit. These visions seem to have been sent to possess the prophet's mind with great and high thoughts of God. To strike terror upon sinners. To speak comfort to those that feared God, and humbled themselves. In ver. ( 4-14 ) , is the first part of the vision, which represents God as attended and served by a vast company of angels, who are all his messengers, his ministers, doing his commandments. This vision would impress the mind with solemn awe and fear of the Divine displeasure, yet raise expectations of blessings. The fire is surrounded with a glory. Though we cannot by searching find out God to perfection, yet we see the brightness round about it. The likeness of the living creatures came out of the midst of the fire; angels derive their being and power from God. They have the understanding of a man, and far more. A lion excels in strength and boldness. An ox excels in diligence and patience, and unwearied discharge of the work he has to do. An eagle excels in quickness and piercing sight, and in soaring high; and the angels, who excel man in all these respects, put on these appearances. The angels have wings; and whatever business God sends them upon, they lose no time. They stood straight, and firm, and steady. They had not only wings for motion, but hands for action. Many persons are quick, who are not active; they hurry about, but do nothing to purpose; they have wings, but no hands. But wherever the angels' wings carried them, they carried hands with them, to be doing what duty required. Whatever service they went about, they went every one straight forward. When we go straight, we go forward; when we serve God with one heart, we perform work. They turned not when they went. They made no mistakes; and their work needed not to be gone over again. They turned not from their business to trifle with any thing. They went whithersoever the Spirit of God would have them go. The prophet saw these living creatures by their own light, for their appearance was like burning coals of fire; they are seraphim, or "burners;" denoting the ardour of their love to God, and fervent zeal in his service. We may learn profitable lessons from subjects we cannot fully enter into or understand. But let us attend to the things which relate to our peace and duty, and leave secret things to the Lord, to whom alone they belong.

Verses 15-25 Providence, represented by the wheels, produces changes. Sometimes one spoke of the wheel is uppermost, sometimes another; but the motion of the wheel on its own axletree is regular and steady. We need not despond in adversity; the wheels are turning round and will raise us in due time, while those who presume in prosperity know not how soon they may be cast down. The wheel is near the living creatures; the angels are employed as ministers of God's providence. The spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels; the same wisdom, power, and holiness of God, that guide and govern the angels, by them order all events in this lower world. The wheel had four faces, denoting that the providence of God exerts itself in all parts. Look every way upon the wheel of providence, it has a face toward you. Their appearance and work were as a wheel in the middle of a wheel. The disposals of Providence seem to us dark, perplexed, and unaccountable, yet are all wisely ordered for the best. The motion of these wheels was steady, regular, and constant. They went as the Spirit directed, therefore returned not. We should not have to undo that by repentance which we have done amiss, if we followed the guidance of the Spirit. The rings, or rims of the wheels were so vast, that when put in motion the prophet was afraid to look upon them. The consideration of the height and depth of God's counsel should awe us. They were full of eyes round about. The motions of Providence are all directed by infinite Wisdom. All events are determined by the eyes of the Lord, which are in every place beholding the evil and the good; for there is no such thing as chance or fortune. The firmament above was a crystal, glorious, but terribly so. That which we take to be a dark cloud, is to God clear as crystal, through which he looks upon all the inhabitants of the earth. When the angels had roused a careless world, they let down their wings, that God's voice might be plainly heard. The voice of Providence is to open men's ears to the voice of the word. Sounds on earth should awaken our attention to the voice from heaven; for how shall we escape, if we turn away from Him that speaks from thence.

Verses 26-28 The eternal Son, the second Person in the Trinity, who afterwards took the human nature, is here denoted. The first thing observed was a throne. It is a throne of glory, a throne of grace, a throne of triumph, a throne of government, a throne of judgment. It is good news to men, that the throne above the firmament is filled with One who appears, even there, in the likeness of a man. The throne is surrounded with a rainbow, the well-known emblem of the covenant, representing God's mercy and covenanted love to his people. The fire of God's wrath was breaking out against Jerusalem, but bounds should be set to it; he would look upon the bow, and remember the covenant. All the prophet saw was only to prepare him for what he was to hear. When he fell on his face, he heard the voice of One that spake. God delights to teach the humble. Let sinners, then, humble themselves before him. And let believers think upon his glory, that they may be gradually changed into his image by the Spirit of the Lord.

