Haggai 1

Haggai Begins Temple Building

1 In the 1second year of Darius the king, on the first day of the sixth month, the word of the LORD came by the prophet 2Haggai to 3Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, 4governor of Judah, and to 5Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, saying,
2 "Thus says the LORD of [a]hosts, 'This people says, "The time has not come, even the time for the house of the LORD to be rebuilt.""'
3 Then the word of the LORD came by Haggai the prophet, saying,
4 "Is it time for you yourselves to dwell in your paneled houses while this house 6lies desolate?"
5 Now therefore, thus says the LORD of hosts, "[b]Consider * * your ways!
6 "You have 7sown much, but [c]harvest little; you eat, but there is not enough to be satisfied; you drink, but there is [d]not enough to become drunk; you put on clothing, but no one is warm enough; and he who earns, earns wages to put into a purse with holes."
7 Thus says the LORD of hosts, "[e]Consider * * your ways!
8 "Go up to the [f]mountains, bring wood and 8rebuild the [g]temple, that I may be 9pleased with it and be 10glorified," says the LORD.
9 "11You look for much, but behold, it comes to little; when you bring it home, I 12blow it away. Why *?" declares the LORD of hosts, "Because of My house which 13lies desolate, while each of you runs to his own house.
10 "Therefore *, because of you the 14sky has withheld [h]its dew and the earth has withheld its produce.
11 "I called for a 15drought on the land, on the mountains, on the grain, on the new wine, on the oil, on what the ground produces, on 16men, on cattle, and on 17all the labor of [i]your hands."
12 Then 18Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and 19Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, with all the remnant of the people, 20obeyed the voice of the LORD their God and the words of Haggai the prophet, as the LORD their God had sent him. And the people [j]21showed reverence for the LORD.
13 Then Haggai, the 22messenger of the LORD, spoke [k]by the commission of the LORD to the people saying, " '23I am with you,' declares the LORD."
14 So the LORD stirred up the spirit of 24Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, 25governor of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, and the spirit of all the 26remnant of the people; and they came and 27worked on the house of the LORD of hosts, their God,
15 on the twenty-fourth * day of the sixth month in the second year of Darius the king.

Haggai 1 Commentary

Chapter 1

After the return from captivity, Haggai was sent to encourage the people to rebuild the temple, and to reprove their neglect. To encourage their undertaking, the people are assured that the glory of the second temple shall far exceed that of the first, by the appearing therein of Christ, the Desire of all nations.

Haggai reproves the Jews for neglecting the temple. (1-11) He promises God's assistance to them. (12-15)

Verses 1-11 Observe the sin of the Jews, after their return from captivity in Babylon. Those employed for God may be driven from their work by a storm, yet they must go back to it. They did not say that they would not build a temple, but, Not yet. Thus men do not say they will never repent and reform, and be religious, but, Not yet. And so the great business we were sent into the world to do, is not done. There is a proneness in us to think wrongly of discouragements in our duty, as if they were a discharge from our duty, when they are only for the trial of our courage and faith. They neglected the building of God's house, that they might have more time and money for worldly affairs. That the punishment might answer to the sin, the poverty they thought to prevent by not building the temple, God brought upon them for not building it. Many good works have been intended, but not done, because men supposed the proper time was not come. Thus believers let slip opportunities of usefulness, and sinners delay the concerns of their souls, till too late. If we labour only for the meat that perishes, as the Jews here, we are in danger of losing our labour; but we are sure it shall not be in vain in the Lord, if we labour for the meat which lasts to eternal life. If we would have the comfort and continuance of temporal enjoyments, we must have God as our Friend. See also ( Luke 12:33 ) . When God crosses our temporal affairs, and we meet with trouble and disappointment, we shall find the cause is, that the work we have to do for God and our own souls is left undone, and we seek our own things more than the things of Christ. How many, who plead that they cannot afford to give to pious or charitable designs, often lavish ten times as much in needless expenses on their houses and themselves! But those are strangers to their own interests, who are full of care to adorn and enrich their own houses, while God's temple in their hearts lies waste. It is the great concern of every one, to apply to the necessary duty of self-examination and communion with our own hearts concerning our spiritual state. Sin is what we must answer for; duty is what we must do. But many are quick-sighted to pry into other people's ways, who are careless of their own. If any duty has been neglected, that is no reason why it should still be so. Whatever God will take pleasure in when done, we ought to take pleasure in doing. Let those who have put off their return to God, return with all their heart, while there is time.

Verses 12-15 The people returned to God in the way of duty. In attending to God's ministers, we must have respect to him that sent them. The word of the Lord has success, when by his grace he stirs up our spirits to comply with it. It is in the day of Divine power we are made willing. When God has work to be done, he will either find or make men fit to do it. Every one helped, as his ability was; and this they did with a regard to the Lord as their God. Those who have lost time, need to redeem time; and the longer we have loitered in folly, the more haste we should make. God met them in a way of mercy. Those who work for him, have him with them; and if he be for us, who can be against us? This should stir us up to be diligent.

