Matthew 10

The Twelve Commissioned and Sent Out

1 And summoning his twelve disciples, he gave them authority over unclean spirits, so that they could expel [them] and could heal every disease and every sickness.
2 Now these are the names of the twelve apostles: first Simon who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother, James the [son] of Zebedee, and John his brother,
3 Philip, and Bartholomew, Thomas, and Matthew the tax collector, James the [son] of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus,
4 Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot--the one who also betrayed him.
5 Jesus sent out these twelve, instructing them saying, "Do not go on the road to the Gentiles, and do not enter into a city of the Samaritans,
6 but go instead to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
7 And [as you] are going, preach, saying, 'The kingdom of heaven has come near!'
8 Heal those who are sick, raise the dead, cleanse lepers, expel demons. Freely you have received; freely give.
9 Do not procure gold or silver or copper for your belts.
10 Do not [take] a traveler's bag for the road, or two tunics, or sandals, or a staff, for the worker [is] deserving of his provisions.
11 And into whatever town or village you enter, inquire who in it is worthy, and stay [there] until you depart.
12 And [when you] enter into the house, greet it.
13 And if the house is worthy, let your peace come upon it, but if it is not worthy, let your peace return to you.
14 And whoever does not welcome you or listen to your words, shake off the dust from your feet [as you] are going out of that house or [that] town.
15 Truly I say to you, it will be more bearable for the region of Sodom and Gomorrah on the day of judgment than for that town!

Persecution of Disciples Predicted

16 "Behold, I am sending you out like sheep in the midst of wolves. Therefore be wise as serpents and innocent as doves.
17 But beware of people, because they will hand you over to councils, and they will flog you in their synagogues.
18 And you will be brought before both governors and kings because of me, for a witness to them and to the Gentiles.
19 But whenever they hand you over, do not be anxious how [to speak] or what you should say, for what you should say will be given to you at that hour.
20 For you are not the ones who are speaking, but the Spirit of your Father [who is] speaking through you.
21 "And brother will hand over brother to death, and a father [his] children, and children will rise up against parents and have them put to death,
22 and you will be hated by everyone because of my name. But the one who endures to the end--this one will be saved.
23 And whenever they persecute you in this town, flee to another, for truly I say to you, you will never finish [going through] the towns of Israel until the Son of Man comes.
24 "A disciple is not superior to his teacher, nor a slave superior to his master.
25 [It is] enough for the disciple that he become like his teacher, and the slave like his master. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebul, how much more the members of his household?

Fear God Rather Than People

26 "Therefore do not be afraid of them, because nothing is hidden that will not be revealed, and nothing secret that will not become known.
27 What I say to you in the dark, tell in the light, and what you hear in your ear, proclaim on the housetops.
28 And do not be afraid of those who kill the body but are not able to kill the soul, but instead be afraid of the one who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.
29 Are not two sparrows sold for a penny? And one of them will not fall to the ground {without the knowledge and consent} of your Father.
30 And even the hairs of your head are all numbered!
31 Therefore do not be afraid; you are worth more than many sparrows.
32 "Therefore everyone who acknowledges me before people, I also will acknowledge him before my Father [who is] in heaven.
33 But whoever denies me before people, I also will deny him before my Father [who is] in heaven.

Not Peace, But a Sword of Divisiveness

34 "Do not think that I have come to bring peace on the earth! I have not come to bring peace, but a sword.
35 For I have come to turn a man against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law.
36 And the enemies of a man [will be] the members of his household.
37 The one who loves father or mother more than me is not worthy of me, and the one who loves son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me.
38 And whoever does not take up his cross and follow me is not worthy of me.
39 The one who finds his life will lose it, and the one who loses his life because of me will find it.

On Rewards

40 "The one who receives you receives me, and the one who receives me receives the one who sent me.
41 The one who receives a prophet in the name of a prophet will receive a prophet's reward, and the one who receives a righteous person in the name of a righteous person will receive a righteous person's reward.
42 And whoever gives one of these little ones only a cup of cold water to drink in the name of a disciple, truly I say to you, he will never lose his reward."

Matthew 10 Commentary

Chapter 10

The apostles called. (1-4) The apostles instructed and sent forth. (5-15) Directions to the apostles. (16-42)

Verses 1-4 The word "apostle" signifies messenger; they were Christ's messengers, sent forth to proclaim his kingdom. Christ gave them power to heal all manner of sickness. In the grace of the gospel there is a slave for every sore, a remedy for every malady. There is no spiritual disease, but there is power in Christ for the cure of it. There names are recorded, and it is their honour; yet they had more reason to rejoice that their names were written in heaven, while the high and mighty names of the great ones of the earth are buried in the dust.