Footnotes 64

  • [a]. Or "among"
  • [b]. Hebrew "exile"
  • [c]. Literally "river of Kebar"
  • [d]. Literally "was"
  • [e]. Or "certainly"
  • [f]. Literally "river of Kebar"
  • [g]. Or "saw"
  • [h]. Literally "for it"
  • [i]. Or "middle"
  • [j]. Or "middle"
  • [k]. Or "middle"
  • [l]. Literally "this their appearance the likeness of a human to them"
  • [m]. Literally "and four faces to each"
  • [n]. Literally "and four wings to each for them"
  • [o]. Literally "hand his a man"
  • [p]. Literally "their wings [were] touching each her sister"
  • [q]. Literally "they did not turn at their going"
  • [r]. Literally "each toward the side of his face they went"
  • [s]. Literally "of the four of them"
  • [t]. Literally "of the four of them"
  • [u]. Literally "of the four of them"
  • [v]. Literally "from to above"
  • [w]. Literally "toward the side of his face they went"
  • [x]. Literally "towards which it was there the spirit"
  • [y]. Literally "they did not turn at their going"
  • [z]. Or "And"
  • [aa]. That is, the fire
  • [ab]. Literally "brightness [was] for the fire"
  • [ac]. Literally "sped forth and returned"
  • [ad]. Or "ground"
  • [ae]. Literally "the living creatures for the four of his/its faces." The LXX has "for the four of them."
  • [af]. Or "chrysolite," or "topaz"; this stone is difficult to identify exactly
  • [ag]. Literally "likeness [was] one for the four of them"
  • [ah]. Literally "as that it was a wheel in the midst of a wheel"
  • [ai]. Literally "turn away when they went"
  • [aj]. Literally "height [was] for them and awesomeness [was] for them"
  • [ak]. Literally "of the four of them"
  • [al]. Literally "and at the lifting up of the creatures from the earth"
  • [am]. Literally "Toward which"
  • [an]. Hebrew "creature"
  • [ao]. That is, the living creatures
  • [ap]. That is, the wheels
  • [aq]. Or "ground"
  • [ar]. Or "were lifted up"
  • [as]. Hebrew "creature"
  • [at]. Or "And"
  • [au]. Literally "terrible"
  • [av]. Literally "frozen water"
  • [aw]. Literally "from to upward"
  • [ax]. Literally "each towards its sister"
  • [ay]. Often translated "Almighty"
  • [az]. Literally "at their going"
  • [ba]. Literally "at their standing"
  • [bb]. Or "it was"
  • [bc]. Literally "at their standing"
  • [bd]. Literally "[the] appearance of a stone of sapphire"
  • [be]. Or "like"
  • [bf]. Literally "from to above"
  • [bg]. Literally "to above"
  • [bh]. Literally "to down"
  • [bi]. Literally "brightness [was] for it around"
  • [bj]. Or "likeness"
  • [bk]. Literally "the day of the rain"
  • [bl]. Or "brightness"

Chapter Summary

INTRODUCTION TO EZEKIEL

This book is rightly placed after Jeremiah; since Ezekiel was among the captives in Chaldea, when prophesied; whereas Jeremiah began to prophesy long before that captivity, and concerning it. The name of this prophet signifies, as it is commonly interpreted, "the strength of God", or "strengthened by God", as he was, and as he needed to be, having great work to do, and a perverse people to deal with; see Eze 3:8; but the learned Hillerus {a} chooses to render it, "God shall prevail"; with which compare Jer 20:7. There was a Levite of this name, of whom mention is made in 1Ch 24:16; whose name is there read "Jehezekel"; and this prophet was a priest, Eze 1:3; and both Clemens Alexandrinus {b} and Eusebius {c} cite a Jewish writer of tragedies, of the same name; which some have very wrongly thought to be the same with our prophet; but whether Ezekiel is not the same with Nazaratus or Zabratus, the master of Pythagoras, mentioned by Clemens as such, according to the opinion of some, is a matter of question; and which the learned Selden {d} seems to think probable. According to the judgment and opinion of Jerom {e}, his style is neither very eloquent, nor very rustic; but between both, and has a mixture of each. The visions he saw are very abstruse and difficult of interpretation, especially the vision of the living creatures and wheels; wherefore the Jews {f} forbad the reading of it, as well as the end of this prophecy, until persons were thirty years of age. The divine visions in this book, the whole subject matter of it, its agreement with the prophecy of Jeremiah, and the accomplishment of events predicted in it, prove the authority of it; and its divine authority has always been allowed, both by the Jewish synagogue and the Christian church. There were indeed some ancient Jewish Rabbins, who were perplexed about some things in it, and consulted about laying it aside, because of some words in it, which seemed to them to be contrary to the law of Moses; but R. Chananiah ben Goron, a very famous doctor in those times, withdrew to his chamber, and wrote a commentary, in order to remove those difficulties to satisfaction {g}. This book, in general, contains various visions the prophet saw; several threatenings against the people of the Jews; and prophecies against other nations; and an abundance of comfortable promises of the Messiah, and of blessings of grace by him; and of the state and condition of the Gospel church, and the worship of it. Josephus {h} says Ezekiel left two books written by him; one of which Athanasius {i}: or the author of the Synopsis under his name, thinks is lost; but the learned Huetius {k} is of opinion that the prophecy of Ezekiel, in the times of Josephus, was divided into two parts; the first containing the first thirty nine chapters, and the other the nine last chapters; which is not improbable. If the authorities of Epiphanius {l}, or the writer of the lives of the prophets that goes by his name, and of Isidorus {m}, are of any weight, Ezekiel was born in the land of Sarera; killed by the governor in Babylon; and buried by the people in the field of Maur or Mahurim, in the sepulchre of Shem and Arphaxad. The account R. Benjamin Tudelensis {n} gives is, that there is a synagogue of the Prophet Ezekiel by the river Euphrates; and over against the synagogue sixty towers, ; and between every tower a synagogue. In the court of the synagogue is a library; and behind it the grave of Ezekiel the son of Buzi the priest; and over it a large vault, of a beautiful building, erected by Jeconiah king of Judah, and thirty five thousand Jews, who came with him, when Evilmerodach brought him out of prison; and over the grave a lamp burns night and day. The Cippi Hebraici say {o} he was buried by, the river Hiddekel; and Menasseh ben Israel {p} affirms that he died in Babylon, and was buried there; and so Kimchi {q} says the tradition is.

