James 4

Things to Avoid

1 What is the source of quarrels and 1conflicts among you? Is not the source your pleasures that wage 2war in your members?
2 You lust and do not have; so you 3commit murder. You are envious and cannot * obtain; so you fight and quarrel. You do not have because you do not ask.
3 You ask and 4do not receive, because you ask with wrong motives, so that you may spend it on your pleasures.
4 You 5adulteresses, do you not know that friendship with 6the world is 7hostility toward God? 8Therefore whoever * wishes to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God.
5 Or do you think that the Scripture 9speaks to no purpose: "He jealously desires 10the Spirit which He has made to dwell in us"?
6 But 11He gives a greater grace. Therefore it says, "12GOD IS OPPOSED TO THE PROUD, BUT GIVES GRACE TO THE HUMBLE."
7 13Submit therefore to God. 14Resist the devil and he will flee from you.
8 15Draw near to God and He will draw near to you. 16Cleanse your hands, you sinners; and 17purify your hearts, you 18double-minded.
9 19Be miserable and mourn and weep; let your laughter be turned into mourning and your joy to gloom.
10 20Humble yourselves in the presence of the Lord, and He will exalt you.
11 21Do not speak against one another, 22brethren. He who speaks against a brother or 23judges his brother, speaks against 24the law and judges the law; but if you judge the law, you are not 25a doer of the law but a judge of it.
12 There is only one 26Lawgiver and Judge, the One who is 27able to save and to destroy; but 28who are you who judge your neighbor?
13 29Come now, you who say, "30Today or tomorrow we will go to such and such a city, and spend a year there and engage in business and make a profit."
14 Yet you do not know what your life will be like tomorrow. 31You are just a vapor that appears for a little while and then vanishes away.
15 Instead, you ought to say, "32If the Lord wills, we will live and also do this or that."
16 But as it is, you boast in your arrogance; 33all such boasting is evil.
17 Therefore, 34to one who knows the right thing to do and does not do it, to him it is sin.

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James 4 Commentary

Chapter 4

Here are cautions against corrupt affections, and love of this world, which is enmity to God. (1-10) Exhortations to undertake no affairs of life, without constant regard to the will and providence of God. (11-17)

Verses 1-10 Since all wars and fightings come from the corruptions of our own hearts, it is right to mortify those lusts that war in the members. Wordly and fleshly lusts are distempers, which will not allow content or satisfaction. Sinful desires and affections stop prayer, and the working of our desires toward God. And let us beware that we do not abuse or misuse the mercies received, by the disposition of the heart when prayers are granted When men ask of God prosperity, they often ask with wrong aims and intentions. If we thus seek the things of this world, it is just in God to deny them. Unbelieving and cold desires beg denials; and we may be sure that when prayers are rather the language of lusts than of graces, they will return empty. Here is a decided warning to avoid all criminal friendships with this world. Worldly-mindedness is enmity to God. An enemy may be reconciled, but "enmity" never can be reconciled. A man may have a large portion in things of this life, and yet be kept in the love of God; but he who sets his heart upon the world, who will conform to it rather than lose its friendship, is an enemy to God. So that any one who resolves at all events to be upon friendly terms with the world, must be the enemy of God. Did then the Jews, or the loose professors of Christianity, think the Scripture spake in vain against this worldly-mindedness? or does the Holy Spirit who dwells in all Christians, or the new nature which he creates, produce such fruit? Natural corruption shows itself by envying. The spirit of the world teaches us to lay up, or lay out for ourselves, according to our own fancies; God the Holy Spirit teaches us to be willing to do good to all about us, as we are able. The grace of God will correct and cure the spirit by nature in us; and where he gives grace, he gives another spirit than that of the world. The proud resist God: in their understanding they resist the truths of God; in their will they resist the laws of God; in their passions they resist the providence of God; therefore, no wonder that God resists the proud. How wretched the state of those who make God their enemy! God will give more grace to the humble, because they see their need of it, pray for it are thankful for it, and such shall have it. Submit to God, ver. ( 7 ) . Submit your understanding to the truth of God; submit your wills to the will of his precept, the will of his providence. Submit yourselves to God, for he is ready to do you good. If we yield to temptations, the devil will continually follow us; but if we put on the whole armour of God, and stand out against him, he will leave us. Let sinners then submit to God, and seek his grace and favour; resisting the devil. All sin must be wept over; here, in godly sorrow, or, hereafter, in eternal misery. And the Lord will not refuse to comfort one who really mourns for sin, or to exalt one who humbles himself before him.

Verses 11-17 Our lips must be governed by the law of kindness, as well as truth and justice. Christians are brethren. And to break God's commands, is to speak evil of them, and to judge them, as if they laid too great a restraint upon us. We have the law of God, which is a rule to all; let us not presume to set up our own notions and opinions as a rule to those about us, and let us be careful that we be not condemned of the Lord. "Go to now," is a call to any one to consider his conduct as being wrong. How apt worldly and contriving men are to leave God out of their plans! How vain it is to look for any thing good without God's blessing and guidance! The frailty, shortness, and uncertainty of life, ought to check the vanity and presumptuous confidence of all projects for futurity. We can fix the hour and minute of the sun's rising and setting to-morrow, but we cannot fix the certain time of a vapour being scattered. So short, unreal, and fading is human life, and all the prosperity or enjoyment that attends it; though bliss or woe for ever must be according to our conduct during this fleeting moment. We are always to depend on the will of God. Our times are not in our own hands, but at the disposal of God. Our heads may be filled with cares and contrivances for ourselves, or our families, or our friends; but Providence often throws our plans into confusion. All we design, and all we do, should be with submissive dependence on God. It is foolish, and it is hurtful, to boast of worldly things and aspiring projects; it will bring great disappointment, and will prove destruction in the end. Omissions are sins which will be brought into judgment, as well as commissions. He that does not the good he knows should be done, as well as he who does the evil he knows should not be done, will be condemned. Oh that we were as careful not to omit prayer, and not to neglect to meditate and examine our consciences, as we are not to commit gross outward vices against light!