Cross References 27

  • 1. Ezra 4:24
  • 2. Ezra 5:1; Ezra 6:14; Haggai 1:3, 12, 13; Haggai 2:1, 10, 20
  • 3. Ezra 2:2; Nehemiah 7:7; Haggai 1:12, 14; Zechariah 4:6; Matthew 1:12, 13
  • 4. 1 Kings 10:15; Ezra 5:3
  • 5. Zechariah 6:11
  • 6. Jeremiah 33:10, 12; Haggai 1:9
  • 7. Deuteronomy 28:38-40; Hosea 8:7; Haggai 1:9, 10; Haggai 2:16, 17
  • 8. 1 Kings 6:1
  • 9. Psalms 132:13, 14
  • 10. Haggai 2:7, 9
  • 11. Proverbs 27:20; Ecclesiastes 1:8
  • 12. Isaiah 40:7
  • 13. Haggai 1:4
  • 14. Deuteronomy 28:23, 24; 1 Kings 17:1; Joel 1:18-20
  • 15. Jeremiah 14:2-6; Malachi 3:9, 11
  • 16. Deuteronomy 28:22
  • 17. Haggai 2:17
  • 18. Haggai 1:1
  • 19. Haggai 1:14; Haggai 2:2
  • 20. Isaiah 1:19; 1 Thessalonians 2:13
  • 21. Deuteronomy 31:12, 13; Psalms 112:1; Isaiah 50:10
  • 22. Isaiah 44:26; Malachi 3:17">Ezek Malachi 3:17; Malachi 2:7; Malachi 3:1
  • 23. Psalms 46:11; Isaiah 41:10; Isaiah 43:2
  • 24. Haggai 1:1; Haggai 2:2, 21
  • 25. Haggai 1:1; Haggai 2:2, 21
  • 26. Haggai 1:12
  • 27. Ezra 5:2; Nehemiah 4:6

Footnotes 11

Chapter Summary


This part of sacred Scripture is in some Hebrew copies called "Sepher Haggai", the Book, of Haggai; in the Vulgate Latin version, the Prophecy of Haggai; and, in the Syriac and Arabic versions, the Prophecy of the Prophet Haggai. His name comes from a word {a} which signifies to keep a feast; and, according to Jerom {b}, signifies festival or merry; according to Hillerus {c}, the feasts of the Lord; and, according to Cocceius {d}, my feasts: and the issue of his prophecy answered to his name; by which the people were encouraged to build the temple, whereby the feasts of the Lord were restored and observed; and a particular feast appointed for the dedication of the temple. The notion entertained by some, that he was not a man, but an angel, founded on Hag 1:13, deserves no regard; since the character there given of him respects not his nature, but his office. Indeed no account is given of his parentage; very probably he was born in Babylon; and, according to Pseudo-Epiphanius {e} and Isidore {f}, he came from thence a youth to Jerusalem, at the return of the Jews from their captivity. The time of his prophecy is fixed in Hag 1:1 to the second year of Darius, that is, Hystaspis; which, according to Bishop Usher, was in A. M. 3485 or 519 B.C.; and in the sixty fifth Olympiad; about 520 B.C.; and about seventeen or eighteen years after the proclamation of Cyrus for the Jews to return to their own land. Jerom says this was in the twenty seventh year of Tarquinius Superbus, the last of the Roman kings. Haggai was the first of the three prophets, that prophesied after their return; and all his prophecies were within the space of four months, and have their dates variously put to them. Of the authority of this prophecy of Haggai there is no room to question; not only because of the internal evidence of it, but from the testimony of Ezra, \Ezr 4:24 5:1,2 6:14\ and from a quotation out of Hag 2:7,8, by the author of the epistle to the Hebrews, Heb 12:26. The general design of this book is to reprove the Jews for their negligence in building the temple, after they had liberty granted them by Cyrus to do it, and to encourage them in this work; which he does by the promise of the Messiah, who should come into it, and give it a greater glory than the first temple had. The name of this prophet is wrongly prefixed, with others, to several of the psalms, especially those, called the Hallelujah psalms, in the Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic versions, as \Ps 112:1 138:1 146:1 147:1 148:1\. Where he died is not certain; very probably in Jerusalem; where, according to Pseudo-Epiphanius and Isidore {g}, he was buried, by the monuments of the priests; but, according to the Cippi Hebraici {h}, he was buried in a large cave, in the declivity of the mount of Olives.

{a} ggx "festum celebravit", Buxtorf. {b} Comment. in c. i. 1. So Stockius, p. 306. {c} Onomast. Sacr. p. 262, 779. {d} Comment. in c. i. 1. {e} De Prophet. Vita & Interitu, c. 20. {f} De Vita & Morte Sanct. c. 49. {g} Ut supra. (De Vita & Morte Sanct. c. 49.) {h} Ed. Hottinger, p. 27.


This chapter contains the first sermon of the Prophet Haggai to the people of the Jews, directed to Zerubbabel the governor, and Joshua the high priest; the date of which is fixed, Hag 1:1. It begins with a charge against that people; saying the time to build the house of the Lord was not come, Hag 1:2 which is refuted by the prophet; arguing, that, if the time to panel their dwelling houses was come, then much more the time to build the Lord's house, Hag 1:3,4. They are urged to consider how unsuccessful they had been in their civil employments and labours, which was owing to their neglect of building the temple; wherefore, if they consulted their own good, and the glory of God, the best way was to set about it in all haste, and with diligence, Hag 1:5-9 yea, even the famine, which they had been afflicted with for some time, and which affected both man and beast, sprung from the same cause, Hag 1:10,11. This discourse had such an effect upon the governor, high priest, and people, that they immediately rose up, and went about the work they were exhorted to; upon which the prophet, by a special message from the Lord, promises his presence with them, Hag 1:12-15.

Haggai 1 Commentaries