{a} Onamast. Sacr. p. 224, 320, 845. {b} Stromat. l. 2. p. 344. {c} Praeper. Evangel. l. 9. c. 23. p. 436. & c. 29. p. 439. {d} De Dis Syris, Syntag. 2. c. 1. p. 210, 211. {e} Praefat. in Ezek. tom. 3. fol. 9. D. {f} Praefat. in ib. ad Eustochium, tom 5. fol. 174. G. {g} T. Bab. Sabbat, fol. 13. 2. & Taanith, fol. 17. 1, 2. & Maimon. Bartenora in Misn. Sabbat, c. 1. sect. 4. {h} Antiqu. l. 10. c. 5. sect. 1. {i} Synops. Sacr. Script. p. 134, 136. tom. 2. {k} Demonstr. Evang. Prop. 4. p. 272. {l} De Prophet. Vit. c. 9. {m} De Vit. & Mort. Sanct. c. 39. {n} Massaot, p. 78, 79. {o} P. 74. {p} De Resurrect. Mort. l. 1. c. 2. sect. 5. {q} In Ezek. xliii. 19.

\\INTRODUCTION TO EZEKIEL 1\\

This chapter contains a vision, which is the introduction to the prophet's call and commission to perform his office; in the account of which may be observed the time when it was seen, Eze 1:1,2; and the place both where the prophet was when he saw it, and the object or things that were beheld by him; and the original, form, and manner of the vision, Eze 1:3,4; next follow the particulars of it; and first, four living creatures appear, described by their general likeness, as human, Eze 1:5; and, in particular, by their faces, feet, hands, and wings, Eze 1:6-11; by their motion and progress, and the spirit by which they were influenced, Eze 1:12; and by their forms of light, brightness, and heat, in which they appeared and moved, Eze 1:13,14; and next the wheels, described by their number; for, though they seemed to be as one, they were four; and by their situation on the earth, and by the side of the living creatures, Eze 1:15; by their appearance, which was alike in them all, and as the colour of beryl, and as a wheel within a wheel, Eze 1:16, by their motion, which was on their sides, and not retrograde, Eze 1:17; by their rings or circumferences, which were high, dreadful, and full of eyes, Eze 1:18; by their dependence on the living creatures, moving as they, having the same spirit they had, Eze 1:19-21; and then a firmament is seen, described by its situation, over the heads of the living creatures; and by its colour, as the terrible crystal, Eze 1:22; by what were under it, the wings of the living creatures of which a more particular account is given, Eze 1:23,24; by what was heard from it, a voice, Eze 1:25; and by what was above it, a throne; described by its colour, as a sapphire stone; and by a person on it, who had the appearance of a man, Eze 1:26; who, in general, looked like the colour of amber; within which was the appearance of fire from his loins upwards, and from his loins downwards; the fire had a brightness round about it; and that brightness was like a rainbow in a cloud, on a rainy day; and this appearance was no other than that of a divine and glorious Person; which, when seen by the prophet, caused him, through reverence, to fall upon his face; when he heard a voice speaking to him what is recorded in the following chapter, Eze 1:27,28.

Ezekiel 1 Commentaries