Verses 5-15 The Gentiles must not have the gospel brought them, till the Jews have refused it. This restraint on the apostles was only in their first mission. Wherever they went they must proclaim, The kingdom of heaven is at hand. They preached, to establish the faith; the kingdom, to animate the hope; of heaven, to inspire the love of heavenly things, and the contempt of earthly; which is at hand, that men may prepare for it without delay. Christ gave power to work miracles for the confirming of their doctrine. This is not necessary now that the kingdom of God is come. It showed that the intent of the doctrine they preached, was to heal sick souls, and to raise those that were dead in sin. In proclaiming the gospel of free grace for the healing and saving of men's souls, we must above all avoid the appearance of the spirit of an hireling. They are directed what to do in strange towns and cities. The servant of Christ is the ambassador of peace to whatever place he is sent. His message is even to the vilest sinners, yet it behoves him to find out the best persons in every place. It becomes us to pray heartily for all, and to conduct ourselves courteously to all. They are directed how to act as to those that refused them. The whole counsel of God must be declared, and those who will not attend to the gracious message, must be shown that their state is dangerous. This should be seriously laid to heart by all that hear the gospel, lest their privileges only serve to increase their condemnation.

Verses 16-42 Our Lord warned his disciples to prepare for persecution. They were to avoid all things which gave advantage to their enemies, all meddling with worldly or political concerns, all appearance of evil or selfishness, and all underhand measures. Christ foretold troubles, not only that the troubles might not be a surprise, but that they might confirm their faith. He tells them what they should suffer, and from whom. Thus Christ has dealt fairly and faithfully with us, in telling us the worst we can meet with in his service; and he would have us deal so with ourselves, in sitting down and counting the cost. Persecutors are worse than beasts, in that they prey upon those of their own kind. The strongest bonds of love and duty, have often been broken through from enmity against Christ. Sufferings from friends and relations are very grievous; nothing cuts more. It appears plainly, that all who will live godly in Christ Jesus must suffer persecution; and we must expect to enter into the kingdom of God through many tribulations. With these predictions of trouble, are counsels and comforts for a time of trial. The disciples of Christ are hated and persecuted as serpents, and their ruin is sought, and they need the serpent's wisdom. Be ye harmless as doves. Not only, do nobody any hurt, but bear nobody any ill-will. Prudent care there must be, but not an anxious, perplexing thought; let this care be cast upon God. The disciples of Christ must think more how to do well, than how to speak well. In case of great peril, the disciples of Christ may go out of the way of danger, though they must not go out of the way of duty. No sinful, unlawful means may be used to escape; for then it is not a door of God's opening. The fear of man brings a snare, a perplexing snare, that disturbs our peace; an entangling snare, by which we are drawn into sin; and, therefore, it must be striven and prayed against. Tribulation, distress, and persecution cannot take away God's love to them, or theirs to him. Fear Him, who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. They must deliver their message publicly, for all are deeply concerned in the doctrine of the gospel. The whole counsel of God must be made known, ( Acts 20:27 ) . Christ shows them why they should be of good cheer. Their sufferings witnessed against those who oppose his gospel. When God calls us to speak for him, we may depend on him to teach us what to say. A believing prospect of the end of our troubles, will be of great use to support us under them. They may be borne to the end, because the sufferers shall be borne up under them. The strength shall be according to the day. And it is great encouragement to those who are doing Christ's work, that it is a work which shall certainly be done. See how the care of Providence extends to all creatures, even to the sparrows. This should silence all the fears of God's people; Ye are of more value than many sparrows. And the very hairs of your head are all numbered. This denotes the account God takes and keeps of his people. It is our duty, not only to believe in Christ, but to profess that faith, in suffering for him, when we are called to it, as well as in serving him. That denial of Christ only is here meant which is persisted in, and that confession only can have the blessed recompence here promised, which is the real and constant language of faith and love. Religion is worth every thing; all who believe the truth of it, will come up to the price, and make every thing else yield to it. Christ will lead us through sufferings, to glory with him. Those are best prepared for the life to come, that sit most loose to this present life. Though the kindness done to Christ's disciples be ever so small, yet if there be occasion for it, and ability to do no more, it shall be accepted. Christ does not say that they deserve a reward; for we cannot merit any thing from the hand of God; but they shall receive a reward from the free gift of God. Let us boldly confess Christ, and show love to him in all things.

Footnotes 13

  • [a]. *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
  • [b]. Or "every kind of"
  • [c]. Or "every kind of"
  • [d]. Some manuscripts have "and James"
  • [e]. Literally "the Cananean," but according to BDAG 507 s.v., this term has no relation at all to the geographical terms for Cana or Canaan, but is derived from the Aramaic term for "enthusiast, zealot" (see Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13)
  • [f]. *Here "[as]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("are going") which is understood as temporal
  • [g]. *Here "[when]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("enter") which is understood as temporal
  • [h]. *Here "[as]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("are going") which is understood as temporal
  • [i]. A repetition of "that" is supplied in English; the single Greek term is understood to modify both "house" and "town"
  • [j]. *Here "[to speak]" has been supplied for stylistic reasons, since "how to speak" is more natural in English than "how to say"; in Greek the same verb works with both expressions ("how or what you should say") and also occurs again at the end of the verse
  • [k]. Literally, "an assarion," a Roman coin worth about 1/16 of a denarius
  • [l]. Literally "without"; the phrase "the knowledge and consent" is implied when this term is used of God
  • [m]. An allusion to Mic 7:6

Matthew 10 Commentaries

Scripture quotations marked (LEB) are from the Lexham English Bible. Copyright 2012 Logos Bible Software. Lexham is a registered trademark of Logos Bible Software.