Cross References 34

  • 1. Titus 3:9
  • 2. Romans 7:23
  • 3. James 5:6; 1 John 3:15
  • 4. 1 John 3:22; 1 John 5:14
  • 5. Jeremiah 2:2; Ezekiel 16:32
  • 6. James 1:27
  • 7. Romans 8:7; 1 John 2:15
  • 8. Matthew 6:24; John 15:19
  • 9. Numbers 23:19
  • 10. 1 Corinthians 6:19; 2 Corinthians 6:16
  • 11. Isaiah 54:7; Matthew 13:12
  • 12. Psalms 138:6; Proverbs 3:34; Matthew 23:12; 1 Peter 5:5
  • 13. 1 Peter 5:6
  • 14. Ephesians 4:27; Ephesians 6:11; 1 Peter 5:8
  • 15. 2 Chronicles 15:2; Zechariah 1:3; Malachi 3:7; Hebrews 7:19
  • 16. Job 17:9; Isaiah 1:16; 1 Timothy 2:8
  • 17. Jeremiah 4:14; James 3:17; 1 Peter 1:22; 1 John 3:3
  • 18. James 1:8
  • 19. Nehemiah 8:9; Proverbs 14:13; Luke 6:25
  • 20. Job 5:11; Ezekiel 21:26; Luke 1:52; James 4:6
  • 21. 2 Corinthians 12:20; James 5:9; 1 Peter 2:1
  • 22. James 1:16; James 5:7, 9, 10
  • 23. Matthew 7:1; Romans 14:4
  • 24. James 2:8
  • 25. James 1:22
  • 26. Isaiah 33:22; James 5:9
  • 27. Matthew 10:28
  • 28. Romans 14:4
  • 29. James 5:1
  • 30. Proverbs 27:1; Luke 12:18-20
  • 31. Job 7:7; Psalms 39:5; Psalms 102:3; Psalms 144:4
  • 32. Acts 18:21
  • 33. 1 Corinthians 5:6
  • 34. Luke 12:47; John 9:41; 2 Peter 2:21

Footnotes 11

  • [a]. Lit "From where wars and from where fightings"
  • [b]. Lit Are they "not from here," from your
  • [c]. Lit "wickedly"
  • [d]. Lit "in"
  • [e]. Or "The spirit which He has made to dwell in us lusts with envy"
  • [f]. Lit "desires to jealousy"
  • [g]. Lit "Who do not"
  • [h]. Or "what" will happen" tomorrow. What kind of life is yours?"
  • [i]. Lit "Instead of your saying"
  • [j]. Or "pretensions"
  • [k]. Or "good"

Chapter Summary


In this chapter the apostle gives the true cause of contentions and strifes; and cautions against intemperance, covetousness, pride, detraction, and vain confidence. Having, in the latter part of the preceding chapter, inveighed against strife and contention, he here shows from whence they spring, from a covetous desire of riches and honour; and which yet are not obtained, because they did not ask these things of God with submission to his will; or they asked with a wrong view, namely, to gratify their lusts, Jas 4:1,3 and he dissuades from such unlawful desires, partly because they were no other than adultery; and partly because indulging them was declaring themselves enemies of God, Jas 4:4 and he deters from pride, under the name of envy, proud men being generally envious; from the sense of the Scripture, which says, not in vain, that the spirit lusts unto it; and from the consequence of it, such as are proud being resisted by the Lord, when he gives more grace to humble ones, Jas 4:5,6 hence follow several exhortations, and various duties relating to humility; as to submit to God, and resist the devil, encouraged thereunto by this motive, he will flee, Jas 4:7, to draw nigh to God in a way of religious worship, who will draw nigh in a way of grace to his people; to purity of action, and of heart, or to that which is outward and inward, Jas 4:8 to be humbled, mourn, and weep, instead of joy and laughter, Jas 4:9 to lie low before the Lord, who will raise such up, Jas 4:10 and not to speak evil of anyone, since this is judging a brother; nay, a speaking evil of the law, and a judging of that; which is to invade the prerogative of God, the lawgiver, who is able to save, and to destroy; and therefore one man should not take upon him to judge another, Jas 4:11,12 and as another instance of great neglect of God, and his providence, and disrespect unto it, the apostle takes notice of a common practice among men, and even professors of religion, who resolve to go to such a place, and continue so long, and there make merchandise, and promise themselves success; not considering what frail short lived creatures they are, and how much all depends upon the will of God; and which they should consider, submit to, and be determined by, Jas 4:13-15 and he reproves them for their boastings and joy in them, as evil, Jas 4:16, and observes, that it is not enough to know what is right and good, unless it is done; and that such knowledge is but an aggravation of the evil of sin committed, Jas 4:17.

James 4 Commentaries

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